The Friesian is a horse breed originating in Friesland, in the Netherlands. Although the conformation of the breed resembles that of a light draught horse, Friesians are graceful and nimble for their size, it is believed that during the Middle Ages, ancestors of Friesian horses were in great demand as war horses throughout continental Europe. Through the Early Middle Ages and High Middle Ages, their size enabled them to carry a knight in armour. In the Late Middle Ages, draught type animals were needed. Though the breed nearly became extinct on more than one occasion, the modern day Friesian horse is growing in numbers and popularity, used both in harness and under saddle. Most the breed is being introduced to the field of dressage. In English, both the horse breed and someone from Friesland should be called a Frisian in British English. An inquiry with KFPS learns that they deliberately spelled'Frisian' wrong because they wanted to have their own brand name. From an email from marketing: "Het is een bewuste keus om Friesian te gebruiken in plaats van Frisian.
We geven een ‘eigen’ merknaam aan onze mooie Friese paarden." In short, any random horse from Friesland should therefore be named a Frisian horse, while the breed should be named'Friesian'. The Friesian breed is most recognised by its black coat colour, colour alone is not the only distinguishing characteristic. In the 1930s, chestnuts and bays were seen. Friesians have white markings of any kind. To be accepted as breeding stock by the FPS studbook, a stallion must pass a rigorous approval process; the Friesian stands on average about 15.3 hands, although it may vary from 14.2 to 17 hands at the withers, mares or geldings must be at least 15.2 hands to qualify for a "star-designation" pedigree. Horses are judged at an inspection, or keuring, by Dutch judges, who decide whether the horse is worthy of star designation; the breed has powerful overall conformation and good bone structure, with what is sometimes called a "Baroque" body type. Friesians have well-chiseled, short-eared, "Spanish-type" heads.
They have powerful, sloping shoulders, muscular bodies with strong, sloping hindquarters and low-set tails. Their limbs are comparatively strong. A Friesian horse has a long, thick mane and tail wavy, "feather"—long, silky hair on the lower legs—deliberately left untrimmed; the breed is known for a high-stepping trot. The Friesian is considered willing and energetic, but gentle and docile. A Friesian tends to carry itself with elegance. Today, there are two distinct conformation types—the "baroque" type, which has the more robust build of the classical Friesian, the modern, "sport horse" type, finer-boned. Both types are common, though the modern type is more popular in the show ring than is the baroque Friesian. However, conformation type is considered less important than correct movement; the chestnut colour is not accepted for registration for stallions, though it is sometimes allowed for mares and geldings. A chestnut-coloured Friesian that competes is penalised. However, discoloration from old injuries or a black coat with fading from the sun is not penalised.
The chestnut allele, a recessive genetic trait in the Friesian, does exist. The Friesch Paarden Stamboek began to attempt breeding out the chestnut colour in 1990, today stallions with genetic testing indicating the presence of the chestnut or "red" gene if heterozygous and masked by black colour, are not allowed registration with the FPS; the American Friesian Association, not affiliated to the KFPS, allows horses with white markings and/or chestnut colour to be registered if purebred parentage can be proven. In 2014 there were eight stallion lines known to still carry the chestnut gene. There are four genetic disorders acknowledged by the industry that may affect horses of Friesian breeding: dwarfism, hydrocephalus, a tendency for aortic rupture, megaesophagus. There are genetic tests for the first two conditions; the Friesian is among several breeds that may develop equine polysaccharide storage myopathy. 0.25% of Friesians are affected by dwarfism, which results in horses with a normal-sized head, a broader chest than normal, an abnormally long back and short limbs.
It is a recessive condition. Additionally, the breed has a higher-than-usual rate of digestive system disorders, a greater tendency to have insect bite hypersensitivity. Like some other draught breeds, they are prone to a skin condition called verrucous pastern dermatopathy and may be prone to having a compromised immune system. Friesian mares have a high 54% rate of retained placenta after foaling; some normal-sized Friesians have a propensity toward tendon and ligament laxity which may or may not be associated with dwarfism. The small gene pool and inbreeding are thought to be factors behind most of these disorders; the Friesian originates in the province of Friesland in the northern Netherlands, where there is evidence of thousands of years of horse populations. As far back in history as the 4th century there are mentions of Friesian troops which rode their own horses. One of the most well-known sources of this was by an English writer named Anthony Dent who wrote about the Friesian mounted troops in Carlisle.
Dent, amongst others, wrote that the Friesian horse was the ances
Markings on horses are distinctive white areas on an otherwise dark base coat color. Most horses have some markings, they help to identify the horse as a unique individual. Markings do not change over the course of the horse's life. Most markings have pink skin underneath most of the white hairs, though a few faint markings may have white hair with no underlying pink skin. Markings may appear to change when a horse grows or sheds its winter coat, however this difference is a factor of hair coat length. On a gray horse, markings visible at birth may become hidden as the horse turns white with age, but markings can still be determined by trimming the horse's hair then wetting down the coat to see where there is pink skin and black skin under the hair. Recent studies have examined the genetics behind white markings and have located certain genetic loci that influence their expression. In addition to white markings on a base coat, there are other markings or patterns that are used to identify horses as with Appaloosa, Pinto or Brindle, as well as artificial markings such as branding.
Facial markings are described by shape and location. There may be more than one distinct facial if so, will be named separately; when a white marking extends over an eye, that eye may be blue instead of brown, though this is not seen in all cases. Common facial markings are: Blaze: a wide white stripe down the middle of the face. Strip, stripe, or race: a narrow white stripe down the middle of the face. Bald Face: a wide blaze, extending to or past the eyes. Some, but not all, bald faced horses have blue eyes. Star: a white marking between or above the eyes. If a stripe or blaze is present, a star must be wider than the vertical marking to be designated separately. Snip: a white marking on the muzzle, between the nostrils. Additional terms used to describe facial markings include the following: Faint: A small but permanent marking that consists of white hairs without any underlying pink skin. Interrupted: A marking a strip or blaze, broken and not solid for the entire length of the face. Connected: Occasionally used to describe distinctively different markings that happen to be joined to one another Irregular or crooked: A marking a strip or blaze, that does not have a more or less straight path.
Lip markings: have no specialized names are described by location, such as "lower lip," "chin", etc. Lip markings may indicate presence of the sabino color pattern. Leg markings are described by the highest point of the horse's leg, covered by white; as a general rule, the horse's hoof beneath a white marking at the coronary line will be light-colored. If a horse has a partial marking or ermine spots at the coronary band, the hoof may be both dark and light, corresponding with the hair coat above. Where the leopard gene is present, the hoof may be striped if markings are not visible at the coronary band. From tallest to shortest, common leg markings are: Stocking: white marking that extends at least to the bottom of the knee or hock, sometimes higher. Sock: white marking that extends higher than the fetlock but not as high as the knee or hock; this marking is sometimes called a "boot." Fetlock or Sock: white marking that extends over the fetlock called a "boot." Pastern: white marking that extends above the top of the hoof, but stops below the fetlock.
Coronet: white just above the hoof, around coronary band no more than 1 inch above the hoof. Additional terms used to describe white leg markings include: Irregular: A marking within the broad confines of a given height, but with uneven edges. Indicated by the highest point of the white. Most used to describe certain types of stockings. Partial: An irregular marking that only extends up part of the leg to the height indicated, sometimes with the other side of the leg dark. Used to describe socks and other short markings. "High White:" White stockings that extend above the knee or hock, sometimes extending past the stifle onto the flank or belly, considered characteristic of the sabino color pattern. Bend-Or spots: Dark faint spotting seen on horses with a Chestnut or Palomino coat color. Ermine marks: The occurrence of black marks on a white marking, most seen on leg markings just above the hoof. May cause the hoof to be striped. "Medicine hat": An unusual type of Pinto or Paint coloring where the horse has dark ears and poll, but surrounded on all sides of the head and neck by white.
Shield: A dark Pinto marking where the horse has a dark colored chest, surrounded by white on the shoulders, legs and neck. Used to describe the rarer example of a horse with a dark head surrounded by white. Horses may have isolated body spots that are not large or numerous enough to qualify them as an Appaloosa, Pinto or Paint; such markings are simply called "body spots," sometimes identified by location, i.e. "belly spot," "flank spot," etc. When this type of isolated spotting occurs, it is the action of the sabino gene. Horses may develop white markings over areas where there was an injury to the animal, either to cover scar tissue from a cut or abrasion, or to reflect harm to the underlying skin or nerves. One common type of scarring that produces patches of white hairs are "saddle marks," which are round or oval marks on either side of the withers, produced by a pinching saddle, worn over a long period of time. Birdcatcher spots are small white spots between 1 mm and 1 inch in diameter.
It is not yet known what controls t
Gray or grey is a coat color of horses characterized by progressive silvering of the colored hairs of the coat. Most gray horses have black dark eyes, their adult hair coat is dappled, or white intermingled with hairs of other colors. Gray horses may be born any base color, depending on other color genes present. White hairs begin to appear at or shortly after birth and become progressively lighter as the horse ages. Graying can occur at different rates—very on one horse and slowly on another. Gray horses appear in many breeds, though the color is most seen in breeds descended from Arabian ancestors; some breeds that have large numbers of gray-colored horses include the Thoroughbred, the Arabian, the American Quarter Horse, the Percheron, the Andalusian, the Welsh pony, the most famous of all gray horse breeds, the Lipizzaner. People who are unfamiliar with horses may refer to gray horses as "white". However, a gray horse whose hair coat is "white" will still have black skin and dark eyes; this is.
White horses have pink skin and sometimes have blue eyes. Young horses with hair coats consisting of a mixture of colored and gray or white hairs are sometimes confused with roan; some horses that carry dilution genes may be confused with white or gray. While gray is called a coat color by breed registries, genetically it may be more correct to call it a depigmentation pattern, it is a dominant allele, thus a horse needs only one copy of the gray allele, that is, heterozygous, to be gray in color. A homozygous gray horse, one carrying two gray alleles, will always produce gray foals. Gray is common in many breeds. Today, about one horse in 10 carries the mutation for graying with age; the vast majority of Lipizzaners are gray. Many breeds of French draft horse such as the Percheron and Boulonnais are gray as well. Gray is found among Welsh Ponies and American Quarter Horses. All of these breeds have common ancestry in the Arabian horse. In particular, all gray Thoroughbreds descend from a horse named Alcock's Arabian, a gray born in 1700.
The gray coat color makes up about 3% of Thoroughbreds. Gray occurs in spotted horses such as pintos or Appaloosas, but its effects wash out the contrast of the markings of these patterns. For this reason, some color breed registries cancel registration of gray horses. A gray foal may be born any color. However, chestnut, or black base colors are most seen; as the horse matures, white hairs begin to replace the birth color. White hairs are first seen by the muzzle and flanks at birth, by the age of one year. Over time, white hairs replace the birth color and the horse changes to either a rose gray and pepper, or dapple gray; as the horse ages, the coat continues to lighten to a pure fleabitten gray hair coat. Thus, the many variations of gray coloring in horses are intermediate steps that a young horse takes while graying out from a birth color to a hair coat, "white." Different breeds, individuals within each breed, take differing amounts of time to gray out. Thus, graying cannot be used to approximate the age of a horse except in the broadest of terms: a young horse will never have a white coat, while a horse in its teens is grayed out.
One must be careful not to confuse the small amount of gray hairs that may appear on some older horses in their late teens or twenties, which do not reflect the gray gene and never cause a complete graying of the horse. This change in hair color can be confusing. Many new horse owners, not understanding the workings of the gray gene, are disappointed to discover that their dapple gray horse turns white a few years later. Other times, people traveling with gray horses who have a pure white hair coat have encountered problems with non-horse-oriented officials such as police officers or border guards who are unclear about a horse who has papers saying it is "gray" when the horse in front of them appears white. To further complicate matters, the skin and eyes may be other colors if influenced by other factors such as white markings, certain white spotting patterns or dilution genes. An intermediate stage in young horses that are in the early stages of turning gray is sometimes called "salt and pepper," "iron gray," or "steel gray."
This coloring occurs when white and black hairs are intermingled on the body seen in horses that are born black or dark bay. This is the most common intermediate form of gray. "Rose gray" is a term used to describe this intermediate stage for a horse born a chestnut or lighter bay color. While these colors are "graying out," both red and white hairs are mixed on the body, thus rose gray horses have a slight pinkish tinge to their graying coat. These horses are sometimes confused with roans, but a gray continues to lighten with age, while a roan does not. Roaning causes fewer white hairs on the legs and head, giving the horse the appearance of dark points, not true of gray. "Dapple gray" is an intermediate stage not seen on all grays, but considered attractive. It consists of a dark hair coat with "dapples," which are dark rings with lighter hairs on the inside of the ring, scattered over the entire body of the animal, it is another possible intermediate step in the graying process of the horse.
Dappled grays should not be confused with the slight dappling "bloom" seen on horse
Leicestershire is a landlocked county in the English Midlands. The county borders Nottinghamshire to the north, Lincolnshire to the north-east, Rutland to the east, Northamptonshire to the south-east, Warwickshire to the south-west, Staffordshire to the west, Derbyshire to the north-west; the border with most of Warwickshire is Watling Street. Leicestershire takes its name from the city of Leicester located at its centre and administered separately from the rest of the county; the ceremonial county has a total population of just over 1 million, more than half of which lives in'Greater Leicester'. Leicestershire was recorded in the Domesday Book in four wapentakes: Guthlaxton, Framland and Gartree; these became hundreds, with the division of Goscote into West Goscote and East Goscote, the addition of Sparkenhoe hundred. In 1087, the first recorded use of the name was as Laegrecastrescir. Leicestershire's external boundaries have changed little since the Domesday Survey; the Measham-Donisthorpe exclave of Derbyshire has been exchanged for the Netherseal area, the urban expansion of Market Harborough has caused Little Bowden in Northamptonshire to be annexed.
In 1974, the Local Government Act 1972 abolished the county borough status of Leicester city and the county status of neighbouring Rutland, converting both to administrative districts of Leicestershire. These actions were reversed on 1 April 1997, when Rutland and the City of Leicester became unitary authorities. Rutland became a distinct Ceremonial County once again, although it continues to be policed by Leicestershire Constabulary; the symbol of the county council, Leicestershire County Cricket Club and Leicester City FC, is the fox. Leicestershire is considered to be the birthplace of fox hunting. Hugo Meynell, who lived in Quorn, is known as the father of fox hunting. Melton Mowbray and Market Harborough have associations with fox hunting, as has neighbouring Rutland. Leicestershire and Herefordshire are the only three English counties lacking a registered flag. A design was proposed for Leicestershire in 2017 based on symbols associated with the county – a fox and a cinquefoil; the River Soar together with its tributaries and canalisations constitutes the principal river basin of the county, although the River Avon and River Welland through Harborough and along the county's southern boundaries are significant.
The Soar rises between Hinckley and Lutterworth, towards the south of the county near the Warwickshire border, flows northwards, bisecting the county along its north/south axis, through'Greater' Leicester and to the east of Loughborough where its course within the county comes to an end. It continues north marking the boundary with Nottinghamshire for some 10 kilometres before joining the River Trent at the point where Derbyshire and Nottinghamshire meet; the geographical centre of England is in Leicestershire, near Fenny Drayton in the southwest of the county. In 2013, the Ordnance Survey calculated. A large part of the north-west of the county, around Coalville, forms part of the new National Forest area extending into Derbyshire and Staffordshire; the highest point of the county is Bardon Hill at 278 metres, a Marilyn. 150–200 metres and above in nearby Charnwood Forest and to the east of the county around Launde Abbey. The lowest point, at an altitude of about 20 metres, is located at the county's northernmost tip close to Bottesford where the River Devon flowing through the Vale of Belvoir leaves Leicestershire and enters Nottinghamshire.
This results in an altitude differential of around 257.5 metres and a mean altitude of 148.75 metres. The population of Leicestershire is 609,578 people; the county covers an area of 2,084 km2. Its largest population centre is the city of Leicester, followed by the town of Loughborough. Other large towns include Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Hinckley, Market Harborough, Melton Mowbray, Oadby and Lutterworth; some of the larger of villages are:Burbage Birstall, Broughton Astley, Castle Donington, Kibworth Beauchamp, Great Glen, Ibstock and Kegworth. One of the most expanding villages is Anstey, which has seen a large number of development schemes; the United Kingdom Census 2001 showed a total resident population for Leicester of 279,921, a 0.5% decrease from the 1991 census. 62,000 were aged under 16, 199,000 were aged 16–74, 19,000 aged 75 and over. 76.9% of Leicester's population claim they have been born in the UK, according to the 2001 UK Census. Mid-year estimates for 2006 indicate that the population of the City of Leicester stood at 289,700 making Leicester the most populous city in East Midlands.
The population density is 3,814/km2 and for every 100 females, there were 92.9 males. Of those aged 16–74 in Leicester, 38.5% had no academic qualifications higher than 28.9% in all of England. 23.0% of Leicester's residents were born outside of the United Kingdom, more than double than the English average of 9.2%. Engineering has long been an important part of the economy of Leicestershire. John Taylor Bellfounders co
Black is a hair coat color of horses in which the entire hair coat is black. Black is a uncommon coat color, it is not uncommon to mistake dark chestnuts or bays for black. True black horses have dark brown eyes, black skin, wholly black hair coats without any areas of permanently reddish or brownish hair, they may have pink skin beneath any white markings under the areas of white hair, if such white markings include one or both eyes, the eyes may be blue. Many black horses "sun bleach" with exposure to the elements and sweat, therefore their coats may lose some of their rich black character and may resemble bay or seal brown, though examination of the color of hair around the eyes and genitals will determine color. Black horses that do not sun bleach are called "non-fading" blacks; some breeds of horses, such as the Friesian horse and Ariegeois are exclusively black. Black is common in the Fell pony, Dales pony and Alt-Oldenburger and Groningen; when identifying the base color of a horse, it is important to disregard all pink-skinned white markings.
White markings and patterns such as pinto and leopard have no bearing on the underlying base coat color of the animal. Black foals are born a mousy gray but can be darker shades; as many foals have primitive markings at birth, some black foals are mistaken for grullo or bay dun. Black foals have dark skin and eyes at birth. An adult-like black foal coat indicates that the foal will gray, if the foal has at least one gray parent. Graying can be confirmed by the presence of white hairs around muzzle. Gray Lipizzaner horses are born black. Black adult horses are easier to identify, as the coat must be black if superficially sun bleached. A sun bleached black may be confused with a dark bay, but a trained eye can distinguish between them by examining the fine hairs around the eyes and muzzle; when a black horse is sun-bleached, the mane and tail sun bleach most prominently, the rest of the coat may have a rusty tinge. A sun-bleached black may be mistaken for the less common smoky black, but can be distinguished by pedigree analysis or DNA testing.
Dark bay or seal brown: The darkest shades of bay are confused with black by experienced horse persons. However, a dark bay will always show some rich red character in its coat. Horses with a dark coat that may appear black, but have tan or reddish hairs around the eyes, muzzle and stifle are sometimes called "seal brown", "mahogany bay", or "black bay." Both colors can be confirmed with a DNA test. Liver chestnut: Some red horses are so dark that they appear black, are called "black chestnuts" as a consequence; however the darkest liver chestnuts will show some red character in their coats in the hair around the pastern or in the mane or tail. Dark liver chestnuts do not have any true black pigment in their coats; this can be verified with DNA testing. Liver chestnut is common in the Morgan horse. Smoky black: The action of the cream gene in the heterozygous condition has a minimal effect on black pigment, so heterozygous creams with a black base coat differ little from true blacks. A smoky black will have at least one cream parent, is born a pewter shade with blue eyes, retains reddish hair inside the ear through adulthood.
In the study and discussion of equine coat color genetics, black is considered a "base" color, as is red. This designation makes the effects of other coat color genes easier to understand. Coat colors that are designated "black-based" include grullo, smoky black, smoky cream, silver black, classic champagne, blue roan. Sometimes this designation includes the bay family: bay, seal brown, bay dun, silver bay, amber champagne, bay roan. Horses with a black-based coat may have added spotting patterns including leopard patterns seen on Appaloosas and the pinto coloring known as piebald; the genetics behind the black horse are simple. The color black is controlled by two genes: Extension and Agouti; the functional, dominant allele of the extension gene enables the horse to produce black pigment in the hair. Without this gene, the coat is devoid of black pigment and the horse is some shade of red; the functional, dominant allele of the agouti gene enable the horse to restrict black pigment to certain parts of the coat, notably the legs and tail, allowing the underlying red to show through, resulting in bay coloring.
Without this gene, any black pigment present is unrestricted. Thus a black horse has at least one copy of the functional, dominant "E" allele and two copies of the non-functional, recessive "a" allele. A mature true black horse can be safely said to possess at least one dominant extension gene. A DNA test, which uses hair with the root intact, has been developed to test for the Extension and Agouti genotypes. However, the terminology can be manipulated; the extension test is mislabeled as the "black test", leading to confusion. Neither the extension test nor the agouti test alone can identify a black horse. Together, they can determine that a horse that appears visually black is not a dark bay or liver chestnut. Horses described as "homozygous black" are homozyg
Equine conformation evaluates the degree of correctness of a horse's bone structure and its body proportions in relation to each other. Undesirable conformation can limit the ability to perform a specific task. Although there are several universal "faults," a horse's conformation is judged by what its intended use may be, thus "form to function" is one of the first set of traits considered in judging conformation. A horse with poor form for a Grand Prix show jumper could have excellent conformation for a World Champion cutting horse, or to be a champion draft horse; every horse has good and bad points of its conformation and many horses excel with conformation faults. The standard of the ideal head varies from breed to breed based on a mixture of the role the horse is bred for and what breeders and enthusiasts find appealing. Breed standards cite large eyes, a broad forehead and a dry head-to-neck connection as important to correctness about the head. Traditionally, the length of head as measured from poll to upper lip should be two-thirds the length of the neck topline.
The construction of the horse's head influences its breathing, though there are few studies to support this. A width of 4 fingers or 7.2 cm was associated with an unrestricted airflow and greater endurance. However, a study in 2000 which compared the intermandibular width-to-size ratio of Thoroughbreds with their racing success showed this to be untrue; the relationship between head conformation and performance are not well understood, an appealing head may be more a matter of marketability than performance. Among mammals, morphology of the head plays a role in temperature regulation. Many ungulates have a specialized network of blood vessels called the carotid rete, which keeps the brain cool while the body temperature rises during exercise. Horses lack a carotid rete and instead use their sinuses to cool blood around the brain; these factors suggest that the conformation of a horse's head influences its ability to regulate temperature. A horse with a dished face or dished head has a muzzle with a concave profile on top further emphasized by slight bulging of forehead.
Dished heads are associated with Arabians and Arabian-influenced breeds, which excel at Endurance riding and were bred in the arid Arabian desert. There are several theories regarding the adaptive role of the dished head, it may be an adaptation to increase aerobic endurance. Dished head is not considered a deformity. A Roman nose is a muzzle with a convex profile. Convex heads are associated with Baroque horse breeds and horses from cold regions; this trait plays a role in warming air as it is inhaled, but may influence aerobic capacity. Roman nose is not considered a deformity. A horse with small nostrils or small nares can be found in any breed and accompanies a narrow jaw and muzzle. Small nostrils limit the horse's ability to breathe hard while exerting itself; this affects horses in high-speed activities or those that need to sustain effort over long duration. Horses with small nostrils are therefore best used for non-speed sports. A horse with pig eye has unusually small eyes; this is an aesthetic issue, but claimed by some to be linked to stubbornness or nervousness, thought to decrease the horse's visual field.
The lower jaw should be defined. The space between the two sides of the jawbone should be wide, with room for the larynx and muscle attachments; the width should be 7.2 cm, about the width of a fist. The jaw is called narrow; the jaw is called large. A large jaw adds weight to the head. Too large of a jaw can cause a reduction to the horse's ability to flex at the poll to bring his head and neck into proper position for collection and to help balance. A parrot mouth is an overbite; this can affect the horse's ability to graze. Parrot mouth can be managed with regular teeth floating by a veterinarian. A monkey mouth, sow mouth, or bulldog mouth is an underbite, where the lower jaw extends further out than the upper jaw; this is less common than parrot mouth. This can affect the horse's ability to graze. Monkey mouth can be managed with regular teeth floating by a veterinarian. Ears should be proportional to the head, they should be set just below the level of the poll at the top of the head. Ears should be a position and backward.
Ears that are too large or too small may make the head seem too small or large in proportion with the body. A neck of ideal length is about one third of the horse's length, measured from poll to withers, with a length comparable to the length of the legs. An ideally placed neck is called a horizontal neck, it is set on the chest neither too high nor too low, with its weight and balance aligned with the forward movement of the body. The horse is easy to supple, develop strength, to control with hand and legs aids. Although uncommon, it is seen in Thoroughbreds, American Quarter Horses, some Warmbloods. Horizontal neck is advantageous to every sport, as the neck is flexible and works well for balancing. A short neck is one, less than one third the length of the horse. Short necks are common, found in any breed. A short neck hinders the balancing ability of the horse, making it more prone to stumbling and clumsiness. A short neck adds more weight on the foreha
A fen is one of the main types of wetland, the others being grassy marshes, forested swamps, peaty bogs. Along with bogs, fens are a kind of mire. Fens are minerotrophic peatlands fed by mineral-rich surface water or groundwater, they are characterised by their distinct water chemistry, pH neutral or alkaline, with high dissolved mineral levels but few other plant nutrients. They are dominated by grasses and sedges, have brown mosses in general including Scorpidium or Drepanocladus. Fens have a high diversity of other plant species including carnivorous plants such as Pinguicula, they may occur along large lakes and rivers where seasonal changes in water level maintain wet soils with few woody plants. The distribution of individual species of fen plants is closely connected to water regimes and nutrient concentrations. Fens have a characteristic set of plant species, which sometimes provide the best indicators of environmental conditions. For example, fen indicator species in New York State include Carex flava, Cladium mariscoides, Potentilla fruticosa, Pogonia ophioglossoides and Parnassia glauca.
Fens are distinguished from bogs, which are acidic, low in minerals, dominated by sedges and shrubs, along with abundant mosses in the genus Sphagnum. Bogs tend to exist on dome-shaped landmasses where they receive all of their usually-abundant moisture from rainfall, whereas fens appear on slopes, flats, or depressions and are fed by surface and underground water in addition to rain. Fens have been damaged in the past by land drainage, by peat cutting; some are now being restored with modern management methods. The principal challenges are to restore natural water flow regimes, to maintain the quality of water, to prevent invasion by woody plants. Carr is the northern European equivalent of the wooded swamp of the southeastern United States known in the United Kingdom as wet woodland, it is a fen overgrown with small trees of species such as willow or alder. In general, fens may change in composition as peat accumulates. A list of species found in a fen can therefore cover a range of species from those remaining from the earlier stage in the successional development to the pioneers of the succeeding stage.
Where streams of base-rich water run through bog, these are lined by strips of fen, separating "islands" of rain-fed bog. Temporary flooding by beavers can have negative effects on fens. Shakespeare used the term "fen-sucked" to describe the fog in King Lear, when Lear says "Infect her beauty, You fen-sucked fogs drawn by the powerful sun, To fall and blister." Media related to Fens at Wikimedia Commons