The hidden roof is a type of roof used in Japan both at Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines. It is composed of a true roof above and a second roof beneath, permitting an outer roof of steep pitch to have eaves of shallow pitch, jutting from the walls but without overhanging them; the second roof is visible only from under the eaves and is therefore called a "hidden roof" while the first roof is externally visible and is called an "exposed roof" in English and "cosmetic roof" in Japanese. Invented in Japan during the 10th century, its earliest extant example is Hōryū-ji's Daikō-dō, rebuilt after a fire in 990. Japanese Buddhist architecture and most Shinto architecture are not indigenous, but were imported from China and Korea together with Buddhism around the 6th century. Climate in Japan being different from that on the continent, several structural adaptations became necessary, the most important of, the noyane, invented some time during the Heian period. During the previous Nara period, the structural elements of a roof were considered ornamental and therefore left exposed by design.
The rafters supporting the roof's eaves would enter the building and would be visible from below. Above the rafters would be laid directly the roofing material, for example wood shingles; this is the structure of Hōryū-ji's five-storied pagoda. Because the local climate is more moist than in either China or Korea, roofs had to have a steeper incline to help quicken the flow of rainwater. Due to the permeable nature of the walls, the lack of channelled roof drainage, it was necessary that eaves project far from the walls. On a roof of steep pitch, the wide eaves were deep, restricting light to the windows and trapping humidity; the solution devised by Japanese artisans was to construct a hidden roof raised above a ceiling which had non-structural rafters as aesthetic elements. From the hidden roof projected the principal rafters of the shallow-pitched eaves; the structural elements of the outer roof were raised above this, with an outer inclination independent of the pitch of the eaves. The earliest extant example of hidden roof is Hōryū-ji's Daikō-dō, built in 990 and was discovered only in the 1930s during repair work.
This structure not only solved drainage problems, but eliminated deep shadows and gave the whole temple a feel, different from that of its ancestors of the Asian continent. It was as a consequence successful and was adopted all over the country. One important exception is the architectural style called Daibutsuyō which, although arrived in Japan from China at the end of the 12th century, thus well after the invention of the hidden roof, never adopted it. Although all extant Zen temples have it, it is that the Zenshūyō style, which arrived at the same time of the Daibutsuyō, adopted the hidden roof only some time after its arrival; because the hidden roof allowed the structure of the roof to be changed at will with no impact on the underlying building, its use gave birth to many structural innovations. For example, Fuki-ji's Ō-dō has a square roof over a rectangular footprint. Ways were found to make use of the space between the two roofs. For example, at Jōruri-ji in Kyōto part of the Hon-dō's ceiling was raised above the rest to give space to the room.
It would become common to raise the exposed roof above the entire core of a temple building. The same evolution we have seen in Buddhist architecture can be seen in the roofs of several Shinto architectural styles it influenced; the kasuga-zukuri, nagare-zukuri, hachiman-zukuri, hie-zukuri all followed the evolution path we have seen. All extant examples of the ancient shinmei-zukuri, taisha-zukuri and sumiyoshi-zukuri styles however show no sign of a hidden roof. Before the invention of the hidden roof the so-called tsumakazari were structural elements left visible by design. See for example Hōryū-ji's Denpō-dō in the photo to the right, where the brown elements within the gable are all part of the roof's support system. After the adoption of the hidden roof, the tsumakazari remained in use, albeit with a purely decorative role. Another of the repercussions of the invention of the hidden roof was the role change undergone by struts called nakazonae. Nakazonae are intercolumnar struts provided in the intervals between bracket complexes at religious buildings in Japan.
In origin they were necessary to support the roof above, however at the end of the 10th century the invention of the hidden roof, which had its own hidden supporting structure, made them superfluous. They remained in use, albeit in a purely decorative role, assuming a variety of forms, are typical of the Wayō style
Main Hall (Japanese Buddhism)
Main hall is the term used in English for the building within a Japanese Buddhist temple compound which enshrines the main object of veneration. Because the various denominations deliberately use different terms, this single English term translates several Japanese words, among them Butsuden, Butsu-dō, kondō, konpon-chūdō, hondō. Hondō is its exact Japanese equivalent, while the others are more specialized words used by particular sects or for edifices having a particular structure; the term kondō "golden hall", started to be used during the Asuka and Nara periods. A kondō is the centerpiece of an ancient Buddhist temple's garan in Japan; the origin of the name is uncertain, but it may derive from the perceived preciousness of its content, or from the fact that the interior was lined with gold. This is the name used by the oldest temples in the country. A kondō, for example Hōryū-ji's is a true two-story building with a 3x2 bay central core surrounded by a 1-bay wide aisles (hisashi making it 5x4 bays, surrounded by an external 1-bay wide mokoshi, for a total of 9x7 bays.
The second story has the same dimensions as the temple's core at the first story, but has no mokoshi. Some temples, for example Asuka-dera or Hōryū-ji, have more than one kondō, but only one exists and is the first building to be built; because of its limited size, worshipers were not allowed to enter the building and had to stand outside. The kondō and a pagoda were surrounded by a corridor called kairō; the use of kondō declined after the 10th century, when it was replaced by a hondō divided in naijin and gejin. The term remained in some use up to the Edo period, but its frequency decreased drastically after the appearance of the term hon-dō in the Heian period; the term hondō means "main hall" and it enshrines the most important objects of veneration. The term is thought to have evolved during the 9th century to avoid the early term kondō, at the time used by six Nara sects called the Nanto Rokushū, it became common after the introduction of the two Mikkyo sects to Japan. Various new types of temple buildings, including the hondō, were built during the Heian period, in response to the requirements of new doctrines.
Different buildings were called hondō depending on the sect, for example: the kondō, the chudō, mieidō, the Amida-dō. A notable evolution of the hondō during this period is the inclusion of a space for worshipers inside the hondō itself, called gejin. Other names such as Konpon-chūdō "cardinal central hall" are used as well, for example for the main hall at Mount Hiei's Enryaku-ji; the Tokugawa funeral temple of Kan'ei-ji, built explicitly to imitate Enryaku-ji had one, though it has not survived. Yama-dera in Yamagata is another example of a temple using this name; the Butsuden or Butsu-dō "Buddha Hall", is the main hall of Zen temples of schools such as the Sōtō 曹洞 and Rinzai 臨済. This architectonic style arrived together with Zen during the Kamakura period. There are following types of Butsuden or Butsu-dō: The simplest is a 3x3 bay square building with no mokoshi (a mokoshi being an enclosure circling the core of the temple covered by a pent roof one bay in width; the second type is 3x3 bay square, but has a 1 bay wide mokoshi all around the core of the temple, making it look like a two-story, 5x5 bay building as in the case of the butsuden, visible in the photo on the right.
It is known that during the 13th and 14th centuries large butsuden measuring 5x5 bays square having a mokoshi were built, but none survives. Large size 3x3 bay butsuden with a mokoshi however still exist, for example at Myōshin-ji. In the case of the Ōbaku Zen school that arrived late in Japan, the architecture retained the Ming Chinese style; the hondō of Ōbaku Zen temples is called daiyū-hōden ‘the Treasured Hall of the Mahāvīra ’. An example can be found at Mampuku-ji. Shichidō garan for details about the main hall's position within a temple compound; the Glossary of Japanese Buddhism for terms concerning Japanese Buddhism, Japanese Buddhist art, Japanese Buddhist temple architecture. Mahavira Hall, the common Main Hall of Chinese and Korean Buddhist temples Iwanami Kōjien Japanese dictionary, 6th Edition, DVD version Iwanami Nihonshi Jiten, CD-Rom Version. Iwanami Shoten, 1999-2001; the Evolution of Buddhist Architecture in Japan by Alexander Soper 1978, ISBN 9780878171965 Japanese Art Net User System Dictionary of Japanese Architectural and Art Historical Terminology, Kondou, Hondou entries.
Accessed on May 6, 2009 Watanabe, Hiroshi. The Architecture of Tokyo. Edition Axel Menges. ISBN 978-3-930698-93-6
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Japanese Buddhist architecture
Japanese Buddhist architecture is the architecture of Buddhist temples in Japan, consisting of locally developed variants of architectural styles born in China. After Buddhism arrived the continent via Three Kingdoms of Korea in the 6th century, an effort was made to reproduce original buildings as faithfully as possible, but local versions of continental styles were developed both to meet Japanese tastes and to solve problems posed by local weather, more rainy and humid than in China; the first Buddhist sects were Nara's six Nanto Rokushū, followed during the Heian period by Kyoto's Shingon and Tendai. During the Kamakura period, in Kamakura were born the Jōdo and the native Japanese sect Nichiren-shū. At the same time Zen Buddhism arrived from China influencing all other sects in many ways, including architecture; the social composition of Buddhism's followers changed radically with time. In the beginning it was the elite's religion, but it spread from the noble to warriors, merchants and to the population at large.
On the technical side, new woodworking tools like the framed pit saw and the plane allowed new architectonic solutions. Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines share their basic characteristics and differ only in details that the non-specialist may not notice; this similarity is because the sharp division between Buddhist temples and Shinto shrines is recent, dating to the Meiji period's policy of separation of Buddhism and Shinto of 1868. Before the Meiji Restoration it was common for a Buddhist temple to be built inside or next to a shrine, or for a shrine to include Buddhist sub-temples. If a shrine housed a Buddhist temple, it was called a jingū-ji. Analogously, temples all over Japan used to adopt tutelary kami (chinju and built shrines within their precincts to house them. After the forcible separation of temples and shrines ordered by the new government, the connection between the two religions was severed, but continued nonetheless in practice and is still visible today. Buddhist architecture in Japan during the country's whole history has absorbed much of the best available natural and human resources.
Between the 8th and the 16th centuries, it led the development of new structural and ornamental features. For these reasons, its history is vital to the understanding of not only Buddhist architecture itself, but of Japanese art in general. Buddhist architecture in Japan is not native, but was imported from China and other Asian cultures over the centuries with such constancy that the building styles of all Six Dynasties are represented, its history is as a consequence dominated by Chinese and other Asian techniques and styles on one side, by Japanese original variations on those themes on the other. Due to the variety of climates in Japan and the millennium encompassed between the first cultural import and the last, the result is heterogeneous, but several universal features can nonetheless be found. First of all is the choice of materials, always wood in various forms for all structures. Unlike both Western and some Chinese architecture, the use of stone is avoided except for certain specific uses, for example temple podia and pagoda foundations.
The general structure is always the same: columns and lintels support a large and curved roof, while the walls are paper-thin movable and in any case non-carrying. Arches and barrel roofs are absent. Gable and eave curves are gentler than in columnar entasis limited; the roof is the most visually impressive component constituting half the size of the whole edifice. The curved eaves extend far beyond the walls, covering verandas, their weight must therefore be supported by complex bracket systems called tokyō; these oversize eaves give the interior a characteristic dimness, which contributes to the temple's atmosphere. The interior of the building consists of a single room at the center called moya, from which sometimes depart other less important spaces, for example corridors called hisashi. Inner space divisions are fluid, room size can be modified through the use of screens or movable paper walls; the large, single space offered by the main hall can therefore be altered according to the need.
The separation between inside and outside is itself in some measure not absolute as entire walls can be removed, opening the temple to visitors. Verandas appear to be part of the building to an outsider, but part of the external world to those in the temple. Structures are therefore made to a certain extent part of their environment; the use of construction modules keeps proportions between different parts of the edifice constant, preserving its overall harmony. In cases as that of Nikkō Tōshō-gū, where every available space is decorated, ornamentation tends to follow, therefore emphasize rather than hide, basic structures. Being shared by both sacred and profane architecture, these architectonic features made it easy converting a lay building into a temple; this happened for example at Hōryū-ji, where a noblewoman's mansion was transformed into a religious building. Buddhism is not a Japanese native religion, its architecture arrived from the continent via Korea together with the first Buddhists in the 6th century.
Adopted in the wake of the Battle of Shigisan in 587, after that date Buddhist temples began to be constructed. Because of the hostility of supporters of local kami beliefs towards Buddhism, no temple of that period survives, so we don't know what they were like
Tennōji is one of 24 wards of Osaka, Japan. It is named after the Shitennō-ji, located in the ward. Tennōji Station is the city's main southeastern rail terminal with Osaka Municipal Subway's Tennōji Station Midōsuji Line and Tanimachi Line, JR Tennōji as the terminus of the JR Hanwa Line and the Kintetsu Abenobashi Station, directly across the street from Tennōji station is the terminus of the Minami Osaka Line; as a result of its being a major railway hub, it has become a major built up area in southern Osaka. The buildings around the station include, the Kintetsu department store, Station Plaza, Hoop shopping malls, Apollo Movie Theater and Lucias shopping mall, as well as the more recent Q's Mall. In addition, there are several shopping streets in the area including Abenobashisuji; the Kintetsu Abeno Harukas building, which houses the Kintetsu department store, was opened in the spring of 2014 and is the tallest building in Japan at 300 meters in height. Aigan, the eyeglasses chain, is headquartered in Tennōji-ku.
Descente, a sportswear company has its headquarters in the ward. Shitennō-ji Temple – the first Buddhist temple in Japan – is a historical site only a ten-minute walk from Tennōji Station. Ikukunitama Shrine – Shinto shrine Isshin-ji is a major Buddhist temple located between Tennoji Park and Shitennō-ji. Tennōji Park, includes the Osaka Municipal Museum of Tennōji Zoo. Chausuyama Kofun is a Kofun located inside Tennōji Park. Tennōji ward is home to the Osaka Municipal Museum of Art, Tennōji Zoo, the Keitaku-en Japanese garden and the Tennōji Botanical Garden. There are four major shopping centers near Tennōji Station: a fashionable, upscale mall; the nearby Shinsekai entertainment district was established in the early part of the last century and still teems with scores of eateries. It is overlooked by one of Osaka's most famous symbols. Private schools: Shitennoji Junior and Senior High School West Japan Railway Company Osaka Loop Line: Tennōji Station – Teradachō Station – Momodani Station – Tsuruhashi Station – Tamatsukuri Station Hanwa Line, Kansai Main Line: Tennōji Station Kintetsu Railway Osaka Line: Osaka Uehommachi Station – Tsuruhashi Station Osaka Abenobashi Station on the Minami Osaka Line in Abeno-ku is close to Tennōji Station in Tennōji-ku.
Hankai Tramway Hankai Uemachi Line: Tennōji-eki-mae Station Osaka Metro Tanimachi Line: Tanimachi Kyuchome Station – Shitennoji-mae Yuhigaoka Station – Tennōji Station Tennōji Station on the Midōsuji Line is located in Abeno-ku, but close to Tennōji-ku. Sennichimae Line: Tanimachi Kyuchome Station – Tsuruhashi Station Nagahori Tsurumi-ryokuchi Line: Tamatsukuri Station Sana Minatozaki, member of South Korean girl group Twice Media related to Tennōji-ku, Osaka at Wikimedia Commons Official website of Tennōji
Kintetsu Railway Co. Ltd. referred to as Kintetsu, is a Japanese passenger railway company, managing infrastructure and operating passenger train service. Its railway system is the largest excluding Japan Railways Group; the railway network connects Osaka, Kyoto, Tsu and Yoshino. Kintetsu Railway Co. Ltd. is a wholly owned subsidiary of Kintetsu Group Holdings Co. Ltd. On September 16, 1910, Nara Tramway Co. Ltd. was founded and renamed Osaka Electric Tramway Co. Ltd. a month after. Osaka Electric Tramway completed Ikoma Tunnel and started operating a line between Osaka and Nara on April 30, 1914; the modern Kashihara and Shigi lines were completed in the 1920s, followed by the Kyoto Line. Daiki founded Sangu Electric Railway Co. Ltd. in 1927, which consolidated Ise Electric Railway Co. Ltd. on September 15, 1936. In 1938, Daiki teamed up with its subsidiary Kansai Express Electric Railway Co. Ltd. to operate the first private railway service from Osaka to Nagoya. Another subsidiary Sankyū bought Kansai Express Electric Railway on January 1, 1940 and continued the service on its own.
Sankyū consolidated Yoro Railway Co. Ltd. on August 1. Daiki consolidated its largest subsidiary Sankyū on March 15, 1941 and was renamed Kansai Express Railway Co. Ltd.. Kankyū consolidated Osaka Railway Co. Ltd. on February 1, 1943 and moved its headquarters from Uehommachi to Osaka Abenobashi. Kankyū was renamed Kinki Nippon Railway Co. Ltd. after it consolidated Nankai Railway in June 1944: it maintained the name when Nankai regained its independence in 1947. After World War II, Kintetsu branched out and became one of the world's largest travel agencies, Kinki Nippon Tourist Co. Ltd. opening offices in the United States of America and other countries. The first charged limited express train service started between Uehommachi and Nagoya in 1947, this is the start of the present Kintetsu limited express trains; the current rail network was completed by consolidating Nara Electric Railway Co. Ltd. Shigi-Ikoma Electric Railway Co. Ltd. Mie Electric Railway Co. Ltd. and other companies. Kintetsu moved its headquarters again from Osaka Abenobashi to Osaka Uehommachi on December 5, 1969.
On June 28, 2003, Kinki Nippon Railway Co. Ltd. was renamed Kintetsu Corporation. The corporation was split on April 1, 2015, its railway business division was succeeded by Kintetsu Split Preparatory Company, Ltd. while its real estate business division by Kintetsu Real Estate Co. Ltd. its hotel business division by Kintetsu Hotel Systems, Inc. and its retail business by Kintetsu Retail Service Corporation, respectively. On the same day Kintetsu Corporation was split, it was renamed as Kintetsu Group Holdings Co. Ltd. as a holding company, while Kintetsu Split Preparatory Company, Ltd. was renamed as Kintetsu Railway Co. Ltd. From its founding to present September 16, 1910—April 14, 1941: Daiki April 15, 1941—May 31, 1944: Kankyū June 1, 1944—1948: Kinki Nippon or Kin-nichi Present: Kintetsu — used for the official corporate name in English since 2003. Acquired or merged companies Sangu Express Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Sankyū Ise Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Iseden Osaka Railway Co. Ltd.: Daitetsu Nara Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Naraden Mie Electric Railway Co. Ltd.: Mieden Following lines belong to Kintetsu's Type I Railway Business and Cableway Business under the Railway Business Act.
This means that Kintetsu is the operator of the lines. All lines operate with 1,500 V DC overhead catenary except for the Keihanna Line, which operates on 750 V DC third rail. Osaka Line and its branch Osaka Line Shigi Line Nagoya Line and its branches Nagoya Line Yunoyama Line Suzuka Line Yamada/Toba/Shima Line Yamada Line Toba Line Shima Line Namba/Nara Line and its branch Namba Line Nara Line Ikoma Line Keihanna Line ** Kyoto/Kashihara Line and its branches Kyoto Line Kashihara Line Tenri Line Tawaramoto Line Minami Osaka/Yoshino Line and its branches Minami Osaka Line Domyoji Line Nagano Line Gose Line Yoshino Line Ikoma Line Nishi-Shigi Line Katsuragisan Ropeway Following line belongs to Kintetsu's Type II Railway Business under the Railway Business Act; this means that Kintetsu operates trains on the line, but the owner of the railway trackage is a separate company. 1,435 mm standard gauge line
Kongō Gumi Co. Ltd. is a Japanese construction company, the world's oldest continuously ongoing independent company, operating for over 1,400 years until it was absorbed as a subsidiary of Takamatsu in 2006. Headquartered in Osaka, the once family-owned construction company traced its origins to 578 AD when one of the skilled Korean immigrants, whom Prince Shōtoku invited from Baekje to Japan to build the Buddhist temple Shitennō-ji, decided to start his own business. Over the centuries, Kongō Gumi participated in the construction of many famous buildings, including the 16th-century Osaka Castle. A three-meter 17th-century scroll traces the 40 generations back to the company's start; as with many distinguished Japanese families, sons-in-law joined the clan and took the Kongō family name. Thus, through the years, the line has continued through either a daughter; the company fell on hard times and went into liquidation in January 2006, was purchased by the Takamatsu Construction Group. Before its liquidation, it had as little as 100 employees and annual revenue of ¥7.5 billion in 2005.
The last president was the 50th Kongō to lead the firm. As of December 2006, Kongō Gumi continues to operate as a wholly owned subsidiary of Takamatsu. In January 2006, Takamatsu Construction Group founded a new company named Kongogumi Engineering Co Ltd. List of oldest companies Kongō Gumi Nikkei Special "Dawn of Gaia" vol.296 Jan 8, 2008 - Introducing documentary program about reconstruction process of Kongo Gumi with Takamatsu