In oceanography and earth sciences, a shoal is a natural submerged ridge, bank, or bar that consists of, or is covered by, sand or other unconsolidated material, rises from the bed of a body of water to near the surface. It refers to those submerged ridges, banks, or bars that rise near enough to the surface of a body of water as to constitute a danger to navigation. Shoals are known as sandbanks, sandbars, or gravelbars. Two or more shoals that are either separated by shared troughs or interconnected by past or present sedimentary and hydrographic processes are referred to as a shoal complex; the term shoal is used in a number of ways that can be either similar or quite different from how it is used in the geologic and oceanographic literature. Sometimes, this term refers to either any shallow place in a stream, sea, or other body of water. Shoals are characteristically narrow ridges, they can develop where a stream, river, or ocean current promotes deposition of sediment and granular material, resulting in localized shallowing of the water.

Marine shoals develop either by the in place drowning of barrier islands as the result of episodic sea level rise or by the erosion and submergence of inactive delta lobes. Shoals can appear as a coastal landform in the sea, where they are classified as a type of ocean bank, or as fluvial landforms in rivers and lakes. A shoal–sandbar may seasonally separate a smaller body of water from the sea, such as: Marine lagoons Brackish water estuaries Freshwater seasonal stream and river mouths and deltas; the term bar can apply to landform features spanning a considerable range in size, from a length of a few metres in a small stream to marine depositions stretching for hundreds of kilometers along a coastline called barrier islands. They are composed of sand, although they could be of any granular matter that the moving water has access to and is capable of shifting around; the grain size of the material comprising a bar is related to the size of the waves or the strength of the currents moving the material, but the availability of material to be worked by waves and currents is important.

Wave shoaling is the process when surface waves move towards shallow water, such as a beach, they slow down, their wave height increases and the distance between waves decreases. This behavior is called shoaling, the waves are said to shoal; the waves may or may not build to the point where they break, depending on how large they were to begin with, how steep the slope of the beach is. In particular, waves shoal as they pass over submerged reefs; this can be treacherous for ships. Shoaling can diffract waves, so the waves change direction. For example, if waves pass over a sloping bank, shallower at one end than the other the shoaling effect will result in the waves slowing more at the shallow end, thus the wave fronts will refract. Refraction occurs as waves move towards a beach if the waves come in at an angle to the beach, or if the beach slopes more at one end than the other. Sandbars known as a trough bars, form where the waves are breaking, because the breaking waves set up a shoreward current with a compensating counter-current along the bottom.

Sometimes this occurs seaward of a trough. Sand carried by the offshore moving bottom current is deposited where the current reaches the wave break. Other longshore bars may lie further offshore, representing the break point of larger waves, or the break point at low tide. A harbor or river bar is a sedimentary deposit formed at a harbor entrance or river mouth by: the deposition of freshwater sediment, or the action of waves on the sea floor or up-current beaches. Where beaches are suitably mobile, or the river's suspended or bed loads are large enough, deposition can build up a sandbar that blocks a river mouth and damming the river, it can be a seasonally natural process of aquatic ecology, causing the formation of estuaries and wetlands in the lower course of the river. This situation will persist until the bar is eroded by the sea, or the dammed river develops sufficient head to break through the bar; the formation of harbor bars can prevent access for boats and shipping, can be the result of: construction up-coast or at the harbor — e.g.: breakwaters, dune habitat destruction.

Upriver development — e.g.: dams and reservoirs, riparian zone destruction, river bank alterations, river adjacent agricultural land practices, water diversions. Watershed erosion from habitat alterations — e.g.: deforestation, grading for development. Artificially created/deepened harbors. In a nautical sense, a bar is a shoal, similar to a reef: a shallow formation of sand, a navigation or grounding hazard, with a depth of water of 6 fathoms or less, it therefore applies to a silt accumulation that shallows the entrance to or course of a river, or creek. A bar can form a dangerous obstacle to shipping, preventing access to the river or harbour in unfavourable weather conditions or at some states of the tide. In addition to longshore bars discussed above that are small features of a beach, the term shoal can be applied to larger geological units that form off a coastline as part of the process of coastal erosion; these include spits and baymouth bars that f

Victoria Osteen

Victoria Osteen is an American author and the co-pastor of Lakewood Church in Houston, Texas. She is the daughter-in-law of John Osteen. Victoria Osteen was born Victoria Iloff in Alabama, she lived near Marshall Space Flight Center where her father, Donald Iloff – a mathematician with General Electric – was a member of GE’s Saturn rocket project team led by German rocket scientist Wernher von Braun. In 1963, at the age of two, Osteen moved with her family to Houston, Texas when her father took a position with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, she grew up near the Manned Spacecraft Center. Growing up, Osteen attended the Church of Christ, a conservative church, where her mother, Georgine Iloff, taught Sunday school and her father served as a deacon. Osteen attended the University of Houston where she studied psychology while working in her mother’s jewelry business, it was while working in the jewelry store that she met Joel Osteen in 1985 when he came in to buy a new watch battery.

Osteen founded the Lakewood Church Women’s Ministry in 2003, where she serves as co-pastor. Her part of the service can be seen on a one-hour program broadcast on the Daystar Television Network and through a live internet feed, her other activities include a regular feature on Houston radio station 89.3 KSBJ. She supports the organizations Feed the Children and The Bridge, a shelter for battered women. Osteen’s first book, entitled Love Your Life: Living Happy and Whole was published by Simon & Schuster and released for sale on October 14, 2008, it debuted at number 2 on the New York Times Bestsellers list. With 750,000 copies, the initial printing of Love Your Life was one of the largest by any US publisher in 2008. In January 2009, Osteen released children’s books published by Simon & Schuster's Little Simon imprint, her five-year agreement with Simon & Schuster covers 13 books including a Bible. In December 2005, on a Continental Airlines flight from Houston to Vail, a flight attendant accused Osteen of shoving her after a request was made about liquid on her armrest.

The FAA fined Osteen $3,000 and the flight attendant Sharon Brown subsequently filed a civil suit against Osteen, seeking $405,000 in damages. A Houston jury sided with Osteen, with the foreman calling the lawsuit a waste of time, clearing her of civil liability in August 2008. Official website Lakewood Church's web site Victoria Osteen on IMDb

Mortal Kombat: Armageddon

Mortal Kombat: Armageddon is the seventh main video game in the Mortal Kombat fighting game series. The PlayStation 2 and Xbox versions were released in October 2006, with a Wii version released on May 29, 2007 in North America; the Xbox version was not released in PAL territories. Chronologically the final chapter in the original Mortal Kombat storyline, it features every character from the previous games. Players select one of them and battle a selection of the other fighters to determine the fate of the Mortal Kombat universe; the gameplay retains many of the same elements from the previous Mortal Kombat titles Deadly Alliance and Deception, including characters' multiple fighting styles. Instead of the prescripted Fatalities of the previous games, players can now create their own Fatality from a series of gory attacks, they can design a custom character using the "Kreate a Fighter" mode. The game includes the story-based Konquest mode from Deception, now casting the player as the warrior Taven, who must defeat his evil brother Daegon.

Succeeding its predecessor "Puzzle Kombat" is a new mini game called "Motor Kombat", a cartoonish driving game influenced by Mario Kart. The game was well-received for the large number of playable characters and the Konquest mode. However, reviewers criticized the use of the same engine from the previous two games as well as the similar play styles between characters. Reaction to the game's custom Fatality feature was mixed. Armageddon is the final Mortal Kombat game for sixth generation consoles and the first for seventh generation consoles with its release for the Wii; the next game in the series, which features an alternate timeline, was released on seventh generation consoles, the crossover title Mortal Kombat vs. DC Universe; the main storyline of the series was revisited in the 2011 Mortal Kombat reboot, the first production from the newly-formed NetherRealm Studios. In the years before the first Mortal Kombat tournament, king of Edenia and father of Rain, along with his wife, propose the creation of a warrior who would bring balance to the realms.

In time and Argus have two children of their own and Daegon, construct the Pyramid of Argus. Following the deception of Shujinko by the Dragon King Onaga, the warriors of all realms fight and culminate in a prophesied "Battle of Armageddon" which manifests the awakening of Blaze, the warrior created by Argus and Delia, Taven is awakened from his slumber, compelled to seek out Blaze and destroy him in exchange for one wish as well as riches beyond belief. Taven resolves to destroy Blaze to resolve the Armageddon conflict. Taven, betrayed by his brother Daegon and the Red Dragon clan, kills his brother in revenge for the murder of his parents at Daegon's hands, but is destroyed by Blaze, in turn killed by Shao Kahn. Shao Kahn engages in a final battle with Raiden to decide the fate of Earthrealm. Mortally wounded and about to be killed, Raiden sends a message to his younger self through his amulet with the message "he must win", rewriting history; each character possesses one hand-to-hand and one weapon.

Some of the larger bosses, like Onaga, have only one fighting style available. Other characters, such as Smoke and Mokap, do not have a second unarmed style. New to the series is the ability to create a Fatality; these custom fatalities are a constant series of commands that players input until the Fatality ends. This method of performing Fatalities replaces the character-specific Fatalities of previous Mortal Kombat games, where gamers would enter one input and view the Fatality cinematically; as the player adds each input, less time is allowed for further inputs and some moves cannot be repeated. There are eleven levels that can be achieved with Kreate a Fatality, the lowest being a basic Fatality and the highest an "Ultimate Fatality"; the greater the number of inputs for the Fatality, the more koins are given to the player. The Konquest mode in Armageddon is a combination of the same mode seen in Deception with elements borrowed from the spin-off adventure title Mortal Kombat: Shaolin Monks.

The storyline centers on Taven and Daegon, two brothers who were put in suspended animation because their mother Delia and their father Argus foresaw a cataclysmic event brought about by the Mortal Kombat fighters. Their awakening leads into the Konquest mode. Taven is the main hero that the player controls in Konquest, while Daegon, his brother, is the primary antagonist, plotting with villains such as Shinnok and the Red Dragon Clan in order to destroy both his brother and Blaze to attain full godhood for himself. Certain weapons are available at times in Konquest mode, which appear to handle much like those found in Shaolin Monks. Various relics can be collected, throughout this mode. Konquest unlocks characters' alternate costumes and other rewards in the rest of the game, while completing the Konquest will unlock Taven for arcade play. Meat and Blaze can be unlocked by collecting enough relics. In addition to the choice of over 60 characters, Armageddon gives players the ability to design and use new fighters in the game.

From the number of options, there are thousands of different kombinations available. During production, the game offered at least 14 different character classes, which include Humans, Mercenaries, Black Dr