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Shoaling and schooling

In biology, any group of fish that stay together for social reasons are shoaling, if the group is swimming in the same direction in a coordinated manner, they are schooling. In common usage, the terms are sometimes used rather loosely. About one quarter of fish species shoal all their lives, about one half shoal for part of their lives. Fish derive many benefits from shoaling behaviour including defence against predators, enhanced foraging success, higher success in finding a mate, it is likely that fish benefit from shoal membership through increased hydrodynamic efficiency. Fish use many traits to choose shoalmates, they prefer larger shoals, shoalmates of their own species, shoalmates similar in size and appearance to themselves, healthy fish, kin. The "oddity effect" posits that any shoal member that stands out in appearance will be preferentially targeted by predators; this may explain. The oddity effect thus tends to homogenize shoals. An aggregation of fish is the general term for any collection of fish that have gathered together in some locality.

Fish aggregations can be unstructured. An unstructured aggregation might be a group of mixed species and sizes that have gathered randomly near some local resource, such as food or nesting sites. If, in addition, the aggregation comes together in an interactive, social way, they may be said to be shoaling. Although shoaling fish can relate to each other in a loose way, with each fish swimming and foraging somewhat independently, they are nonetheless aware of the other members of the group as shown by the way they adjust behaviour such as swimming, so as to remain close to the other fish in the group. Shoaling groups can include mixed-species subgroups. If the shoal becomes more organised, with the fish synchronising their swimming so they all move at the same speed and in the same direction the fish may be said to be schooling. Schooling fish are of the same species and the same age/size. Fish schools move with the individual members spaced from each other; the schools undertake complicated manoeuvres.

The intricacies of schooling are far from understood the swimming and feeding energetics. Many hypotheses to explain the function of schooling have been suggested, such as better orientation, synchronized hunting, predator confusion and reduced risk of being found. Schooling has disadvantages, such as excretion buildup in the breathing media and oxygen and food depletion; the way the fish array in the school gives energy saving advantages, though this is controversial. Fish can be facultative shoalers. Obligate shoalers, such as tunas and anchovy, spend all of their time shoaling or schooling, become agitated if separated from the group. Facultative shoalers, such as Atlantic cod and some carangids, shoal only some of the time for reproductive purposes. Shoaling fish can shift into a disciplined and coordinated school shift back to an amorphous shoal within seconds; such shifts are triggered by changes of activity from feeding, travelling or avoiding predators. When schooling fish stop to feed, they become shoals.

Shoals are more vulnerable to predator attack. The shape a shoal or school takes what the fish are doing. Schools that are travelling can form squares or ovals or amoeboid shapes. Fast moving schools form a wedge shape, while shoals that are feeding tend to become circular. Forage fish are small fish. Predators include other larger fish and marine mammals. Typical ocean forage fish are small, filter-feeding fish such as herring and menhaden. Forage fish compensate for their small size by forming schools; some swim in synchronised grids with their mouths open so they can efficiently filter feed on plankton. These schools can become huge, migrating across open oceans; the shoals are concentrated food resources for the great marine predators. These sometimes immense gatherings fuel the ocean food web. Most forage fish are pelagic fish, which means they form their schools in open water, not on or near the bottom. Forage fish are short-lived, go unnoticed by humans; the predators are keenly focused on the shoals, acutely aware of their numbers and whereabouts, make migrations themselves in schools of their own, that can span thousands of miles to connect with, or stay connected with them.

Herring are among the more spectacular schooling fish. They aggregate together in huge numbers; the largest schools are formed during migrations by merging with smaller schools. "Chains" of schools one hundred kilometres long have been observed of mullet migrating in the Caspian Sea. Radakov estimated herring schools in the North Atlantic can occupy up to 4.8 cubic kilometres with fish densities between 0.5 and 1.0 fish/cubic metre, totalling about three billion fish in a single school. These schools move along traverse the open oceans. Herring schools in general have precise arrangements which allow the school to maintain constant cruising speeds. Herrings have excellent hearing, their schools react rapidly to a predator; the herrings keep a certain distance from a moving scuba diver or a cruising predator like a killer whale, forming a vacuole which looks like a doughnut from a spotter plane. Many species of large predatory fish also

Polloe Cemetery

The Polloe Cemetery in San Sebastián, Province of Guipúzcoa, was constructed after the Real Cell of Carlos III, according to which the cemeteries had to be placed outside of any city. Designed by architect José de Goikoa, it was inaugurated in 1878, the first burial took place on August 12, 1878, its pantheons have classical compositions made by various artists. Clara Campoamor and feminist best known for her advocacy for women's rights and suffrage during the writing of the Spanish constitution of 1931 Joaquín Satrústegui and political monarchist Gregorio Ordóñez, politician of the Popular Party, he was killed by ETA Fermín de Lasala y Collado,Duke of Mandas and public minister of transport and ambassador to Paris and London

Bright Promise

Bright Promise is an American daytime soap opera that ran on NBC from September 29, 1969 to March 31, 1972. It aired weekdays at 3:30 PM Eastern/2:30 PM Central; the show revolved around students and faculty at the fictional Bancroft College, located in the community of Bancroft, somewhere in the American Midwest. The name of the show reflected the overarching theme of the bright promise that the leaders of tomorrow graduating from Bancroft would ostensibly bring. At first, the main character was College president Thomas Boswell; the focus shifted from the College, to the town of Bancroft at large, focused on the Pierce and Jones families. The main character by this time was Sandra Jones, a student at Bancroft College, married herself into the wealthy Pierce family. Bright Promise was created by the husband-and-wife writing team of Frank and Doris Hursley, who had created General Hospital, was their last project prior to their retirement. Bing Crosby Productions was the packager, with assistance from Cox Broadcasting.

The title and closing sequences were filmed at UCLA. Having replaced the game show You Don't Say!, Bright Promise would give way to another serial, Return to Peyton Place, on the NBC daytime schedule. Actress Gail Kobe, a regular on Bright Promise, would become Return's executive producer. Original cast members included the show's star, Dana Andrews, with Susan Brown, Paul Lukather, Ruth McDevitt, Ivor Francis, Forrest Compton, Richard Eastham, Betsy Jones-Moreland, Coleen Gray, Gary Pillar, Peter Hobbs, Peter Ratray, Pat Woodell, Susannah Darrow, Cheryl Miller, Eric James. Additions included David Lewis, Annette O'Toole, Dabney Coleman, Marion Brash, Anne Seymour, Anthony Geary, Gail Kobe, John Considine, Philip Carey, Anne Jeffreys and Sherry Alberoni. Bright Promise on IMDb Bright Promise at TV.com