A chisel is a tool with a characteristically shaped cutting edge of blade on its end, for carving or cutting a hard material such as wood, stone, or metal by hand, struck with a mallet, or mechanical power. The handle and blade of some types of chisel are made of wood with a sharp edge in it. Chiselling use involves forcing the blade into some material to cut it; the driving force may hammer. In industrial use, a hydraulic ram or falling weight may be used to drive a chisel into the material. A gouge serves to carve small pieces from the material in woodworking and sculpture. Gouges most produce concave surfaces. A gouge has a'U'-shaped cross-section. Chisel comes from the Old French cisel, modern ciseau, Late Latin cisellum, a cutting tool, from caedere, to cut. Chisels are common in the archeological record. Chisel-cut materials have been found. Woodworking chisels range from small hand tools for tiny details, to large chisels used to remove big sections of wood, in'roughing out' the shape of a pattern or design.
In woodcarving, one starts with a larger tool, progresses to smaller tools to finish the detail. One of the largest types of chisel is the slick, used in timber frame construction and wooden shipbuilding. There are many types of woodworking chisels used for specific purposes, such as: Firmer chisel has a blade with a thick rectangular cross section, making them stronger for use on tougher and heavier work. Bevel edge chisel can get into acute angles with its bevelled edges. Mortise chisel thick, rigid blade with straight cutting edge and deep tapered sides to make mortises and similar joints. Paring chisel has a long blade ideal for accessing tight spaces. Skew chisel is used for trimming and finishing across the grain. Dovetail chisel made for cutting dovetail joints; the difference being the thickness of the body of the chisel, as well as the angle of the edges, permitting easier access to the joint. Butt chisel short chisel with straight edge for creating joints. Carving chisels used for intricate designs and sculpting.
Corner chisel has an L-shaped cutting edge. Cleans out square holes and corners with 90 degree angles. Flooring chisel lifts flooring materials for removal and repair. Framing chisel used with mallet. Slick a large chisel driven by manual pressure, never struck. A lathe tool is a woodworking chisel designed to cut wood; these tools have longer handles for more leverage, needed to counteract the tendency of the tool to react to the downward force of the spinning wood being cut or carved. In addition, the angle and method of sharpening is different. Chisels used in metal work can be divided into two main categories: cold chisels. A cold chisel is a tool made of tempered steel used for cutting'cold' metals, meaning that they are not used in conjunction with heating torches, etc. Cold chisels are used to remove waste metal when a smooth finish is not required or when the work cannot be done with other tools, such as a hacksaw, bench shears or power tools; the name cold chisel comes from its use by blacksmiths to cut metal while it was cold as compared to other tools they used to cut hot metal.
Because cold chisels are used to form metal, they have a less-acute angle to the sharp portion of the blade than a woodworking chisel. This gives the cutting edge greater strength at the expense of sharpness. Cold chisels come in a variety of sizes, from fine engraving tools that are tapped with light hammers, to massive tools that are driven with sledgehammers. Cold chisels are tempered at the cutting edge; the head of the chisel is chamfered to slow down the formation of the mushroom shape caused by hammering and is left soft to avoid brittle fracture splintering from hammer blows. There are four common types of cold chisels; these are the flat chisel, the most known type, used to cut bars and rods to reduce surfaces and to cut sheet metal, too thick or difficult to cut with tin snips. The cross cut chisel is used for cutting slots; the blade narrows behind the cutting edge to provide clearance. The round nose chisel is used for cutting semi-circular grooves for oil ways in bearings; the diamond point chisel is used for cleaning out corners or difficult places and pulling over centre punch marks wrongly placed for drilling.
Although the vast majority of cold chisels are made of steel, a few are manufactured from beryllium copper, for use in special situations where non-sparking tools are required. A hot chisel is used to cut metal, heated in a forge to soften the metal. One type of hot chisel is the hotcut hardy, used in an anvil hardy hole with the cutting edge facing up; the hot workpiece to be cut is struck with a hammer. The hammer drives the workpiece into the chisel, which allows it to be snapped off with a pair of tongs; this tool is often used in combination with a "top fuller" type of hotcut, when the piece being cut is large. Stone chisels are used to cut stone, bricks or concrete slabs. To cut, as opposed to carve, a brick bolster is used.
Slippers are light footwear that are easy to put on and off and are intended to be worn indoors at home. The recorded history of slippers can be traced back to the 12th century when the Vietnamese had been wearing slippers, but in the West, the record can only be traced to 1478. The following is a partial list of types of slippers: Open-heel slippers - made with a fabric upper layer that encloses the top of the foot and the toes, but leaves the heel open; these are distributed in expensive hotels, included with the cost of the room. Closed slippers - slippers with a heel guard that prevents the foot from sliding out. Slipper boots - slippers meant to look like boots. Favored by women, they are furry boots with a fleece or soft lining, a soft rubber sole. Modelled after sheepskin boots, they may be worn outside. Sandal slippers - cushioned sandals with soft rubber or fabric soles, similar to Birkenstock's cushioned sandals. Evening slipper known as the Prince Albert slipper in reference to Albert, Prince Consort.
It is made of velvet with leather soles and features a grosgrain bow or the wearer’s initials embroidered in gold. Some slippers are sold as a novelty item; the slippers are made from soft and colorful materials and may come in the shapes of animals, animal paws, cartoon characters, etc. Not all shoes with a soft fluffy interior are slippers. Any shoe with a rubber sole and laces is a normal outdoor shoe. In India, rubber chappals are worn as indoor shoes; the fictional character Cinderella is said to have worn glass slippers. This motif was introduced in Charles Perrault's 1697 version of the tale, "Cendrillon ou la petite pantoufle de verre". For some years it was debated that this detail was a mistranslation and the slippers in the story were instead made of fur, but this interpretation has since been discredited by folklorists. Derek "The Slipper Man" Fan holds the Guinness World Records record for wearing a pair of dress slippers for 23 years straight as of June 30, 2007. A pair of ruby slippers worn by Judy Garland in The Wizard of Oz sold at Christie's in June 1988 for $165,000.
The same pair was resold in May 2000 for $666,000. On both occasions they were the most expensive shoes from a film to be sold at auction. Grandpa's Slippers is an award-winning book by Joy Watson. In Hawaii and many islands of The Caribbean, slippers, or "slippahs" is used for describing flip-flops; the term'house shoes' is common in the American South. Birkenstocks Flip-flops Lady's slipper orchids Sandal Slippering Ruby slippers Moccasins Bunny slippers Uwabaki
An artisan is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates things by hand that may be functional or decorative, for example furniture, decorative arts, clothing, food items, household items and tools or mechanisms such as the handmade clockwork movement of a watchmaker. Artisans practice a craft and may through experience and aptitude reach the expressive levels of an artist; the adjective "artisanal" is sometimes used in describing hand-processing in what is viewed as an industrial process, such as in the phrase artisanal mining. Thus, "artisanal" is sometimes used in marketing and advertising as a buzz word to describe or imply some relation with the crafting of handmade food products, such as bread, beverages or cheese. Many of these have traditionally been handmade, rural or pastoral goods but are now made on a larger scale with automated mechanization in factories and other industrial areas. Artisans were the dominant producers of consumer products before the Industrial Revolution. In ancient Greece, artisans were drawn to agoras and built workshops nearby.
During the Middle Ages, the term "artisan" was applied to those who made things or provided services. It did not apply to unskilled manual labourers. Artisans were divided into two distinct groups: those who operated their own businesses and those who did not; those who owned their businesses were called masters, while the latter were the journeymen and apprentices. One misunderstanding many people have about this social group is that they picture them as "workers" in the modern sense: employed by someone; the most influential group among the artisans were the business owners. The owners enjoyed a higher social status in their communities. Shokunin is a Japanese word for "artisan" or "craftsman", which implies a pride in one's own work. In the words of shokunin Tashio Odate:Shokunin means not only having technical skill, but implies an attitude and social consciousness... a social obligation to work his best for the general welfare of the people, obligation both material and spiritual. Traditionally, shokunin honoured their tools of trade at New Year's – the sharpened and taken-care of tools would be placed in a tokonoma, two rice cakes and a tangerine were placed on top of each toolbox, to honour the tools and express gratitude for performing their task.
Applied art Artist Arts and Crafts movement Caste — Tarkhan Guild Handicraft Tradesman Artian.com /Prezzy The dictionary definition of artisan at Wiktionary History of Artisans
In woodworking and construction, a nail is a small object made of metal, used as a fastener, as a peg to hang something, or sometimes as a decoration. Nails have a sharp point on one end and a flattened head on the other, but headless nails are available. Nails are made in a great variety of forms for specialized purposes; the most common is a wire nail. Other types of nails include pins, brads and cleats. Nails are driven into the workpiece by a hammer, a pneumatic nail gun, or a small explosive charge or primer. A nail holds materials together by friction in the axial shear strength laterally; the point of the nail is sometimes bent over or clinched after driving to prevent pulling out. The history of the nail is divided into three distinct periods: Hand-wrought nail Cut nail Wire nail The first nails were made of wrought-iron. Nails date back at least to Ancient Egypt — bronze nails found in Egypt have been dated 3400 BC; the Bible provides a number of references to nails, including the story in Judges of Jael the wife of Heber, who drives a nail into the temple of a sleeping Canaanite commander.
The Romans made extensive use of nails. The Roman army, for example, left behind seven tons of nails when it evacuated the fortress of Inchtuthil in Perthshire in the United Kingdom in 86 to 87 CE; the term "penny", as it refers to nails originated in medieval England to describe the price of a hundred nails. Nails themselves were sufficiently valuable and standardized to be used as an informal medium of exchange; until around 1800 artisans known as nailers or nailors made nails by hand – note the surname Naylor. At the time of the American Revolution, England was the largest manufacturer of nails in the world. Nails were expensive and difficult to obtain in the American colonies, so that abandoned houses were sometimes deliberately burned down to allow recovery of used nails from the ashes; this became such a problem in Virginia that a law was created to stop people from burning their houses when they moved. Families had small nail-manufacturing setups in their homes. Thomas Jefferson wrote in a letter: "In our private pursuits it is a great advantage that every honest employment is deemed honorable.
I am myself a nail maker." The growth of the trade in the American colonies was theoretically held back by the prohibition of new slitting mills in America by the Iron Act of 1750, though there is no evidence that the Act was enforced. The production of wrought-iron nails continued well into the 19th century, but was reduced to nails for purposes for which the softer cut nails were unsuitable, including horseshoe nails; the slitting mill, introduced to England in 1590, simplified the production of nail rods, but the real first efforts to mechanise the nail-making process itself occurred between 1790 and 1820 in the United States and England, when various machines were invented to automate and speed up the process of making nails from bars of wrought iron. These nails were known as cut nails or square nails because of their rectangular cross section. Cut nails were one of the important factors in the increase in balloon framing beginning in the 1830s and thus the decline of timber framing with wooden joints.
Though still used for historical renovations, for heavy-duty applications, such as attaching boards to masonry walls, cut nails are much less common today than wire nails. The cut-nail process was patented in America by Jacob Perkins in 1795 and in England by Joseph Dyer, who set up machinery in Birmingham; the process was designed to cut nails from sheets of iron, while making sure that the fibres of the iron ran down the nails. The Birmingham industry expanded in the following decades, reached its greatest extent in the 1860s, after which it declined due to competition from wire nails, but continued until the outbreak of World War I; as the name implies, wire nails are formed from wire. Coils of wire are drawn through a series of dies to reach a specific diameter cut into short rods that are formed into nails; the nail tip is cut by a blade. Other dies are used to cut ridges. Wire nails were known as "French nails" for their country of origin. Belgian wire nails began to compete in England in 1863.
Joseph Henry Nettlefold was making wire nails at Smethwick by 1875. Over the following decades, the nail-making process was completely automated; the industry had machines capable of producing huge numbers of inexpensive nails with little or no human intervention. With the introduction of cheap wire nails, the use of wrought iron for nail making declined, as more did the production of cut nails. In the United States, in 1892 more steel-wire nails were produced than cut nails. In 1913, 90% of manufactured nails were wire nails. Nails went from being precious to being a cheap mass-produced commodity. Today all nails are manufactured from wire, but the term "wire nail" has come to refer to smaller nails available in a wider, more
Maine is a state in the New England region of the northeastern United States. Maine is the 12th smallest by area, the 9th least populous, the 38th most densely populated of the 50 U. S. states. It is bordered by New Hampshire to the west, the Atlantic Ocean to the southeast, the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Quebec to the northeast and northwest respectively. Maine is the easternmost state in the contiguous United States, the northernmost state east of the Great Lakes, it is known for its rocky coastline. There is a humid continental climate throughout most of the state, including in coastal areas such as its most populous city of Portland; the capital is Augusta. For thousands of years, indigenous peoples were the only inhabitants of the territory, now Maine. At the time of European arrival in what is now Maine, several Algonquian-speaking peoples inhabited the area; the first European settlement in the area was by the French in 1604 on Saint Croix Island, by Pierre Dugua, Sieur de Mons.
The first English settlement was the short-lived Popham Colony, established by the Plymouth Company in 1607. A number of English settlements were established along the coast of Maine in the 1620s, although the rugged climate and conflict with the local peoples caused many to fail over the years; as Maine entered the 18th century, only a half dozen European settlements had survived. Loyalist and Patriot forces contended for Maine's territory during the American Revolution and the War of 1812. During the War of 1812, the largely-undefended eastern region of Maine was occupied by British forces, but returned to the United States after the war following major defeats in New York and Louisiana, as part of a peace treaty, to include dedicated land on the Michigan peninsula for Native American peoples. Maine was part of the Commonwealth of Massachusetts until 1820, when it voted to secede from Massachusetts to become a separate state. On March 15, 1820, under the Missouri Compromise, it was admitted to the Union as the 23rd state.
There is no definitive explanation for the origin of the name "Maine", but the most origin is that the name was given by early explorers after the former province of Maine in France. Whatever the origin, the name was fixed for English settlers in 1665 when the English King's Commissioners ordered that the "Province of Maine" be entered from on in official records; the state legislature in 2001 adopted a resolution establishing Franco-American Day, which stated that the state was named after the former French province of Maine. Other theories mention earlier places with similar names, or claim it is a nautical reference to the mainland. Attempts to uncover the history of the name of Maine began with James Sullivan's 1795 "History of the District of Maine", he made the unsubstantiated claim that the Province of Maine was a compliment to the queen of Charles I, Henrietta Maria, who once "owned" the Province of Maine in France. This was quoted by Maine historians until the 1845 biography of that queen by Agnes Strickland established that she had no connection to the province.
A new theory, put forward by Carol B. Smith Fisher in 2002, is that Sir Ferdinando Gorges chose the name in 1622 to honor the village where his ancestors first lived in England, rather than the province in France. "MAINE" appears in the Domesday Book of 1086 in reference to the county of Dorset, today Broadmayne, just southeast of Dorchester. The view held among British place name scholars is that Mayne in Dorset is Brythonic, corresponding to modern Welsh "maen", plural "main" or "meini"; some early spellings are: MAINE 1086, MEINE 1200, MEINES 1204, MAYNE 1236. Today the village is known as Broadmayne, primitive Welsh or Brythonic, "main" meaning rock or stone, considered a reference to the many large sarsen stones still present around Little Mayne farm, half a mile northeast of Broadmayne village; the first known record of the name appears in an August 10, 1622 land charter to Sir Ferdinando Gorges and Captain John Mason, English Royal Navy veterans, who were granted a large tract in present-day Maine that Mason and Gorges "intend to name the Province of Maine".
Mason had served with the Royal Navy in the Orkney Islands, where the chief island is called Mainland, a possible name derivation for these English sailors. In 1623, the English naval captain Christopher Levett, exploring the New England coast, wrote: "The first place I set my foote upon in New England was the Isle of Shoals, being Ilands in the sea, above two Leagues from the Mayne." Several tracts along the coast of New England were referred to as Main or Maine. A reconfirmed and enhanced April 3, 1639, from England's King Charles I, gave Sir Ferdinando Gorges increased powers over his new province and stated that it "shall forever hereafter, be called and named the PROVINCE OR COUNTIE OF MAINE, not by any other name or names whatsoever..." Maine is the only U. S. state whose name has one syllable. The original inhabitants of the territory, now Maine were Algonquian-speaking Wabanaki peoples, including the Passamaquoddy, Penobscot and Kennebec. During the King Philip's War, many of these peoples would merge in one form or another to become the Wabanaki Confederacy, aiding the Wampanoag of Massachusetts & the Mahican of New York.
Afterwards, many of these people were driven from their natural territories, but most of the tribes of Maine continued, until the American Revolution
Crispin and Crispinian
Saints Crispin and Crispinian are the Christian patron saints of cobblers, curriers and leather workers. They were beheaded during the reign of Diocletian. Born to a noble Roman family in the 3rd century AD, Crispin and Crispinian fled persecution for their faith, ending up at Soissons, where they preached Christianity to the Gauls whilst making shoes by night. While it is stated that they were twin brothers, that has not been positively proved, they earned enough by their trade to support themselves and to aid the poor. Their success attracted the ire of Rictus Varus, governor of Belgic Gaul, who had them tortured and thrown into the river with millstones around their necks. Though they survived, they were beheaded by the Emperor c. 285–286. An alternative account gives them to be sons of a noble Romano-Briton family who lived in Canterbury, following their father's murder for displeasing the Roman Emperor; as they were approaching maturity their mother sent them to London to seek apprenticeship and to avoid coming to the attention of their father's killer.
Travelling there, the brothers came across a shoemaker's workshop at Faversham and decided to travel no further and stayed in Faversham. This account fails to explain how the brothers came to be martyred; the feast day of Saints Crispin and Crispinian is 25 October. Although this feast was removed from the Roman Catholic Church's universal liturgical calendar following the Second Vatican Council, the two saints are still commemorated on that day in the most recent edition of the Roman Church's martyrology. In the sixth century a stately basilica was erected at Soissons over the graves of these saints, St. Eligius, a famous goldsmith, made a costly shrine for the head of St. Crispinian, they are the patron saints of cobblers, glove makers, lace makers, lace workers, leather workers, saddle makers, shoemakers and weavers. The Battle of Agincourt was fought on Saint Cristpin's feastday, it has been immortalised by Shakespeare's St. Crispin's Day Speech from his play Henry V. Also, for the Midsummer's Day Festival in the third act of Die Meistersinger, Wagner has the shoemakers' guild enter singing a song of praise to St. Crispin.
A plaque at Faversham commemorates their association with the town. They are commemorated in the name of the old pub "Crispin and Crispianus" at Strood. St Crispin Street Fair Daughters of St. Crispin Order of the Knights of St. Crispin City livery companies St Crispin and St Crispinian in Faversham, Kent
Jute is a long, shiny vegetable fiber that can be spun into coarse, strong threads. It is produced from plants in the genus Corchorus, once classified with the family Tiliaceae, more with Malvaceae; the primary source of the fiber is Corchorus olitorius, but it is considered inferior to Corchorus capsularis. "Jute" is the name of the fiber used to make burlap, hessian or gunny cloth. Jute is one of the most affordable natural fibers, second only to cotton in the amount produced and variety of uses. Jute fibers are composed of the plant materials cellulose and lignin, it falls into the bast fiber category along with kenaf, industrial hemp, ramie, etc. The industrial term for jute fiber is raw jute; the fibers are off-white to brown, 1–4 metres long. Jute is called the golden fiber for its color and high cash value; the jute plant needs a plain alluvial standing water. The suitable climate for growing jute is offered during the monsoon season. Temperatures from 20˚C to 40˚C and relative humidity of 70%–80% are favourable for successful cultivation.
Jute requires 5–8 cm of rainfall weekly, more during the sowing time. Soft water is necessary for jute production. Historical documents state; the weavers used simple hand spinning wheels and hand looms, spun cotton yarns as well. History suggests that Indians Bengalis, used ropes and twines made of white jute from ancient times for household and other uses, it is functional for carrying grains or other agricultural products. Tossa jute is a variety thought native to South Asia, it is grown for both culinary purposes. People use the leaves as an ingredient in a mucilaginous potherb called "molokhiya", it is popular in some Arabian countries such as Egypt and Syria as a soup-based dish, sometimes with meat over rice or lentils. The Book of Job, in the King James translation of the Hebrew Bible מלוח MaLOo-aĤ "salty", mentions this vegetable potherb as "mallow, giving rise to the term Jew's Mallow, it is high in protein, vitamin C, beta-carotene and iron. Bangladesh and other countries in Southeast Asia, the South Pacific use jute for its fiber in.
Tossa jute fiber is softer and stronger than white jute. This variety shows good sustainability in the Ganges Delta climate. Along with white jute, tossa jute has been cultivated in the soil of Bengal where it is known as paat from the start of the 19th century. Coremantel, Bangladesh, is the largest global producer of the tossa jute variety. Jute was used for making textiles in the Indus valley civilization since the 3rd millennium BC. For centuries, jute has been an integral part of the culture of East Bengal and some parts of West Bengal in the southwest of Bangladesh. Since the seventeenth century the British started trading in jute. During the reign of the British Empire, jute was used in the military. British jute barons grew rich processing jute and selling manufactured products made from it. Dundee Jute Barons and the British East India Company set up many jute mills in Bengal, by 1895 jute industries in Bengal overtook the Scottish jute trade. Many Scots emigrated to Bengal to set up jute factories.
More than a billion jute sandbags were exported from Bengal to the trenches of World War I, to the United States south to bag cotton. It was used in the fishing, construction and the arms industries. Due to its texture, it could only be processed by hand until someone in Dundee discovered that treating it with whale oil made it machine processable; the industry boomed throughout the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, but this trade had ceased by about 1970 due to the emergence of synthetic fibers. In the 21st century, jute again has become an important export crop around the world in Bangladesh; the jute fiber comes from the ribbon of the jute plant. The fibers are first extracted by retting; the retting process consists of bundling jute stems together and immersing them in slow running water. There are two types of retting: stem and ribbon. After the retting process, stripping begins. In the stripping process, non-fibrous matter is scraped off the workers dig in and grab the fibers from within the jute stem.
Jute is a rain-fed crop with little need for fertilizer or pesticides, in contrast to cotton's heavy requirements. Production is concentrated in Bangladesh, as well as India's states of Assam and West Bengal. India is the world's largest producer of jute, but imported 162,000 tonnes of raw fiber and 175,000 tonnes of jute products in 2011. India and China import significant quantities of jute fiber and products from Bangladesh, as do the United Kingdom, United States, Spain, Ivory Coast and Brazil. At the beginning of the 21st century, in 2002 Bangladesh commissioned a consortium of researchers from University of Dhaka, Bangladesh Jute Research Institute and private software firm DataSoft Systems Bangladesh Ltd. in collaboration with Centre for Chemical Biology, University of Science Malaysia and University of Hawaii, to research different fibers and hybrid fibers of jute. The draft genome of jute was completed. Making twine and matting are among its uses. In combination with sugar, the possibility of usin