CinemaScope is an anamorphic lens series used, from 1953 to 1967, less later, for shooting widescreen movies that, could be screened in theatres using existing equipment, albeit with a lens adapter. Its creation in 1953 by Spyros P. Skouras, the president of 20th Century Fox, marked the beginning of the modern anamorphic format in both principal photography and movie projection; the anamorphic lenses theoretically allowed the process to create an image of up to a 2.66:1 aspect ratio twice as wide as the common Academy format's 1.37:1 ratio. Although the technology behind the CinemaScope lens system was made obsolete by developments advanced by Panavision, CinemaScope's anamorphic format has continued to this day. In film-industry jargon, the shortened form,'Scope, is still used by both filmmakers and projectionists, although today it refers to any 2.35:1, 2.39:1, 2.40:1 or 2.55:1 presentation or, the use of anamorphic lensing or projection in general. Bausch & Lomb won a 1954 Oscar for its development of the CinemaScope lens.
French inventor Henri Chrétien developed and patented a new film process that he called Anamorphoscope in 1926. It was this process that would form the basis for CinemaScope. Chrétien's process was based on lenses that employed an optical trick which produced an image twice as wide as those that were being produced with conventional lenses, he attempted to interest the motion picture industry in his invention, but at that time the industry was not sufficiently impressed. By 1950, cinema attendance declined with the advent of a new competitive rival: television, yet Cinerama and the early 3D films, both launched in 1952, succeeded at the box office in defying this trend, which in turn persuaded Spyros Skouras, the head of Twentieth Century-Fox, that technical innovation could help to meet the challenge. Skouras tasked Earl Sponable, head of Fox's research department, with devising a new, projection system, but something that, unlike Cinerama, could be retrofitted to existing theatres at a modest cost – and Herbert Brag, Sponable's assistant, remembered Chrétien's "hypergonar" lens.
The optical company Bausch & Lomb was asked to produce a prototype "anamorphoser" lens. Meanwhile, Sponable tracked down Professor Chrétien, whose patent for the process had expired, so Fox purchased his existing Hypergonars from him and these lenses were flown to Fox's studios in Hollywood. Test footage shot with these lenses was screened for Skouras, who gave the go-ahead for development of a widescreen process based on Chrétien's invention, to be known as "CinemaScope". Twentieth Century-Fox's pre-production of The Robe committed to Technicolor Three-Strip origination, was halted so that the film could be changed to a CinemaScope production. Two other CinemaScope productions were planned: How to Marry a Millionaire and Beneath the Twelve-Mile Reef. So that production of these first CinemaScope films could proceed without delay, shooting started using the best three of Chrétien's Hypergonars while Bausch & Lomb continued working on their own versions; the introduction of CinemaScope enabled Fox and other studios to reassert its distinction from the new competitor, television.
Chrétien's Hypergonars proved to have significant operational defects. Bausch & Lomb, Fox's prime contractor for the production of these lenses produced an improved "Chrétien-formula" adapter lens design, subsequently produced a improved and patented "Bausch & Lomb formula" adapter lens design. "Bausch & Lomb formula" "combined" lens designs incorporated both the "prime" lens and the anamorphic lens in one unit. These "combined" lenses continue to be used to this day in special effects units. Other manufacturers' lenses are preferred for so-called "production" applications that benefit from lighter weight or lower distortion, or a combination of both characteristics. CinemaScope was developed to use a separate film for sound, thus enabling the full "silent" 1.33:1 aperture to be available for the picture, with a 2:1 anamorphic squeeze applied that would allow an aspect ratio of 2.66:1. When, developers found that magnetic stripes could be added to the film to produce a composite picture/sound print, the ratio of the image was reduced to 2.55:1.
This reduction was kept to a minimum by reducing the width of the normal KS perforations so that they were nearly square, but of DH height. This was the CinemaScope, or CS, known colloquially as "fox-holes". Still an optical soundtrack was added, further reducing the aspect ratio to 2.35:1. This change meant a shift in the optical center of the projected image. All of Fox's CinemaScope films were made using a silent/full aperture for the negatives, as was this studio's practice for all films, whether anamorphic or not. In order to better hide so-called "negative assembly" splices, the ratio of the image was changed by others to 2.39:1 and to 2.40:1. All professional cameras are capable of shooting 2.55:1 or 2.66:1 (standard "Full"/"Silent" aperture plate, preferred by many producers and all optical
Pauline Kael was an American film critic who wrote for The New Yorker magazine from 1968 to 1991. Kael was known for her "witty, biting opinionated and focused" reviews, her opinions contrary to those of her contemporaries, she was one of the most influential American film critics of her era. She left a lasting impression on many other prominent film critics. Roger Ebert argued in an obituary that Kael "had a more positive influence on the climate for film in America than any other single person over the last three decades." The critic, he said, "had no rules, no guidelines, no objective standards. You couldn't apply her'approach' to a film. With her it was all personal." Owen Gleiberman said. She reinvented the form, pioneered an entire aesthetic of writing." Kael was born on a chicken farm in Petaluma, California, to Isaac Paul Kael and Judith Kael, Jewish emigrants from Poland. Her parents lost their farm when Kael was eight, the family moved to San Francisco. In 1936 she matriculated at the University of California, where she studied philosophy and art, but dropped out in 1940.
Kael had intended to go on to law school, but fell in with a group of artists and moved to New York City with the poet Robert Horan. Three years Kael returned to San Francisco and "led a bohemian life," writing plays, working in experimental film. In 1948, Kael and the filmmaker James Broughton had a daughter, whom Kael would raise alone. Gina had a serious illness through much of her childhood. In 1953, the editor of City Lights magazine overheard Kael arguing about films in a coffeeshop with a friend and asked her to review Charlie Chaplin's Limelight. Kael dubbed the film "Slimelight" and began publishing film criticism in magazines. Kael explained her writing style: "I worked to loosen my style—to get away from the term-paper pomposity that we learn at college. I wanted the sentences to breathe, to have the sound of a human voice." Kael disparaged the supposed critic's ideal of objectivity, referring to it as "saphead objectivity," and incorporated aspects of autobiography into her criticism.
In a review of Vittorio De Sica's 1946 neorealist film Shoeshine, ranked among her most memorable, Kael described seeing the film... after one of those terrible lovers' quarrels that leave one in a state of incomprehensible despair. I came out of the theater, tears streaming, overheard the petulant voice of a college girl complaining to her boyfriend, "Well I don't see what was so special about that movie." I walked up the street, crying blindly, no longer certain whether my tears were for the tragedy on the screen, the hopelessness I felt for myself, or the alienation I felt from those who could not experience the radiance of Shoeshine. For if people cannot feel Shoeshine, what can they feel?... I learned that the man with whom I had quarreled had gone the same night and had emerged in tears, yet our tears for each other, for Shoeshine did not bring us together. Life, as Shoeshine demonstrates, is too complex for facile endings. Kael broadcast many of her early reviews on the alternative public radio station KPFA, in Berkeley, gained further local profile as the Berkeley Cinema Guild manager from 1955 to 1960.
Kael programmed the films at the two-screen theater, "unapologetically repeat her favorites until they became audience favorites." She wrote "pungent" capsule reviews of the films, which her patrons began collecting. Kael continued to juggle writing with other work until she received an offer to publish a book of her criticism. Published in 1965 as I Lost It at the Movies, the collection sold 150,000 paperback copies and was a surprise bestseller. Coinciding with a job at the high-circulation women's magazine McCall's, Kael "went mass"; that same year, she wrote a blistering review of the phenomenally popular The Sound of Music in McCall's. After mentioning that some of the press had dubbed it "The Sound of Money," Kael called the film's message a "sugarcoated lie that people seem to want to eat." Although according to legend this review led to her being fired from McCall's, both Kael and the magazine's editor, Robert Stein, denied this. According to Stein, he fired her "months after she kept panning every commercial movie from Lawrence of Arabia and Dr. Zhivago to The Pawnbroker and A Hard Day's Night."Her dismissal from McCall's led to a stint from 1966 to 1967 at The New Republic, whose editors continually altered Kael's writing without her permission.
In October 1967, Kael wrote a lengthy essay on Bonnie and Clyde, which the magazine declined to publish. William Shawn of The New Yorker obtained the piece and ran it in the New Yorker issue of October 21. Kael's rave review was at odds with prevailing opinion, that the film was controversial. According to critic David Thomson, "she was right about a film that had bewildered many other critics". A few months after the essay ran, Kael quit The New Republic "in despair." In 1968, Kael was asked by Shawn to join The New Yorker staff. Many considered her colloquial, brash writing style an odd fit with the sophisticated and genteel New Yorker. Kael remembered "getting a letter from an eminent New Yorker writer suggesting that I was trampling through the pages of the magazine with cowb
A B movie or B film is a low-budget commercial motion picture, not an arthouse film. In its original usage, during the Golden Age of Hollywood, the term more identified films intended for distribution as the less-publicized bottom half of a double feature. Although the U. S. production of movies intended as second features ceased by the end of the 1950s, the term B movie continues to be used in its broader sense to this day. In its post-Golden Age usage, there is ambiguity on both sides of the definition: on the one hand, the primary interest of many inexpensive exploitation films is prurient. In either usage, most B movies represent a particular genre—the Western was a Golden Age B movie staple, while low-budget science-fiction and horror films became more popular in the 1950s. Early B movies were part of series in which the star played the same character. Always shorter than the top-billed films they were paired with, many had running times of 70 minutes or less; the term connoted a general perception that B movies were inferior to the more lavishly budgeted headliners.
Latter-day B movies still sometimes inspire multiple sequels. As the average running time of top-of-the-line films increased, so did that of B pictures. In its current usage, the term has somewhat contradictory connotations: it may signal an opinion that a certain movie is a genre film with minimal artistic ambitions or a lively, energetic film uninhibited by the constraints imposed on more expensive projects and unburdened by the conventions of putatively "serious" independent film; the term is now used loosely to refer to some higher-budgeted, mainstream films with exploitation-style content in genres traditionally associated with the B movie. From their beginnings to the present day, B movies have provided opportunities both for those coming up in the profession and others whose careers are waning. Celebrated filmmakers such as Anthony Mann and Jonathan Demme learned their craft in B movies, they are where actors such as John Wayne and Jack Nicholson first became established, they have provided work for former A movie actors, such as Vincent Price and Karen Black.
Some actors, such as Bela Lugosi, Eddie Constantine, Bruce Campbell and Pam Grier, worked in B movies for most of their careers. The term B actor is sometimes used to refer to a performer who finds work or in B pictures. In 1927–28, at the end of the silent era, the production cost of an average feature from a major Hollywood studio ranged from $190,000 at Fox to $275,000 at Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer; that average reflected both "specials" that might cost as much as $1 million and films made for around $50,000. These cheaper films allowed the studios to derive maximum value from facilities and contracted staff in between a studio's more important productions, while breaking in new personnel. Studios in the minor leagues of the industry, such as Columbia Pictures and Film Booking Offices of America, focused on those sorts of cheap productions, their movies, with short running times, targeted theaters that had to economize on rental and operating costs small-town and urban neighborhood venues, or "nabes".
Smaller production houses, known as Poverty Row studios, made films whose costs might run as low as $3,000, seeking a profit through whatever bookings they could pick up in the gaps left by the larger concerns. With the widespread arrival of sound film in American theaters in 1929, many independent exhibitors began dropping the then-dominant presentation model, which involved live acts and a broad variety of shorts before a single featured film. A new programming scheme developed that would soon become standard practice: a newsreel, a short and/or serial, a cartoon, followed by a double feature; the second feature, which screened before the main event, cost the exhibitor less per minute than the equivalent running time in shorts. The majors' "clearance" rules favoring their affiliated theaters prevented the independents' timely access to top-quality films; the additional movie gave the program "balance"—the practice of pairing different sorts of features suggested to potential customers that they could count on something of interest no matter what was on the bill.
The low-budget picture of the 1920s thus evolved into the second feature, the B movie, of Hollywood's Golden Age. The major studios, at first resistant to the double feature, soon adapted. All established B units to provide films for the expanding second-feature market. Block booking became standard practice: to get access to a studio's attractive A pictures, many theaters were obliged to rent the company's entire output for a season. With the B films rented at a flat fee, rates could be set guaranteeing the profitability of every B movie; the parallel practice of blind bidding freed the majors from worrying about their Bs' quality—even when booking in less than seasonal blocks, exhibitors had to buy most pictures sight unseen. The five largest studios—Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer, Paramount Pictures, Fox Film Corporation, Warner Bros. and RKO Radio Pictures —also belonged to companies with sizable theater chains, further securing the bottom line. Poverty Row studios, from modest outfits like Mascot Pictures, Tiffany Pictures, Sono Art-World Wide Pictures down to shoestring operations, made B movies, ot
A jump cut is a cut in film editing in which two sequential shots of the same subject are taken from camera positions that vary only if at all. This type of edit gives the effect of jumping forwards in time, it is a manipulation of temporal space using the duration of a single shot, fracturing the duration to move the audience ahead. This kind of cut abruptly communicates the passing of time as opposed to the more seamless dissolve used in films predating Jean-Luc Godard's Breathless, when jump cuts were first used extensively. For this reason, jump cuts, while not seen as inherently bad, are considered a violation of classical continuity editing, which aims to give the appearance of continuous time and space in the story-world by de-emphasizing editing. Jump cuts, in contrast, draw attention to the constructed nature of the film. Continuity editing uses; the 30 degree rule advises that for consecutive shots to appear seamless, the camera position must vary at least 30 degrees from its previous position.
Some schools would call for a change in framing as well. If the camera position changes less than 30 degrees, the difference between the two shots will not be substantial enough, the viewer will experience the edit as a jump in the position of the subject, jarring, draws attention to itself. Although jump cuts can be created through the editing together of two shots filmed non-continuously, they can be created by removing a middle section of one continuously filmed shot. Jump cuts can add a sense of speed to the sequence of events. Georges Méliès is known as the father of the jump cut as a result of having discovered it accidentally, using it to simulate magical tricks. Dziga Vertof's avant-garde Russian film Man With a Movie Camera is entirely composed of jump cuts. Contemporary use of the jump cut stems from its appearance in the work of Jean-Luc Godard and other filmmakers of the French New Wave of the late 1950s and 1960s. In Godard's ground-breaking Breathless, for example, he cut together shots of Jean Seberg riding in a convertible in such a way that the discontinuity between shots is emphasized and its jarring effect deliberate.
In the screen shots to the right, the first image comes from the end of one shot and the second is the beginning of the next shot—thus emphasizing the gap in action between the two. The jump cut has been used in films like Snatch, by Guy Ritchie, Run Lola Run, by Tom Tykwer, it is used in TV editing, in documentaries produced by Discovery Channel and National Geographic Channel, for example. It is noticeable in Universal Monsters films and music videos; the jump cut has sometimes served a political use in film. It has been used as an alienating Brechtian technique that makes the audience aware of the unreality of the film experience, in order to focus the audience's attention on the political message of a film rather than the drama or emotion of the narrative—as may be observed in some segments of Sergei Eisenstein's The Battleship Potemkin, it was used in Alexander Dovzhenko's Arsenal, where a close-up shot of a character's face cuts closer and closer a total of nine times. Mark Cousins comments that this "fragmentation captured his indecision... and confusion", adding that "Although the effect jars, the idea of visual conflict was central to Soviet montage cinema of that time".
Jump cuts are sometimes used to show a nervous searching scene, as is done in the 2009 science fiction film Moon in which the protagonist, Sam Bell, is looking for a secret room on a moon base, District 9 in which the protagonist, searches for illegal objects in the house of Christopher's friend. In television, Rowan & Martin's Laugh-In editor Arthur Schneider won an Emmy Award in 1968 for his pioneering use of the jump cut. Jump cutting remained an uncommon TV technique until shows like Homicide: Life on the Street popularized it on the small screen in the 1990s; the well-remembered music video for "Everybody Have Fun Tonight" has a jump cut for every frame. Other uses of the jump cuts include Vincent Gallo's short "Flying Christ" in which various shots of "Christ" jumping are cut together as he is in mid jump, creating the illusion of flight, in many vlogs online, as popularized by the show with zefrank. British comedian Russell Kane has produced a series of comic, satirical videos, named "Kaneings", in response to current events.
These make extensive use of jump cut-style editing. Vernacular use of the term jump cut can describe any noticeable edit in a film. However, many such over-broad usages are incorrect. In particular, a cut between two different subjects is not a true jump cut, no matter how jarring. A match cut may be abrupt, but the viewer is meant to see the similarity between two scenes with disparate subjects rather than experience the discontinuity between the two shots. A well-known example is found at the end of the "Dawn of Man" sequence in the film 2001: A Space Odyssey. A primitive hominid throws it into the air; when the bone reaches its highest point, the shot cuts to that of a shaped space station in orbit above the earth. This edit has been described as a jump cut by those unfamiliar with film editing terminology, but it is properly termed a graphic match or a match cut. Jump cuts are distinguishab
Grenoble is a city in southeastern France, at the foot of the French Alps where the river Drac joins the Isère. Located in the Auvergne-Rhône-Alpes region, Grenoble is the capital of the department of Isère and is an important European scientific centre; the city advertises itself as the "Capital of the Alps", due to its size and its proximity to the mountains. Grenoble's history goes back to a time when it was a small Gallic village, it gained somewhat in stature by becoming the capital of the Dauphiné in the 11th century, but Grenoble remained for most of its history a modest parliamentary and garrison city on the borders of the kingdom of France. Industrial development increased the prominence of Grenoble through several periods of economic expansion over the last three centuries; this started with a booming glove industry in the 18th and 19th centuries, continued with the development of a strong hydropower industry in the late 19th to early 20th centuries, ended with a post-World War II economic boom symbolized by the holding of the X Olympic Winter Games in 1968.
The city has grown to be one of Europe's most important research and innovation centers, with each fifth inhabitant working directly in these domains. The population of the city of Grenoble was 160,215 at the 2013 census, while the population of the Grenoble metropolitan area was 664,832; the residents of the city are called "Grenoblois". The many suburb communes that make up the rest of the metropolitan area include three with populations exceeding 20,000: Saint-Martin-d'Hères, Échirolles, Fontaine. For the ecclesiastical history, see Bishopric of Grenoble; the first references to what is now Grenoble date back to 43 BC. Cularo was at that time a small Gallic village of the Allobroges tribe, near a bridge across the Isère. Three centuries and with insecurity rising in the late Roman empire, a strong wall was built around the small town in 286 AD; the Emperor Gratian visited Cularo and, touched by the people's welcome, made the village a Roman city. In honour of this, Cularo was renamed Gratianopolis in 381.
Christianity spread to the region during the 4th century, the diocese of Grenoble was founded in 377 AD. From that time on, the bishops exercised significant political power over the city; until the French Revolution, they styled themselves the "bishops and princes of Grenoble". After the collapse of the Roman Empire, the city was part of the first Burgundian kingdom in the 5th century and the second Burgundian Kingdom of Arles until 1032, when it was integrated into the Holy Roman Empire. Arletian rule was interrupted between 970 due to Arab rule based in Fraxinet. Grenoble grew in the 11th century when the Counts of Albon chose the city as the capital of their territories. At the time, their possessions were a patchwork of several territories sprawled across the region; the central position of Grenoble allowed the Counts to strengthen their authority. When they took the title of "Dauphins", Grenoble became the capital of the State of Dauphiné. Despite their status, the Counts had to share authority over the city with the Bishop of Grenoble.
One of the most famous of those was Saint Hugh. Under his rule, the city's bridge was rebuilt, a regular and leper hospital were built; the inhabitants of Grenoble took advantage of the conflicts between the Counts and the bishops and obtained the recognition of a Charter of Customs that guaranteed their rights. That charter was confirmed by Kings Louis XI in 1447 and Francis I in 1541. In 1336 the last Dauphin Humbert II founded a court of justice, the Conseil delphinal, which settled at Grenoble in 1340, he established the University of Grenoble in 1339. Without an heir, Humbert sold his state to France in 1349, on the condition that the heir to the French crown used the title of Dauphin; the first one, the future Charles V, spent nine months in Grenoble. The city remained the capital of the Dauphiné, henceforth a province of France, the Estates of Dauphiné were created; the only Dauphin who governed his province was the future Louis XI, whose "reign" lasted from 1447 to 1456. It was only under his rule.
The Old Conseil Delphinal became a Parlement, strengthening the status of Grenoble as a Provincial capital. He ordered the construction of the Palais du Parlement and ensured that the Bishop pledged allegiance, thus forging the political union of the city. At that time, Grenoble was a crossroads between Vienne, Geneva and Savoy, it was the industrial centre of the Dauphiné and the biggest city of the province, but nonetheless a rather small one. Owing to Grenoble's geographical situation, French troops were garrisoned in the city and its region during the Italian Wars. Charles VIII, Louis XII, Francis I went several times to Grenoble, its people had to suffer from the exactions of the soldiers. The nobility of the region took part in doing so gained significant prestige; the best-known of its members was Bayard, "the knight without fear and beyond reproach". Grenoble suffered as a result of the French Wars of Religion; the Dauphiné was indeed an important settlement for Protestants and therefore experienced several conflicts.
The baron des Adrets, the leader of the Huguenots, pillaged the Cathedral of Grenoble and destroyed the tombs of the former Dauphins. In August 1575, Lesdiguières became the new leader of the Protestants and, thanks to the accession of Henry
Robert Lapointe, better known by his stage name Boby Lapointe was a French actor and singer, noted for his humorous texts and plays on words. Lapointe was born in the Hérault département of southern France. A brilliant pupil, he prepared for the entrance exam to the Centrale and Sup-Aero at Montpellier, but was conscripted into the Youth Building Projects in 1942 and sent to Linz, Austria, in 1943 for compulsory work service, he escaped the same year, found work as a diver in La Ciotat, a suburb of Marseille, in 1944. In 1946, he married Colette Maclaud, they had two children and Jacky. His first published work, Les douze chants d'un imbecile, appeared in 1951, he opened a fashion and baby clothes shop, still writing and producing plays. He switched to being a fitter of TV aerials and began singing, his fame grew when the actor Bourvil sang Lapointe's song Aragon et Castille in the 1954 film Poisson d'avril. In 1960, film director François Truffaut offered him a part in Tirez sur le Pianiste in which he sang Framboise, accompanied by Charles Aznavour on piano.
This marked the start of a career. His joyful character led him to build friendships with the likes of Anne Sylvestre, Raymond Devos, Jacques Brel and Georges Brassens. Lapointe was a mathematician, developed the bibi-binary system in 1971; the town of Pézenas contains a monument to Lapointe and 7 carved stone sculptures relating to the man and his songs. Filmography as actor: 1960: Shoot the Piano Player, as The Singer 1970: L'ardoise, as The Farmer 1970: The Things of Life, as the driver of the animal transporter 1970: Chapaqua's Gold, as Chapagua 1971: Max et les ferrailleurs, as Lui Serafino /'P'tit Lu' 1971: Les assassins de l'ordre, as Louis Casso 1971: Qu'est-ce qui fait courir les crocodiles?, as Honoré 1971: Appointment in Bray, as the inn keeper 1971: The Widow Couderc, as Désiré Boby Lapointe at the Internet Movie Database Vidéo: Boby Lapointe in 1967, singing Saucisson de cheval, an archive of Télévision Suisse Romande Bibibinary system in French Wikipedia
Dive bar is a colloquial American term for a disreputable bar or pub. It may refer to a neighborhood bar where local residents gather to drink and socialize. Individual bars may be considered to be disreputable, sinister, of poor upkeep, or a detriment to the community; this was true in the past: A plot to entrap young women for the dives of Northern Wisconsin has been discovered. The dives themselves are nuisances, per se, and, why they have to pay such high license prices. A 1961 dictionary defined a "dive" as "a disreputable resort for drinking or entertainment". In an article in its August 2010 issue, Playboy magazine described a dive bar as: A church for down-and-outers and those who romanticize them, a rare place where high and low rub elbows—bums and poets and slumming celebrities. It's a place; the Shorter Oxford English Dictionary indicates that in the United States in the 1880s the term referred to an illegal drinking den or other place of ill repute one located in a basement. This usage became obsolete.
One of the most popular shows on the Food Network is called Diners, Drive-Ins and Dives in which host Guy Fieri visits such places. Drinking culture Honky-tonk Roadhouse Speakeasy Types of drinking establishments Dayton, Todd. San Francisco's Best Dive Bars: Drinking and Diving in the City by the Bay. Ig Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703125-8-7. Hamill, Pete. A Drinking Life: A Memoir. Little, Brown. ISBN 978-0-316-05453-9. Moehringer, J. R.. The Tender Bar: A Memoir. Hachette Books. ISBN 978-1-4013-8341-1. Stockton, J.. Chicago's Best Dive Bars: Drinking and Diving in the Windy City. Best Dive Bars Series. Ig Publishing, Incorporated. ISBN 978-0-9752517-0-6. 150 pages. Mitchell, W.. New York City's Best Dive Bars: Drinking and Diving in the Five Boroughs. Best Dive Bars Series. Ig Publishing. ISBN 978-0-9703125-3-2. Retrieved May 3, 2017. 160 pages