Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population in Asia, it is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize. Since sizable portions of sugarcane and maize crops are used for purposes other than human consumption, rice is the most important grain with regard to human nutrition and caloric intake, providing more than one-fifth of the calories consumed worldwide by humans. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial and can produce a ratoon crop for up to 30 years. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low labor costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate and requires ample water. However, rice can be grown anywhere on a steep hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems.
Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade and exportation have made it commonplace in many cultures worldwide. The traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings; this simple method requires sound planning and servicing of the water damming and channeling, but reduces the growth of less robust weed and pest plants that have no submerged growth state, deters vermin. While flooding is not mandatory for the cultivation of rice, all other methods of irrigation require higher effort in weed and pest control during growth periods and a different approach for fertilizing the soil; the name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia, both wild and domesticated, although the term may be used for primitive or uncultivated varieties of Oryza. First used in English in the middle of the 13th century, the word "rice" derives from the Old French ris, which comes from the Italian riso, in turn from the Latin oriza, which derives from the Greek ὄρυζα.
The Greek word is the source of all European words. The origin of the Greek word is unclear, it is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word, or rather Old Tamil arici. However, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead. Mayrhofer suggests that the immediate source of the Greek word is to be sought in Old Iranian words of the types *vrīz- or *vrinj-, but these are traced back to Indo-Aryan. P. T. Srinivasa Iyengar assumed that the Sanskrit vrīhí- is derived from the Tamil arici, while Ferdinand Kittel derived it from the Dravidian root variki; the rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall more depending on the variety and soil fertility. It has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long; the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. The varieties of rice are classified as long-, medium-, short-grained.
The grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking. Medium-grain rice is used for sweet dishes, for risotto in Italy, many rice dishes, such as arròs negre, in Spain; some varieties of long-grain rice that are high in amylopectin, known as Thai Sticky rice, are steamed. A stickier medium-grain rice is used for sushi. Medium-grain rice is used extensively in Japan, including to accompany savoury dishes, where it is served plain in a separate dish. Short-grain rice is used for rice pudding. Instant rice differs from parboiled rice in that it is cooked and dried, though there is a significant degradation in taste and texture. Rice flour and starch are used in batters and breadings to increase crispiness. Rice is rinsed before cooking to remove excess starch. Rice produced in the US is fortified with vitamins and minerals, rinsing will result in a loss of nutrients. Rice may be rinsed until the rinse water is clear to improve the texture and taste. Rice may be soaked to decrease cooking time, conserve fuel, minimize exposure to high temperature, reduce stickiness.
For some varieties, soaking improves the texture of the cooked rice by increasing expansion of the grains. Rice may be soaked for 30 minutes up to several hours. Brown rice may be soaked in warm water for 20 hours to stimulate germination; this process, called germinated brown rice, activates enzymes and enhances amino acids including gamma-aminobutyric acid to improve the nutritional value of brown rice. This method is a result of research carried out for the United Nations International Year of Rice. Rice is cooked by boiling or steaming, absorbs water during cooking. With the absorption method, rice may be cooked in a volume of water equal to the volume of dry rice- plus any evaporation losses. With the rapid-boil method, rice may be cooked in a large quantity of water, drained before serving. Rapid-boil preparation is not desirable with enriched rice, as much of the enrichment additives are l
Powdered sugar called confectioners' sugar, icing sugar, icing cake, is a finely ground sugar produced by milling granulated sugar into a powdered state. It contains a small amount of anti-caking agent to prevent clumping and improve flow. Although most produced in a factory, powdered sugar can be made by processing ordinary granulated sugar in a coffee grinder, or by crushing it by hand in a mortar and pestle. Powdered sugar is utilized in industrial food production. Home cooks use it principally to make other cake decorations, it is dusted onto baked goods to add a subtle sweetness and delicate decoration. Powdered sugar is available in varying degrees of fineness, most XXX, XXXX, 10X: the greater the number of Xs, the finer the particles. Finer particles absorb more moisture. Corn starch or tricalcium phosphate is added at 3 to 5% concentration to absorb moisture and to improve flow by reducing friction between sugar crystals; because of these anticaking agents, it cannot always be used as a substitute for granulated sugar.
Caster sugar has a larger particle size than powdered sugar half that of granulated sugar. It is used in baking and cold mixed drinks because it dissolves faster than granulated white sugar. Caster sugar can be prepared at home by grinding white sugar in a food processor to make it finer; the most common food caster sugar is used in is meringue. Snow powder is a non-melting form of icing sugar consisting of dextrose and anti-binding agents, useful for retaining its structure when dusted onto cakes or pastries that require refrigeration, it is used for decorative purposes. It contains titanium dioxide which gives it a vibrant white colour; this sugar is used for visual appeal without the sugar melting into the pastry from moisture. It is used on baked goods that are wet like fruit bars and tarts, it will not melt if it is sprinkled on whipped cream or ice cream. Snow sugar is less sweet than regular powdered sugar because dextrose is around 20% less sweet than regular sugar, owing to the fact that dextrose, being pure or nearly-pure glucose, is absent the fructose that everyday sucrose "table sugar" / "cane sugar" consists of, which would otherwise impart a stronger taste of sweetness.
Asadi, Mosen. Beet-Sugar Handbook. John Wiley & Sons, 2006. Chen, James C. P. Chung Chi Chou. Cane Sugar Handbook: A Manual for Cane Sugar Manufacturers and Their Chemists. John Wiley & Sons, 1993. Media related to Powdered sugar at Wikimedia Commons
Butter pecan is a flavor, prominent in the United States, in cakes and ice cream. Roasted pecans and vanilla flavor are used in butter pecan baked goods. Butter pecan ice cream is smooth vanilla ice cream with a slight buttery flavor, it is manufactured by many major ice cream brands. A variant of the recipe is butter almond. Butter Pecan is a popular flavor of ice cream produced by many companies and is one of the thirty-one flavors of Baskin Robbins. In the movie Sister Act, Sister Mary Lazarus calls ice cream a "sin" and a "wicked indulgence" and complains that they do not have any butter pecan. In the movie Isn't it Romantic, Liam Hemsworth's character acknowledges proudly that his favourite icecream flavour is, butterpecan; this pop reference caused a surge in sales of butterpecan icecream in the Eastern Suburbs of Sydney, where it became a cult phenomenon. List of cookies List of ice cream flavors
Springerle is a type of German biscuit with an embossed design made by pressing a mold onto rolled dough and allowing the impression to dry before baking. This preserves the detail of the surface pattern. While historical molds show that springerle were baked for religious holidays and secular occasions throughout the year, they are now most associated with the Christmas season; the name springerle translates as "little jumper" or "little knight", but its exact origin is unknown. It may refer the popular motif of a jumping horse in the mold, or just to the rising or "springing up" of the dough as it bakes; the origin of the cookie can be traced back to at least the 14th century in southwestern Germany and surrounding areas in Swabia. The major ingredients of springerle are eggs, white flour, fine or powdered sugar; the biscuits are traditionally anise-flavored, although the anise is not mixed into the dough. Traditional springerle recipes use hartshorn salt as a leavening agent. Since hartshorn salt can be difficult to find, many modern recipes use baking powder as the leavening agent.
Springerle made with hartshorn salt are softer than those made with baking powder. The hartshorn salt imparts a crisper design and longer shelf-life to the springerle; the leavening causes the biscuit to at least double in height during baking. To make springerle cold, stiff dough is rolled thin and pressed into a mold, or impressed by a specialized, carved rolling pin; the dough is unmolded and left to dry for about 24 hours before being baked at a low temperature on greased, anise-dusted baking sheets. The drying period allows time for the pattern in the top of the cookie to set, so that the cookie has a "pop-up" effect from leavening, producing the characteristic "foot" along the edges, below the molded surface; the baked biscuits are hard, are packed away to ripen for two or four weeks. During this time, they become tender. Another method of making springerle is to not chill the dough at all. After mixing all the ingredients together, one would cover a surface with flour, use a regular rolling pin to roll out the dough to about half-an-inch of thickness.
Flour would be spread over the top surface of the rolled-out dough, on the specialized Springerle rolling pin. One would whack the Springerle rolling pin against one's hand a few times, to dislodge any flour caked into the designs on it, proceed to but roll out the molds. One uses a knife to cut out the small, rectangular cookies, place them on a wooden board to dry overnight; as this process is repeated, the dough gets more brittle due to the added flour and doesn't hold the molds as well. Therefore, it is important to roll the dough out in small batches, to keep the moisture in so the cookies hold together. Anise seed is sprinkled on the baking sheets just before putting them in the oven. 1-2 teaspoons of anise extract can be added to the dough to increase the taste, the amount of cookies varies on the thickness. The usual recipe with 4 eggs and 3-4 cups of flour can yield anywhere from 60-144 cookies, depending on thickness and the experience of the maker. Molds are traditionally carved from wood, although plastic and pottery molds are available.
Pear wood is prized for its durability. Older handmade molds are folk art, are unsigned, undated; the stamping technique may be derived from the molds used in some Christian traditions to mark sacramental bread, the earliest molds featured religious motifs, including scenes from Bible stories and Christian symbols. In the 17th and 18th century, heraldic themes of knights and fashionably dressed ladies became popular. Themes of happiness, love and fertility remained popular through the 19th century. List of German desserts Speculaas
Shetland called the Shetland Islands and Zetland, is a subarctic archipelago of Scotland that lies northeast of the mainland of Scotland. The islands lie some 80 km to the northeast of Orkney, 168 km from the Scottish mainland and 280 km southeast of the Faroe Islands, they form part of the division between the Atlantic Ocean to the North Sea to the east. The total area is 1,466 km2, the population totalled 23,210 in 2011. Comprising the Shetland constituency of the Scottish Parliament, Shetland Islands Council is one of the 32 council areas of Scotland; the largest island, known as the "Mainland", has an area of 967 km2, making it the third-largest Scottish island and the fifth-largest of the British Isles. There are an additional 15 inhabited islands; the archipelago has an oceanic climate, a complex geology, a rugged coastline and many low, rolling hills. Humans have lived in Shetland since the Mesolithic period; the earliest written references to the islands date to Roman times. The early historic period was dominated by Scandinavian influences from Norway, the islands did not become part of Scotland until the 15th century.
When Scotland became part of the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707, trade with northern Europe decreased. Fishing has continued to be an important aspect of the economy up to the present day; the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s boosted Shetland's economy and public sector revenues. The local way of life reflects the Scottish and Norse heritage of the isles, including the Up Helly Aa fire festival, a strong musical tradition the traditional fiddle style; the islands have produced a variety of writers of prose and poetry in the distinct Shetland dialect of Scots. There are numerous areas set aside to protect the local fauna and flora, including a number of important sea bird nesting sites; the Shetland pony and Shetland Sheepdog are two well-known Shetland animal breeds. Other local breeds include the Shetland sheep, cow and duck; the Shetland pig, or grice, has been extinct since about 1930. The islands' motto, which appears on the Council's coat of arms, is "Með lögum skal land byggja"; the Old Norse original of this Icelandic phrase is taken from the Danish 1241 Basic Law, Code of Jutland, is mentioned in Njáls saga, means "By law shall land be built".
The name of Shetland is derived from the Old Norse words and land. In AD 43 and 77 the Roman authors Pomponius Mela and Pliny the Elder referred to the seven islands they called Haemodae and Acmodae, both of which are assumed to be Shetland. Another possible early written reference to the islands is Tacitus' report in Agricola in AD 98, after describing the discovery and conquest of Orkney, that the Roman fleet had seen "Thule, too". In early Irish literature, Shetland is referred to as Insi Catt—"the Isles of Cats", which may have been the pre-Norse inhabitants' name for the islands; the Cat tribe occupied parts of the northern Scottish mainland and their name can be found in Caithness, in the Gaelic name for Sutherland. The oldest version of the modern name Shetland is Hetlandensis, the Latinised adjectival form of the Old Norse name recorded in a letter from Harald, Count of Shetland in 1190, becoming Hetland in 1431 after various intermediate transformations, it is possible. It became Hjaltland in the 16th century.
As Norn was replaced by Scots in the form of the Shetland dialect, Hjaltland became Ȝetland. The initial letter is the Middle Scots letter, the pronunciation of, identical to the original Norn sound, /hj/; when the use of the letter yogh was discontinued, it was replaced by the similar-looking letter z, hence Zetland, the form used in the name of the pre-1975 county council. This is the source of the ZE postcode used for Shetland. Most of the individual islands have Norse names, although the derivations of some are obscure and may represent pre-Norse Pictish or pre-Celtic names or elements. Shetland is around 170 kilometres north of mainland Scotland, covers an area of 1,468 square kilometres and has a coastline 2,702 kilometres long. Lerwick, the capital and largest settlement, has a population of 6,958 and about half of the archipelago's total population of 23,167 people live within 16 kilometres of the town. Scalloway on the west coast, the capital until 1708, has a population of less than 1,000.
Only 16 of about 100 islands are inhabited. The main island of the group is known as Mainland; the next largest are Yell and Fetlar, which lie to the north, Bressay and Whalsay, which lie to the east. East and West Burra, Muckle Roe, Papa Stour and Vaila are smaller islands to the west of Mainland; the other inhabited islands are Foula 28 kilometres west of Walls, Fair Isle 38 kilometres south-west of Sumburgh Head, the Out Skerries to the east. The uninhabited islands include Mousa, known for the Broch of Mousa, the finest preserved example in Scotland of an Iron Age broch. Shetland's location means that it provides a number of such records: Muness is the most northerly castle in the United Kingdom and Skaw the most northerly settlement. The
Corn starch or maize starch is the starch derived from the corn grain. The starch is obtained from the endosperm of the kernel. Corn starch is a common food ingredient, used in thickening sauces or soups, in making corn syrup and other sugars, it is versatile modified, finds many uses in industry as adhesives, in paper products, as an anti-sticking agent, textile manufacturing. It has medical uses, such as to supply glucose for people with glycogen storage disease. Like many products in dust form, it can be hazardous in large quantities due to its flammability; when mixed with a fluid, cornstarch can rearrange itself into a non-Newtonian fluid. For example, adding water transforms cornstarch into a material known as Oobleck while adding oil transforms cornstarch into an electrorheological fluid; the concept can be explained through the mixture termed "cornflour slime". Cornstarch was discovered in 1840 by Thomas Kingsford, superintendent of a wheat starch factory in Jersey City, New Jersey; until 1851, corn starch was used for starching laundry and other industrial uses.
Although used for cooking and as a household item, cornstarch is used for many purposes in several industries, ranging from its use as a chemical additive for certain products, to medical therapy for certain illnesses. Cornstarch is used as a thickening agent in liquid-based foods by mixing it with a lower-temperature liquid to form a paste or slurry, it is sometimes preferred over flour alone because it forms a translucent, rather than opaque mixture. As the starch is heated, the molecular chains unravel, allowing them to collide with other starch chains to form a mesh, thickening the liquid, it is included as an anticaking agent in powdered sugar. A common substitute is arrowroot. Food producers reduce production costs by adding varying amounts of cornstarch to foods, for example to cheese and yogurt. Chicken nuggets with a thin outer layer of cornstarch allows increased oil absorption and crispness after the latter stages of frying. Baby powder may include cornstarch among its ingredients. Cornstarch may be used in the manufacture of airbags.
Cornstarch is the preferred anti-stick agent on medical products made from natural latex, including condoms and medical gloves. Cornstarch has properties enabling supply of glucose to maintain blood sugar levels for people with glycogen storage disease. Cornstarch can be used starting at age 6–12 months allowing glucose fluctuations to be deterred; the corn is steeped for 30 to 48 hours. The germ is separated from the endosperm and those two components are ground separately. Next the starch is removed from each by washing; the starch is separated from the corn steep liquor, the cereal germ, the fibers and the corn gluten in hydrocyclones and centrifuges, dried. This process is called wet milling; the starch may be modified for specific purposes. Like many other powders, cornstarch is susceptible to dust explosions, it is believed that overheating of a cornstarch-based powder on June 27, 2015, initiated the Formosa Fun Coast explosion in Taiwan, despite warnings on the packaging indicating that the material is flammable.
Called cornstarch in the United States and Canada. The term corn flour refers to cornmeal, finely milled. Although not a flour as such, called cornflour in the United Kingdom, Ireland and some Commonwealth countries. Distinct in these countries from cornmeal. Amylomaize, high amylose starch Bird's Custard, the English custard based on cornflour, invented in 1837 Waxy corn, waxy maize starch Corn sauce Corn syrup Corn ethanol Modified starch Potato starch Tapioca starch American Corn Refiners Association
Hogmanay is the Scots word for the last day of the year and is synonymous with the celebration of the New Year in the Scottish manner. It is followed by further celebration on the morning of New Year's Day or, in some cases, 2 January—a Scottish bank holiday; the origins of Hogmanay are unclear. Customs vary throughout Scotland, include gift-giving and visiting the homes of friends and neighbours, with special attention given to the first-foot, the first guest of the new year; the etymology of the word is obscure. The earliest proposed etymology comes from the 1693 Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence, which held that the term was a corruption of the Greek agía míne, or "holy month"; the three main modern theories derive it from a Norse or Gaelic root. The word is first recorded in a Latin entry in 1443 in the West Riding of Yorkshire as hagnonayse; the first appearance in English came in 1604 as hagmonay. Subsequent 17th-century spellings include Hagmena, Hogmynae night, Hagmane in an entry of the Scotch Presbyterian Eloquence.
Although "Hogmanay" is the predominant spelling and pronunciation, a number of variant spellings and pronunciations have been recorded, including: with the first syllable variously being /hɔg/, /hog/, /hʌg/, /hʌug/ or /haŋ/. It may have been introduced to Middle Scots via French; the most cited explanation is a derivation from the northern French dialectal word hoguinané, or variants such as hoginane and hoguinettes, those being derived from 16th century Middle French aguillanneuf meaning either a gift given at New Year, a children's cry for such a gift, or New Year's Eve itself. Compare the apparent Spanish cognate aguinaldo/aguilando, with a suggested Latin derivation of hoc in anno "in this year."This explanation is supported by a children's tradition, observed up to the 1960s in some parts of Scotland at least, of visiting houses in their locality on New Year's Eve and requesting and receiving small treats such as sweets or fruit. The second element would appear to be l'an neuf, with some sources suggesting a druidical origin of the practice overall.
Compare those to Norman hoguinané and the obsolete customs in Jersey of crying ma hodgîngnole, in Guernsey of asking for an oguinane, for a New Year gift. In Québec, "la guignolée" was a door-to-door collection for the poor. Other suggestions include au gui mener, à gueux mener, au gui l'an neuf ('at the mistletoe the new year', or homme est né; the word may have come from the Goidelic languages. Frazer and Kelley report a Manx new-year song that begins with the line To-night is New Year's Night, Hogunnaa but did not record the full text in Manx. Kelley himself uses the spelling Og-u-naa... Tro-la-la whereas other sources parse this as hog-un-naa and give the modern Manx form as Hob dy naa. Manx dictionaries though give Hop-tu-Naa glossing it as "Hallowe'en", same as many of the more Manx-specific folklore collections. In this context it is recorded that in the south of Scotland, there is no ⟨m⟩, the word thus being Hunganay, which could suggest the ⟨m⟩ is intrusive. Another theory encountered is a derivation from the phrase thog mi an èigh/eugh, which resembles Hogmanay in pronunciation and was part of the rhymes traditionally recited at New Year but it is unclear if this is a case of folk etymology.
Overall, Gaelic refers to the New Year's Eve as Oidhche na Bliadhn Ùir and Oidhche Challainn. Some authors reject both the French and Goidelic theories, instead suggest that the ultimate source both for the Norman French and Goidelic variants of this word have a common Norse root, it is suggested that the full forms "Hoginanaye-Trollalay/Hogman aye, Troll a lay" "Hogmanay, give us of your white bread and none of your gray"invoke the hill-men or "elves" and banishes the trolls into the sea. Repp furthermore makes a link between "Trollalay/Trolla-laa" and the rhyme recorded in Percy's Relics: "Trolle on away, trolle on awaye. Synge heave and howe rombelowe trolle on away", which he reads as a straightforward invocation of troll-banning; the roots of Hogmanay reach back to the celebration of the winter solstice among the Norse, as well as incorporating customs from the Gaelic celebration of Samhain. The Vikings celebrated Yule, which contributed to the Twelve Days of Christmas, or the "Daft Days" as they were sometimes called in Scotland.
Christmas was not celebrated as a festival and Hogmanay was the more traditional celebration in Scotland. This may have been a result of the Protestant Reformation after which Christmas was seen as "too Papist". There are many customs, both local, associated with Hogmanay; the most widespread national custom is the practice of first-footing, which starts after midnight. This involves being the first person to cross the threshold of a friend or neighbour and involves the giving of symbolic gifts such as salt, shortbread and black bun, intended to bring different kinds of luck to the householder. Food and drink are given to the guests; this may go on throughout the early hours of the morning and well into the next day (although modern days see people visitin