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Shot put

The shot put is a track and field event involving "putting" a heavy spherical ball—the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, women's competition began in 1948. Homer mentions competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the Siege of Troy but there is no record of any dead weights being thrown in Greek competitions; the first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlands, date back to the first century. In the 16th century King Henry VIII was noted for his prowess in court competitions of weight and hammer throwing; the first events resembling the modern shot put occurred in the Middle Ages when soldiers held competitions in which they hurled cannonballs. Shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotland, were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in 1866. Competitors take their throw from inside a marked circle 2.135m in diameter, with a stopboard about 10 centimetres high at the front of the circle.

The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to the nearest mark made on the ground by the falling shot, with distances rounded down to the nearest centimetre under IAAF and WMA rules. The following rules must be adhered to for a legal throw: Upon calling the athlete's name, the athlete may choose any part of the throwing circle to enter inside, they have thirty seconds. The athlete may not wear gloves; the athlete must rest the shot close to the neck, keep it tight to the neck throughout the motion. The shot must be released above the height of the shoulder; the athlete may touch the inside surface of the circle or toe board, but must not touch the top or outside of the circle or toe board, or the ground beyond the circle. Limbs may, extend over the lines of the circle in the air; the shot must land in the legal sector of the throwing area. The athlete must leave the throwing circle from the back. Foul throws occur when an athlete: Does not pause within the circle before beginning the putting motion.

Does not complete the putting movement initiated within thirty seconds of having their name called. Allows the shot to drop below his shoulder or outside the vertical plane of his shoulder during the put. At any time if the shot loses contact with the neck it is technically an illegal put. During the putting motion, touches with any part of the body: the top or ends of the toe board the top of the iron ring anywhere outside the circle. Puts a shot which either falls outside the throwing sector or touches a sector line on the initial impact. Leaves the circle before the shot has landed. Does not leave from the rear half of the circle; the following are either obsolete or non-existent, but believed rules within professional competition: The athlete must enter the circle from the back. The athlete entering the circle exiting and re-entering it prior to starting the throw results in a foul. Loose clothing, shoelaces, or long hair touching outside the circle during a throw, or an athlete bringing a towel into the circle and throwing it out prior to the put, results in a foul.

Shot put competitions have been held at the modern Summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896, it is included as an event in the World Athletics Championships. Each of these competitions in the modern era have a set number of rounds of throws. There are three qualification rounds to determine qualification for the final. There are three preliminary rounds in the final with the top eight competitors receiving a further three throws; each competitor in the final is credited with their longest throw, regardless of whether it was achieved in the preliminary or final three rounds. The competitor with the longest legal put is declared the winner. In open competitions the men's shot weighs 7.260 kilograms, the women's shot weighs 4 kilograms. Junior and masters competitions use different weights of shots below the weights of those used in open competitions. Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the spin. With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of forty-five degrees.

The origin of this technique glide dates to 1951, when Parry O'Brien from the United States invented a technique that involved the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, tossing the shot. Unlike spin this technique is a linear movement. With this technique, a right-hand thrower would begin facing the rear of the circle, they would adopt a specific type of crouch, involving their bent right leg, in order to begin the throw from a more beneficial posture whilst isometrically preloading their muscles. The positioning of their bodyweight over their bent leg, which pushes upwards with equal force, generates a preparatory isometric press; the force generated by this press will be channelled into the subsequent throw making it more powerful. To initiate the throw they kick to the front with the left leg, while pushing off forcefully with the right; as the throwe

Roundabout of Solidarity in Łódź

The Roundabout of Solidarity is a major road interchange in the Polish city of Łódź, combining five streets and serving a transit traffic running through the city as part of Polish national road no. 14. The interchange was built in the late 1970s, being opened in 1977 as an actual roundabout converging three streets: Pomorska and Kopcińskiego, it was named after Ludwik Waryński - a theoretician of socialist movement in Poland. In 2000 the interchange went under major reconstruction, which has led to the integration of roundabout with two nearest crossroads; the traffic was meant to be controlled by an intelligent traffic light control system, reacting to the intensity of incoming and outcoming traffic. Due to surface problems and traffic jams the interchange was modified in 2003. In 2005, to commemorate the 25. Anniversary of the August 1980 strikes and signing the Gdańsk Agreement, Łódź City Council renamed the interchange to Roundabout of Solidarity. Along with the change of name a sculpture - The Tree of Solidarity by Jacek Ojrzanowski - was put in the middle of an interchange.

The interchange consists of 3 crossroads: Palki Avenue - Źródłowa St, Palki Avenue / Kopcińskiego St - Pomorska St, Kopcińskiego St - Pomorska St - Uniwersytecka St. The crossroads are connected together with two short road sections allowing turning left and turning around on the interchange; each of the crossroads has its own traffic light. Central part of the interchange has a form of a lawn island, crossed by tram tracks running along Pomorska street; the layout of the interchange, combined with confusing road surface marking and massive traffic running between Palki Avenue and Kopcińskiego St, is criticized as "confusing" and "dangerous". The site is used for driving exams due to the close location of the institution responsible for those. A concept for reconstruction of the interchange was brought up in 30 December 2008, by Autorska Pracownia Architektury "Projekt"; this concept proposed a return to the original layout of the interchange before 2000, but with creating a tunnel underneath, in order to move a transit traffic from Palki Avenue to Kopcińskiego St away from the roundabout.

However, as of 2019, no plans for the reconstruction of the interchange were marked as scheduled for execution. Aviation photographs of the interchange: From 1994. From 2007

Zinho Vanheusden

Zinho Vanheusden is a Belgian professional footballer who plays as a centre-back for Standard Liège in the Belgian First Division A. In mid-2015, Vanheusden joined Inter Milan's youth academy after 7 seasons with Standard Liège, he was promoted to the first team in the last few matches of 2016–17 Serie A. He played for the under-19 team as the starting defender, winning 2016–17 Campionato Nazionale Primavera. On 27 September 2017, Vanheusden injured his cruciate ligament in a UEFA Youth League match against FC Dynamo Kyiv, which kept him out of action for 4 months. On 26 January 2018, Vanheusden extended his contract with Inter until June 2022. On 30 January 2018, Vanheusden joined Standard Liège until 30 June 2018, with an option to extend for one more year. Vanheusden made his professional debut with Standard Liège in a 1-0 Belgian First Division A playoff win over K. A. A. Gent on 14 April 2018. On 28 June 2019, Standard Liege signed Vanheusden in a permanent deal for a reported €12.5 million fee, which surpassed Nicolae Stanciu's record as the most expensive purchase of Belgium.

Vanheusden is named after the Brazilian footballer, Zinho after his performance at the 1994 FIFA World Cup. Zinho Vanheusden at Soccerway Belgian Football Profile Standard Profile

Lawton Nuss

Lawton R. Nuss is a former Kansas Supreme Court Justice appointed by Governor Bill Graves in August 2002. By virtue of tenure, he became Chief Justice upon Robert E. Davis's resignation. Nuss announced his decision to retire, effective December 17, 2019. Lawton R. Nuss was born in Salina, Kansas in 1952. After graduating from Salina High School in 1970, he attended the University of Kansas on a Naval Reserve Officers' Training Corps scholarship, he graduated in January 1975 with Bachelor of Arts in English and History and was commissioned a second lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps. He served as a combat engineering officer with the Fleet Marine Force Pacific. After his discharge in 1979, he entered law school at the University of Kansas earning a Juris Doctor in May 1982. Nuss began his law practice with the Salina law firm of Clark and Linville, Chartered in August 1982. For the next 20 years, he was involved in a wide range of legal proceedings, he represented individuals as plaintiffs as well as defendants in civil cases.

He represented the government as well as defendants in criminal cases. Based upon surveys of judges and fellow lawyers, during this time he was awarded an AV" rating from Martindale-Hubbell, that organization's highest rating for legal ability and professional ethics. Nuss' professional activities while a lawyer included serving as Chairman of the Board of Editors for the Journal of the Kansas Bar Association. Nuss served as Chairman of the Salvation Army Advisory Board, as a member of the Board of Trustees of St. John's Military School, the Board of Directors of the Salina Child Care Association, the Board of Directors of the Friends of the Salina Public Library, the Board of Advisors of the Coronado Area Council of Boy Scouts. and the Site Council for Roosevelt-Lincoln Middle School. He was appointed to the Supreme Court by Governor Bill Graves in August 2002, becoming the first Court member in more than 20 years to move directly from the practice of law to the bench. Nuss served as Chairman of the Kansas Judicial Council, an organization created in 1927 by the Kansas Legislature.

The Judicial Council, whose members include the chairpersons of the judiciary committees of the Kansas Senate and Kansas House of Representatives, is authorized by the legislature to study any area of law and to recommend improvements in the administration of justice. It may accept assignments from the legislature or the Supreme Court in fulfilling those responsibilities. Nuss further served as the Departmental Justice for Kansas' First Judicial Department, an area stretching from Salina north to the Nebraska border and west to the Colorado border. Additionally, he is the Supreme Court liaison to the Kansas Client Protection Fund Commission; the Commission's goal is to promote public confidence in the administration of justice and the integrity of the legal profession by reimbursing losses to clients caused by the dishonest conduct of lawyers. Justice Nuss is the Court liaison to the Kansas Board of Law Examiners, which tests lawyers for their abilities to practice law in the state, to the Kansas Board of Court Reporters which licenses court reporters.

Nuss served as co-Chair of the State and Federal Courts Committee of the Kansas Bar Association. He is a member of the Board of Editors for the Journal of the Kansas Bar Association, the Advisory Board for the Topeka-Shawnee County Youth Court, the United States Supreme Court Historical Society, the Dwight D. Opperman Institute of Judicial Administration at New York University School of Law, the American Judges Association, the Kansas Bar Association. Nuss is a graduate of the Appellate Judges School at New York University School of law and the United States Naval Justice School of Newport, Rhode Island, he is the author of several published legal and historical articles and is a frequent presenter for legal and lay audiences. Nuss has five grown children, he and his wife, Barbara reside in Topeka. Distinguished Service Award from the Kansas Association of Defense Counsel Defense Research Institute Exceptional Performance Citation "AV" rating from Martindale-Hubbell, that organization's highest rating for legal ability and professional ethics.

Official Biography

HG 85

The HG 85 is a round fragmentation hand grenade designed for the Swiss Armed Forces and still produced by RUAG Ammotec in Switzerland. HG 85 is the internal designation of the Swiss Army and replaces the HG 43 from WWII. On detonation the steel body, containing 155g TNT, releases around 1800 fragments weighing on average 0.1 grams. UK grenade range safety data suggests the L109 - and by extension all live versions - may represent a danger at ranges up to 200 m. Intended for use when fighting in built-up areas, trench clearing, wood clearing, it is effective against unprotected personnel up to 10 m away, protected personnel up to 5 m; the grenade is spherical with a bushing on the top threaded internally to accept the DM 82 CH fuze mechanism. Due to its specially constructed fuze and packaging, the grenade is considered secure, it is designed to be effective against opponents wearing body armour, up to 20 layers of Kevlar and 1.6mm of titanium. A supplementary spring steel safety clip is clipped over the safety lever and bushing on top of the grenade preventing the safety lever from moving.

In September 2000 a six-year contract with Swiss Ammunition Enterprise Corporation was announced, committing the UK to purchased circa 363,000 grenades for combat and live training, first deliveries scheduled for March 2001. The L109 is the British designation for the HG 85, it differs from the HG 85 in that it has a special safety clip (matte black in colour, similar to the safety clip on the American M67 grenade. The L109 is deep bronze green in colour with golden yellow stencilling, a rough exterior comparable to light sandpaper, a yellow band around the top bushing, weighs 465gm. Markings give the designation "GREN HAND HE L109A1", a manufacturer marking "SM" meaning "Swiss Munitions", a lot number. Once the safety pin is pulled, the grenade is live but so long as the fly-off lever is kept depressed while the grenade is held it can be safely returned to storage so long as the fly-off safety lever is still in the closed position and the safety pin reinserted. However, if thrown - or the lever allowed to rise - the protective plastic cover falls away and the striker, under pressure of the striker spring, begins to rotate on its axis.

This causes the safety lever to be thrown clear, the striker continues to rotate until it hits the percussion cap, which fires and ignites the delay pellet. The heat of the burning delay pellet melts solder holding a retaining ring, allowing the detonator to move under the influence of a spring from the safe to armed position; the delay pellet continues to burn and after between 3 and 4 seconds burns out and produces a flash that forces aside a flap valve allowing ignition. When the flash reaches the detonator this initiates a booster charge which in turn initiates the main explosive filling; the L110 is an inert version of the L109. Identical in size and shape, as the live grenade and is used for training purposes correct handling and throwing, it can be distinguished from the live grenade as it is dark blue with white markings. The body is solid aluminium with a textured plastic coating made in the same form as the live grenade, the textured coating ensuring a good gripping surface. A hole drilled up from the bottom indicates an empty store as well as ensuring the drill grenade is of the same weight as a live grenade.

A bushing on top of the grenade has a dummy fuze mechanism permanently attached with a slot for the pull ring to clip into to prevent it being accidentally pulled. The fuze mechanism, under the plastic cover is similar in appearance to the American fuze mechanisms. Internally there is an extension on the striker to allow it to be re-cocked during training and there is a leaf spring safety that clips around the safety lever and neck of the grenade preventing the lever from rotating if the safety pin is pulled; the markings are'GREN HAND INERT DRILL L110A1' and a manufacturers marking "SM" meaning Swiss Munitions. The fuze mechanism is marked on the wide bottom portion of the lever "HG2 DM 82 CH"; this practice grenade has a small simulation charge that imitates a live grenade for training purposes. It is distinguishable from the wholly inert L110 by being a much lighter blue and is fitted with a distinctive gold/orange plastic cap and safety lever; the body of the L111A1 is made of steel and is covered in a textured plastic material with and has the word'PRACTICE' embossed near the top of the body, near a top portion is larger than the bushing on the live grenade.

Like the L110 there is a large aperture in the bottom of the grenade which demonstrates it is not a live grenade but in the L111A this aperture allow gas from the practice fuze to escape. Consisting of two parts, a grey reusable striker mechanism and an L162 practice fuze the practice fuze is fitted into the bottom of the reusable striker mechanism the entire assembly is screwed into the top of the grenade. In this version the safety lever is attached by a plastic strap to prevent loss, the entire unit, apart from the expended L162 practice fuze, being reused. Markings, again in white, include'GREN HAND PRAC L111A1', a manufacturers mark'SM' meaning Swiss Munitions, a lot number; the Nr300 is the Dutch designation for the HG 85. It is like the L109. There is the Nr330. HG 85 entered service in the Swiss Army in 1985, it is used in a number of other European armies and armies in the Middle and Far East. Switzerland United Kingdom T


The tribe Amorpheae is an early-branching clade within the flowering plant subfamily Faboideae or Papilionaceae. It is found from Mexico to Argentina, it was found to belong in a larger clade known informally as the dalbergioids sensu lato. This tribe is resolved as monophyletic in molecular phylogenetic analyses, it is estimated to have arisen 36.9 ± 3.0 million years ago. A node-based definition for Amorpheae is: "the MRCA of Psorothamnus arborescens and Eysenhardtia orthocarpa." The tribe exhibits the following morphological synapomorphies: "epidermal glands throughout the plant body. The amorphoids can be distinguished from the daleoids on the basis of their non-papilionaceous flowers. Amorpha L. Apoplanesia C. Presl Errazurizia Phil. Eysenhardtia Kunth Parryella Torr. & A. Gray The daleoids can be distinguished from the amorphoids on the basis of their papilionaceous corollas. Dalea L. Marina Liebm. Psorothamnus Rydb