Shot put

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Athletics
Shot put
Tomasz Majewski - 2. Memoriał Kamili Skolimowskiej - Warszawa, 2011-09-20.jpg
Polish double Olympic champion Tomasz Majewski
Men's records
World United States Randy Barnes 23.12 m (1990)
Olympic United States Ryan Crouser 22.52 m (2016)
Women's records
World Soviet Union Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (1987)
Olympic East Germany Ilona Slupianek 22.41 m (1980)

The shot put (pronounced /ˈʃɒt pʊt/) is a track and field event involving "throwing"/"putting" (throwing in a pushing motion) a heavy spherical object—the shot—as far as possible. The shot put competition for men has been a part of the modern Olympics since their revival in 1896, and women's competition began in 1948.

History[edit]

Czechoslovak shot putter Plihan at the 1957 East German Indoor Athletics Championships
Shot putter at the University of Nebraska, 1942, showing the circle and stopboard

Homer mentions competitions of rock throwing by soldiers during the Siege of Troy but there is no record of any dead weights being thrown in Greek competitions. The first evidence for stone- or weight-throwing events were in the Scottish Highlands, and date back to approximately the first century.[1] In the 16th century King Henry VIII was noted for his prowess in court competitions of weight and hammer throwing.[2]

The first events resembling the modern shot put likely occurred in the Middle Ages when soldiers held competitions in which they hurled cannonballs. Shot put competitions were first recorded in early 19th century Scotland, and were a part of the British Amateur Championships beginning in 1866.[3]

Competitors take their throw from inside a marked circle 2.135 metres (7.00 ft) in diameter, with a stopboard about 10 centimetres (3.9 in) high at the front of the circle. The distance thrown is measured from the inside of the circumference of the circle to the nearest mark made in the ground by the falling shot, with distances rounded down to the nearest centimetre under IAAF and WMA rules.

Legal throws[edit]

Czechoslovak shot putter Jiří Skobla showing the correct technique for keeping the shot near the neck

The following rules (indoor and outdoor) are adhered to for a legal throw:

  • Upon calling the athlete's name, the athlete may choose from any part of the throwing circle to enter inside. They have thirty seconds to commence the throwing motion otherwise they are banned from the game.[clarification needed]
  • The athlete may not wear gloves; IAAF rules permit the taping of individual fingers.
  • The athlete must rest the shot close to the neck, and keep it tight to the neck throughout the motion.
  • The shot must be released above the height of the shoulder, using only one hand.
  • The athlete may touch the inside surface of the circle or toe board, but must not touch the top or outside of the circle or toe board, or the ground beyond the circle. Limbs may however extend over the lines of the circle in the air.
  • The shot must land in the legal sector (34.92°) of the throwing area.
  • The athlete must leave the throwing circle from the back.

Foul throws[edit]

Foul throws occur when an athlete:

  • Does not pause within the circle before beginning the putting motion.
  • Does not complete the putting movement within thirty seconds of having their name called.
  • Allows the shot to drop below his shoulder or outside the vertical plane of his shoulder during the put.

At any time if the shot loses contact with the neck then it is technically an illegal put.

  • During the putting motion, touches with any part of the body (including shoes):
    • the top or ends of the toe board
    • the top of the iron ring
    • anywhere outside the circle.
  • Puts a shot which either falls outside the throwing sector or touches a sector line on the initial impact.
  • Leaves the circle before the shot has landed.
  • Does not leave from the rear half of the circle.

Regulation misconceptions[edit]

The following are either obsolete or non-existent, but commonly believed rules within professional competition:

  • The athlete must enter the circle from the back (none of the rule books contain such a clause).
  • The athlete entering the circle, then exiting and re-entering it prior to starting the throw results in a foul (all the rule books allow an athlete to leave a circle prior to starting a throw, but this still counts within the one-minute time limit; the allowable method of exiting the circle varies by rule book).
  • Loose clothing, shoelaces, or long hair touching outside the circle during a throw, or an athlete bringing a towel into the circle and then throwing it out prior to the put results in a foul

Competition[edit]

A shot putter with a representation of the circle and legal sector
Shot put area

Shot put competitions have been held at the modern Summer Olympic Games since their inception in 1896, and it is also included as an event in the World Athletics Championships.

Each competition has a set number of rounds of throws. Typically there are three preliminary rounds to determine qualification for the final, and then three more rounds in the final. Each competitor is credited with their longest throw, regardless of whether it was achieved in the preliminary or final rounds. The competitor with the longest legal put is declared the winner.

Weight[edit]

In open competitions the men's shot weighs 7.260 kilograms (16.01 lb), and the women's shot weighs 4 kilograms (8.8 lb). Junior, school, and masters competitions often use different weights of shots, typically below the weights of those used in open competitions; the individual rules for each competition should be consulted in order to determine the correct weights to be used.

Putting styles[edit]

Two putting styles are in current general use by shot put competitors: the glide and the spin. With all putting styles, the goal is to release the shot with maximum forward velocity at an angle of approximately forty degrees.

Glide[edit]

The origin of this technique glide dates to 1951, when Parry O'Brien from the United States invented a technique that involved the putter facing backwards, rotating 180 degrees across the circle, and then tossing the shot. Unlike spin this technique it is a linear movement.[4]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower would begin facing the rear of the circle, and then kick to the front with the left leg, while pushing off forcefully with the right. As the thrower crosses the circle, the hips twist toward the front, the left arm is swung out then pulled back tight, followed by the shoulders, and they then strike in a putting motion with their right arm. The key is to move quickly across the circle with as little air under the feet as possible, hence the name 'glide'.

Spin[edit]

Also known as rotational technique.[5] It was first practiced in Europe in the 1950’s but did not receive much attention until the 1970’s.[6] In 1972 Aleksandr Baryshnikov set his first USSR record using a new putting style, the spin ("круговой мах" in Russian), invented by his coach Viktor Alexeyev.[7][8] The spin involves rotating like a discus thrower and using rotational momentum for power. In 1976 Baryshnikov went on to set a world record of 22.00 m (72.18 ft) with his spin style, and was the first shot putter to cross the 22-meter mark.[9]

With this technique, a right-hand thrower faces the rear, and begins to spin on the ball of the left foot. The thrower comes around and faces the front of the circle and drives the right foot into the center of the circle. Finally, the thrower reaches for the front of the circle with the left foot, twisting the hips and shoulders like in the glide, and puts the shot.

When the athlete executes the spin, the upper body is twisted hard to the right, so the imaginary lines created by the shoulders and hips are no longer parallel. This action builds up torque, and stretches the muscles, creating an involuntary elasticity in the muscles, providing extra power and momentum. When the athlete prepares to release, the left foot is firmly planted, causing the momentum and energy generated to be conserved, pushing the shot in an upward and outward direction.

Another purpose of the spin is to build up a high rotational speed, by swinging the right leg initially, then to bring all the limbs in tightly, similar to a figure skater bringing in their arms while spinning to increase their speed. Once this fast speed is achieved the shot is released, transferring the energy into the shot put.

Usage[edit]

Currently, most top male shot putters use the spin. However the glide remains popular since the technique leads to greater consistency compared to the rotational technique. Almost all throwers start by using the glide. Tomasz Majewski notes that although most athletes use the spin,[10] he and some other top shot putters achieved success using this classic method (for example he became first to defend the Olympic title in 56 years).

The world record by a male putter of 23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) by Randy Barnes was completed with the spin technique, while the second-best all-time put of 23.06 m (75 ft 7​34 in) by Ulf Timmermann was completed with the glide technique.

The decision to glide or spin may need to be decided on an individual basis, determined by the thrower's size and power. Short throwers may benefit from the spin and taller throwers may benefit from the glide, but many throwers do not follow this guideline.

Types of shots[edit]

The shot is made of different kinds of materials depending on its intended use. Materials used include sand, iron, cast iron, solid steel, stainless steel, brass, and synthetic materials like polyvinyl. Some metals are more dense than others making the size of the shot vary. For example, different materials are used to make indoor and outdoor shot - because damage to surroundings must be taken into account - so the latter are smaller. There are various size and weight standards for the implement that depend on the age and gender of the competitors as well as the national customs of the governing body.

World records[edit]

The current world record holders are:

Type Athlete Distance Venue Date
Men
Outdoor Randy Barnes 23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) Los Angeles, California, USA May 20, 1990
Indoor Randy Barnes 22.66 m (74 ft 4 in) Los Angeles, California, USA January 20, 1989
Women
Outdoor Natalya Lisovskaya 22.63 m (74 ft 2​34 in) Moscow, USSR June 7, 1987
Indoor Helena Fibingerová 22.50 m (73 ft 9​34 in) Jablonec, CZE February 19, 1977

Continental records[edit]

The current records held on each continent are:[11]

Area Men's Women's
Distance Athlete Nation Distance Athlete Nation
Africa 21.97 m (72 ft 0​34 in) Janus Robberts  South Africa 18.43 m (60 ft 5​12 in) Vivian Chukwuemeka  Nigeria
Asia 21.13 m (69 ft 3​34 in) Sultan Abdulmajeed Al-Hebshi  Saudi Arabia 21.76 m (71 ft 4​12 in) Meisu Li  China
Europe 23.06 m (75 ft 7​34 in) Ulf Timmermann  East Germany 22.63 m (74 ft 2​34 in) WR Natalya Lisovskaya  Soviet Union
North and Central
America, and Caribbean
23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) WR Randy Barnes  United States 20.96 m (68 ft 9 in) A Belsy Laza  Cuba
Oceania 22.67 m (74 ft 4​12 in) Tomas Walsh  New Zealand 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) Valerie Adams  New Zealand
South America 21.94 m (71 ft 11​34 in) Darlan Romani  Brazil 19.30 m (63 ft 3​34 in) A Elisângela Adriano  Brazil

Top 25 performers[edit]

  • i = indoor performance
  • A = affected by altitude
  • Correct as of February 2018.[12][13]

Men[edit]

Rank Mark Technique Athlete Nationality Date Place Ref
1 23.12 m (75 ft 10 in) spin Randy Barnes  United States 20 May 1990 Westwood
2 23.06 m (75 ft 7​34 in) glide Ulf Timmermann  East Germany 22 May 1988 Khania
3 22.91 m (75 ft 1​34 in) glide Alessandro Andrei  Italy 12 August 1987 Viareggio
4 22.86 m (75 ft 0 in) spin Brian Oldfield  United States 10 May 1975 El Paso
5 22.75 m (74 ft 7​12 in) glide Werner Günthör   Switzerland 23 August 1988 Bern
6 22.67 m (74 ft 4​12 in) spin Kevin Toth  United States 19 April 2003 Lawrence
spin Tomas Walsh  New Zealand 25 March 2018 Auckland [14]
8 22.65 m (74 ft 3​12 in) spin Ryan Crouser  United States 25 June 2017 Sacramento [15]
9 22.64 m (74 ft 3​14 in) glide Udo Beyer  East Germany 20 August 1986 Berlin
10 22.57 m (74 ft 0​12 in) spin Joe Kovacs  United States 18 May 2017 Tucson [16]
11 22.54 m (73 ft 11​14 in) spin Christian Cantwell  United States 5 June 2004 Gresham
12 22.52 m (73 ft 10​12 in) glide John Brenner  United States 26 April 1987 Walnut
13 22.51 m (73 ft 10 in) spin Adam Nelson  United States 18 May 2002 Gresham
14 22.44 m (73 ft 7​14 in) spin Darrell Hill  United States 31 August 2017 Brussels [17]
15 22.43 m (73 ft 7 in) spin Reese Hoffa  United States 3 August 2007 London
16 22.28 m (73 ft 1 in) spin Ryan Whiting  United States 10 May 2013 Doha
17 22.24 m (72 ft 11​12 in) glide Sergey Smirnov  Soviet Union 21 June 1986 Tallinn
18 22.21 m (72 ft 10​14 in) A spin Dylan Armstrong  Canada 25 June 2011 Calgary
19 22.20 m (72 ft 10 in) glide David Storl  Germany 9 July 2015 Lausanne [18]
spin John Godina  United States 22 May 2005 Carson
21 22.17 m (72 ft 8​34 in)i spin Tomáš Staněk  Czech Republic 6 February 2018 Düsseldorf [19]
22 22.10 m (72 ft 6 in) Sergey Gavryushin  Soviet Union 31 August 1986 Tbilisi
22.10 m (72 ft 6 in) spin Cory Martin  United States 23 May 2010 Tucson
24 22.09 m (72 ft 5​12 in)i spin Mika Halvari  Finland 7 February 2000 Tampere
25 22.08 m (72 ft 5​14 in) spin Michał Haratyk  Poland 13 June 2018 Ostrava [20]

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 22.43m:

Non-legal marks[edit]

Women[edit]

Rank Mark Technique Athlete Nationality Location Date
1 22.63 m (74 ft 2​34 in) glide Natalya Lisovskaya  Soviet Union Moscow June 7, 1987
2 22.50 m (73 ft 9​34 in)i glide Helena Fibingerová  Czechoslovakia Jablonec nad Nisou February 19, 1977
3 22.45 m (73 ft 7​34 in) glide Ilona Slupianek  East Germany Potsdam May 11, 1980
4 22.19 m (72 ft 9​12 in) glide Claudia Losch  West Germany Hainfeld August 23, 1987
5 21.89 m (71 ft 9​34 in) glide Ivanka Khristova  Bulgaria Belmeken July 4, 1976
6 21.86 m (71 ft 8​12 in) glide Marianne Adam  East Germany Leipzig June 23, 1979
7 21.76 m (71 ft 4​12 in) glide Li Meisu  China Shijiazhuang April 23, 1988
8 21.73 m (71 ft 3​12 in) glide Natalya Akhrimenko  Soviet Union Leselidze May 21, 1988
9 21.70 m (71 ft 2​14 in)i glide Nadzeya Ostapchuk  Belarus Mogilev February 12, 2010
10 21.69 m (71 ft 1​34 in) glide Vita Pavlysh  Ukraine Budapest August 15, 1998
11 21.66 m (71 ft 0​34 in) glide Sui Xinmei  China Beijing June 9, 1990
12 21.62 m (70 ft 11 in) glide Verzhinia Veselinova  Bulgaria Sofia August 21, 1982
13 21.60 m (70 ft 10​14 in)i glide Valentina Fedyushina  Soviet Union Simferopol December 28, 1991
14 21.58 m (70 ft 9​12 in) glide Margitta Pufe  East Germany Erfurt May 28, 1978
15 21.57 m (70 ft 9 in) glide Ines Müller  East Germany Athens May 16, 1988
16 21.53 m (70 ft 7​12 in) glide Nunu Abashidze  Soviet Union Kiev June 20, 1984
17 21.52 m (70 ft 7 in) glide Huang Zhihong  China Beijing June 27, 1990
18 21.46 m (70 ft 4​34 in) glide Larisa Peleshenko  Russia Budapest August 26, 2000
19 21.45 m (70 ft 4​14 in) glide Nadezhda Chizhova  Soviet Union Varna September 29, 1973
20 21.43 m (70 ft 3​12 in) glide Eva Wilms  West Germany Munich June 27, 1977
21 21.42 m (70 ft 3​14 in) glide Svetlana Krachevskaya  Soviet Union Moscow July 24, 1980
22 21.31 m (69 ft 10​34 in) glide Heike Hartwig  East Germany Athens May 16, 1988
23 21.27 m (69 ft 9​14 in) glide Liane Schmuhl  East Germany Cottbus June 26, 1982
24 21.24 m (69 ft 8 in) glide Valerie Adams  New Zealand Daegu August 29, 2011
25 21.22 m (69 ft 7​14 in) glide Astrid Kumbernuss  Germany Gothenburg August 5, 1995

Notes[edit]

Below is a list of throws equal or superior to 21.49m:

Olympic Medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1896 Athens
details
Robert Garrett
 United States
Miltiadis Gouskos
 Greece
Georgios Papasideris
 Greece
1900 Paris
details
Richard Sheldon
 United States
Josiah McCracken
 United States
Robert Garrett
 United States
1904 St. Louis
details
Ralph Rose
 United States
Wesley Coe
 United States
Lawrence Feuerbach
 United States
1908 London
details
Ralph Rose
 United States
Denis Horgan
 Great Britain
John Garrels
 United States
1912 Stockholm
details
Pat McDonald
 United States
Ralph Rose
 United States
Lawrence Whitney
 United States
1920 Antwerp
details
Ville Pörhölä
 Finland
Elmer Niklander
 Finland
Harry Liversedge
 United States
1924 Paris
details
Bud Houser
 United States
Glenn Hartranft
 United States
Ralph Hills
 United States
1928 Amsterdam
details
John Kuck
 United States
Herman Brix
 United States
Emil Hirschfeld
 Germany
1932 Los Angeles
details
Leo Sexton
 United States
Harlow Rothert
 United States
František Douda
 Czechoslovakia
1936 Berlin
details
Hans Woellke
 Germany
Sulo Bärlund
 Finland
Gerhard Stöck
 Germany
1948 London
details
Wilbur Thompson
 United States
Jim Delaney
 United States
Jim Fuchs
 United States
1952 Helsinki
details
Parry O'Brien
 United States
Darrow Hooper
 United States
Jim Fuchs
 United States
1956 Melbourne
details
Parry O'Brien
 United States
Bill Nieder
 United States
Jiří Skobla
 Czechoslovakia
1960 Rome
details
Bill Nieder
 United States
Parry O'Brien
 United States
Dallas Long
 United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Dallas Long
 United States
Randy Matson
 United States
Vilmos Varjú
 Hungary
1968 Mexico City
details
Randy Matson
 United States
George Woods
 United States
Eduard Gushchin
 Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Władysław Komar
 Poland
George Woods
 United States
Hartmut Briesenick
 East Germany
1976 Montreal
details
Udo Beyer
 East Germany
Yevgeniy Mironov
 Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
 Soviet Union
1980 Moscow
details
Vladimir Kiselyov
 Soviet Union
Aleksandr Baryshnikov
 Soviet Union
Udo Beyer
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Alessandro Andrei
 Italy
Mike Carter
 United States
Dave Laut
 United States
1988 Seoul
details
Ulf Timmermann
 East Germany
Randy Barnes
 United States
Werner Günthör
 Switzerland
1992 Barcelona
details
Mike Stulce
 United States
Jim Doehring
 United States
Vyacheslav Lykho
 Unified Team
1996 Atlanta
details
Randy Barnes
 United States
John Godina
 United States
Oleksandr Bagach
 Ukraine
2000 Sydney
details
Arsi Harju
 Finland
Adam Nelson
 United States
John Godina
 United States
2004 Athens
details
Adam Nelson
 United States
Joachim Olsen
 Denmark
Manuel Martínez
 Spain
2008 Beijing
details
Tomasz Majewski
 Poland
Christian Cantwell
 United States
Dylan Armstrong
 Canada
2012 London
details
Tomasz Majewski
 Poland
David Storl
 Germany
Reese Hoffa
 United States
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Ryan Crouser
 United States
Joe Kovacs
 United States
Tomas Walsh
 New Zealand

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1948 London
details
Micheline Ostermeyer
 France
Amelia Piccinini
 Italy
Ina Schäffer
 Austria
1952 Helsinki
details
Galina Zybina
 Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
 Germany
Klavdiya Tochenova
 Soviet Union
1956 Melbourne
details
Tamara Tyshkevich
 Soviet Union
Galina Zybina
 Soviet Union
Marianne Werner
 United Team of Germany
1960 Rome
details
Tamara Press
 Soviet Union
Johanna Lüttge
 United Team of Germany
Earlene Brown
 United States
1964 Tokyo
details
Tamara Press
 Soviet Union
Renate Culmberger
 United Team of Germany
Galina Zybina
 Soviet Union
1968 Mexico City
details
Margitta Gummel
 East Germany
Marita Lange
 East Germany
Nadezhda Chizhova
 Soviet Union
1972 Munich
details
Nadezhda Chizhova
 Soviet Union
Margitta Gummel
 East Germany
Ivanka Khristova
 Bulgaria
1976 Montreal
details
Ivanka Khristova
 Bulgaria
Nadezhda Chizhova
 Soviet Union
Helena Fibingerová
 Czechoslovakia
1980 Moscow
details
Ilona Slupianek
 East Germany
Svetlana Krachevskaya
 Soviet Union
Margitta Pufe
 East Germany
1984 Los Angeles
details
Claudia Losch
 West Germany
Mihaela Loghin
 Romania
Gael Martin
 Australia
1988 Seoul
details
Natalya Lisovskaya
 Soviet Union
Kathrin Neimke
 East Germany
Li Meisu
 China
1992 Barcelona
details
Svetlana Krivelyova
 Unified Team
Huang Zhihong
 China
Kathrin Neimke
 Germany
1996 Atlanta
details
Astrid Kumbernuss
 Germany
Sui Xinmei
 China
Irina Khudoroshkina
 Russia
2000 Sydney
details
Yanina Karolchik
 Belarus
Larisa Peleshenko
 Russia
Astrid Kumbernuss
 Germany
2004 Athens
details
Yumileidi Cumbá
 Cuba
Nadine Kleinert
 Germany
Not awarded[21]
2008 Beijing
details
Valerie Vili
 New Zealand
vacant vacant
2012 London
details
Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
vacant Gong Lijiao
 China
2016 Rio de Janeiro
details
Michelle Carter
 United States
Valerie Adams
 New Zealand
Anita Márton
 Hungary

World Championship medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Edward Sarul (POL)  Ulf Timmermann (GDR)  Remigius Machura (TCH)
1987 Rome
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Alessandro Andrei (ITA)  John Brenner (USA)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Lars Arvid Nilsen (NOR)  Aleksandr Klimenko (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Randy Barnes (USA)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 John Godina (USA)  Mika Halvari (FIN)  Randy Barnes (USA)
1997 Athens
details
 John Godina (USA)  Oliver-Sven Buder (GER)  C. J. Hunter (USA)
1999 Seville
details
 C. J. Hunter (USA)  Oliver-Sven Buder (GER)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
2001 Edmonton
details
 John Godina (USA)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Arsi Harju (FIN)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Andrei Mikhnevich (BLR)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki
details
 Adam Nelson (USA)  Rutger Smith (NED)  Ralf Bartels (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Reese Hoffa (USA)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Rutger Smith (NED)
2009 Berlin
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Tomasz Majewski (POL)  Ralf Bartels (GER)
2011 Daegu
details
 David Storl (GER)  Dylan Armstrong (CAN)  Christian Cantwell (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
 David Storl (GER)  Ryan Whiting (USA)  Dylan Armstrong (CAN)
2015 Beijing
details
 Joe Kovacs (USA)  David Storl (GER)  O'Dayne Richards (JAM)
2017 London
details
 Tomas Walsh (NZL)  Joe Kovacs (USA)  Stipe Žunić (CRO)

Women[edit]

Championships Gold Silver Bronze
1983 Helsinki
details
 Helena Fibingerová (TCH)  Helma Knorscheidt (GDR)  Ilona Schoknecht-Slupianek (GDR)
1987 Rome
details
 Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Kathrin Neimke (GDR)  Ines Müller (GDR)
1991 Tokyo
details
 Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Svetlana Krivelyova (URS)
1993 Stuttgart
details
 Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Kathrin Neimke (GER)
1995 Gothenburg
details
 Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Svetla Mitkova (BUL)
1997 Athens
details
 Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Vita Pavlysh (UKR)  Stephanie Storp (GER)
1999 Seville
details
 Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)
2001 Edmonton
details
 Yanina Karolchik (BLR)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2003 Saint-Denis
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Vita Pavlysh (UKR)
2005 Helsinki[22]
details
 Olga Ryabinkina (RUS)  Valerie Vili (NZL)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2007 Osaka
details
 Valerie Vili (NZL)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2009 Berlin
details
 Valerie Vili (NZL)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2011 Daegu
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Jillian Camarena-Williams (USA)
2013 Moscow
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Christina Schwanitz (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2015 Beijing
details
 Christina Schwanitz (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)  Michelle Carter (USA)
2017 London
details
 Gong Lijiao (CHN)  Anita Márton (HUN)  Michelle Carter (USA)

World Indoor Championships medalists[edit]

Men[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]  Remigius Machura (TCH)  Udo Beyer (GDR)  Jānis Bojārs (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Ulf Timmermann (GDR)  Werner Günthör (SUI)  Sergey Smirnov (URS)
1989 Budapest
details
 Ulf Timmermann (GDR)  Randy Barnes (USA)  Georg Andersen (NOR)
1991 Seville
details
 Werner Günthör (SUI)  Klaus Bodenmüller (AUT)  Ron Backes (USA)
1993 Toronto
details
 Mike Stulce (USA)  Jim Doehring (USA)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Mika Halvari (FIN)  C. J. Hunter (USA)  Dragan Perić (FRY)
1997 Paris
details
 Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)  Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)  John Godina (USA)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Oleksandr Bagach (UKR)  John Godina (USA)  Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2001 Lisbon
details
 John Godina (USA)  Adam Nelson (USA)  Manuel Martínez (ESP)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Manuel Martínez (ESP)  John Godina (USA)  Yuriy Bilonoh (UKR)
2004 Budapest
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Reese Hoffa (USA)  Joachim Olsen (DEN)
2006 Moscow
details
 Reese Hoffa (USA)  Joachim Olsen (DEN)  Pavel Sofin (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Reese Hoffa (USA)  Tomasz Majewski (POL)
2010 Doha
details
 Christian Cantwell (USA)  Ralf Bartels (GER)  Dylan Armstrong (CAN)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Ryan Whiting (USA)  David Storl (GER)  Tomasz Majewski (POL)
2014 Sopot
details
 Ryan Whiting (USA)  David Storl (GER)  Tomas Walsh (NZL)
2016 Portland
details
 Tomas Walsh (NZL)  Andrei Gag (ROU)  Filip Mihaljević (CRO)
2018 Birmingham
details
 Tomas Walsh (NZL)  David Storl (GER)  Tomáš Staněk (CZE)

Women[edit]

Games Gold Silver Bronze
1985 Paris[A]  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Ines Müller (GDR)  Nunu Abashidze (URS)
1987 Indianapolis
details
 Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)  Ilona Briesenick (GDR)  Claudia Losch (FRG)
1989 Budapest
details
 Claudia Losch (FRG)  Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Christa Wiese (GDR)
1991 Seville
details
 Sui Xinmei (CHN)  Huang Zhihong (CHN)  Natalya Lisovskaya (URS)
1993 Toronto
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Stephanie Storp (GER)  Zhang Liuhong (CHN)
1995 Barcelona
details
 Kathrin Neimke (GER)  Connie Price-Smith (USA)  Grit Hammer (GER)
1997 Paris
details
 Vita Pavlysh (UKR)  Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)  Irina Korzhanenko (RUS)
1999 Maebashi
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Krystyna Danilczyk-Zabawska (POL)  Teri Steer-Tunks (USA)
2001 Lisbon
details
 Larisa Peleshenko (RUS)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)
2003 Birmingham
details
 Irina Korzhanenko (RUS)  Nadzeya Ostapchuk (BLR)  Astrid Kumbernuss (GER)
2004 Budapest
details
 Svetlana Krivelyova (RUS)  Yumileidi Cumbá (CUB)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2006 Moscow
details
 Natallia Mikhnevich (BLR)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)  Olga Ryabinkina (RUS)
2008 Valencia
details
 Valerie Vili (NZL)  Li Meiju (CHN)  Misleydis González (CUB)
2010 Doha
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Anna Avdeyeva (RUS)  Nadine Kleinert (GER)
2012 Istanbul
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Michelle Carter (USA)  Jillian Camarena-Williams (USA)
2014 Sopot
details
 Valerie Adams (NZL)  Christina Schwanitz (GER)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
2016 Portland
details
 Michelle Carter (USA)  Anita Márton (HUN)  Valerie Adams (NZL)
2018 Birmingham
details
 Anita Márton (HUN)  Danniel Thomas-Dodd (JAM)  Gong Lijiao (CHN)
  • A Known as the World Indoor Games

Season's bests[edit]

See also[edit]

Notes and references[edit]

  1. ^ Colin White (31 December 2009). Projectile Dynamics in Sport: Principles and Applications. Taylor & Francis. pp. 131–. ISBN 978-0-415-47331-6. Retrieved 6 July 2011. 
  2. ^ "Hammer Throw". IAAF. Retrieved 12 September 2015. 
  3. ^ Shot Put - Introduction. IAAF. Retrieved on 2010-02-28.
  4. ^ https://www.thoughtco.com/shot-put-glide-technique-3259104
  5. ^ http://track.coachesdirectory.com/article/rotational-vs-glide-revisited--comparing-shot-techniques-article.html
  6. ^ http://digitaltrackandfield.com/shot-put-spin-glide-technique-comparison/
  7. ^ Aleksandr Baryshnikov biography on sportsdaily.ru (in Russian) reference tested at 11 May 2009
  8. ^ Aleksandr Baryshnikov, Athlete from Russia (in Russian) Archived 2010-09-17 at the Wayback Machine. reference tested at 11 May 2009
  9. ^ Григорий РУДЕРМАН (Израиль), заслуженный тренер России «Метания в хх веке : тенденции развития.» reference tested at 11 May 2009
  10. ^ Playboy Poland 8/2012, page 44,45
  11. ^ "Outdoor: Shot Put: Area Records". Official website. International Association of Athletics Federations (IAAF). Retrieved 10 March 2011. 
  12. ^ Shot Put - men - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-24.
  13. ^ Shot Put - women - senior - outdoor. IAAF. Retrieved on 2014-01-24.
  14. ^ Jon Mulkeen (25 March 2018). "Walsh blasts Oceanian shot put record of 22.67m in Auckland". IAAF. Retrieved 27 March 2018. 
  15. ^ "Ryan Crouser Wins Shot Put With The Longest Throw In The World Since 1989". flotrack.org. 25 June 2017. Retrieved 25 June 2017. 
  16. ^ Jon Mulkeen (18 May 2017). "Kovacs throws 22.57m, best in the world for 14 years". IAAF. Retrieved 20 May 2017. 
  17. ^ Mike Rowbottom (31 August 2017). "Hill hits the shot put jackpot in Brussels' Place de la Monnaie – IAAF Diamond League". IAAF. Retrieved 2 September 2017. 
  18. ^ "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 9 July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 5 March 2016. Retrieved 10 July 2015. 
  19. ^ "Shot Put Results" (PDF). sportresult.com. 6 February 2018. Retrieved 8 February 2018. 
  20. ^ "Shot Put Results" (PDF). zlatatretra.cz. 13 June 2018. Retrieved 19 June 2018. 
  21. ^ Athens 2004 Athletics Medalists. Olympic.org. Retrieved on 2014-04-19.
  22. ^ Revision of results following sanctions of Tsikhan and Ostapchuk

External links[edit]