A tutelary is a deity or spirit, a guardian, patron, or protector of a particular place, geographic feature, lineage, culture, or occupation. The etymology of "tutelary" expresses the concept of safety, thus of guardianship. In late late Greek and Roman religion, one type of tutelary deity, the genius, functions as the personal deity or daimon of an individual from birth to death. Another form of personal tutelary spirit is the familiar spirit of European folklore. Chinese folk religion, both past and present, includes a myriad of tutelary deities. Exceptional individuals may become deified after death. Guan Yu is a well-known tutelary. See City God and Tudigong. In Hinduism, tutelary deities are known as Kuldevi or Kuldevta. Gramadevata are guardian deities of villages. Devas can be seen as tutelary. Shiva is patron of renunciants; the City goddesses include: Mumbadevi Sachchika Kuladevis include: Ambika Mahalakshmi In Korean shamanism and sotdae were placed at the edge of villages to frighten off demons.
They were worshiped as deities. In Philippine animism, Diwata or Lambana are deities or spirits that inhabit sacred places like mountains and mounds and serve as guardians.* Maria Makiling is the deity who guards Mt. Makiling. * Maria Cacao and Maria Sinukuan. In Shinto, the spirits, or kami, which give life to human bodies come from nature and return to it after death. Ancestors are therefore themselves tutelaries to be worshiped. Thai provincial capitals palladiums; the guardian spirit of a house is known as Pra Poom. Every Buddhist household in Thailand has a miniature shrine housing this tutelary deity, known as a spirit house. Tibetan Buddhism has Yidam as a tutelary deity. Dakini is the patron of those. Socrates spoke of hearing the voice of his personal spirit or daimonion: You have heard me speak of an oracle or sign which comes to me …; this sign I have had since I was a child. The sign is a voice which comes to me and always forbids me to do something which I am going to do, but never commands me to do anything, this is what stands in the way of my being a politician.
The Greeks thought deities guarded specific places: For instance, Athena was the patron goddess of the city of Athens. Tutelary deities who guard and preserve a place or a person are fundamental to ancient Roman religion; the tutelary deity of a man was that of a woman her Juno. In the Imperial era, the Genius of the Emperor was a focus of Imperial cult. An emperor might adopt a major deity as his personal patron or tutelary, as Augustus did Apollo. Precedents for claiming the personal protection of a deity were established in the Republican era, when for instance the Roman dictator Sulla advertised the goddess Victory as his tutelary by holding public games in her honor; each town or city had one or more tutelary deities, whose protection was considered vital in time of war and siege. Rome itself was protected by a goddess; the Capitoline Triad of Juno and Minerva were tutelaries of Rome. The Italic towns had their own tutelary deities. Juno had this function, as at the Latin town of Lanuvium and the Etruscan city of Veii, was housed in an grand temple on the arx or other prominent or central location.
The tutelary deity of Praeneste was Fortuna. The Roman ritual of evocatio was premised on the belief that a town could be made vulnerable to military defeat if the power of its tutelary deity were diverted outside the city by the offer of superior cult at Rome; the depiction of some goddesses such as the Magna Mater as "tower-crowned" represents their capacity to preserve the city. A town in the provinces might adopt a deity from within the Roman religious sphere to serve as its guardian, or syncretize its own tutelary with such; each Roman home had a set of protective deities: the Lar or Lares of the household or familia, whose shrine was a lararium. The poet Martial lists the tutelary deities; the architecture of a granary featured niches for images of the tutelary deities, who might include the genius loci or guardian spirit of the site, Silvanus, Fortuna Conservatrix and in the Greek East Aphrodite and Agathe Tyche. The Lares Compitales were the tutelary gods of a neighborhood, each of which had a compitum devoted to these.
During the Republic, the cult of local or neighborhood tutelaries sometimes became rallying points for political and social unrest. Some tutelary deities are known to exist in Slavic Europe, a more prominent example being that of Leshy. Animal spirit Dvarapala Eudaemon Guardian angel Landvættir Nagual National god Patron saint Power animal Totem Tulpa Uay
Jainism, traditionally known as Jain Dharma, is an ancient, non-theistic, Indian religion. Followers of Jainism are called "Jains", a word derived from the Sanskrit word jina and connoting the path of victory in crossing over life's stream of rebirths through an ethical and spiritual life. Jains trace their history through a succession of 24 victorious saviours and teachers known as tirthankaras, with the first being Rishabhanatha, who according to Jain tradition lived millions of years ago, twenty-third being Parshvanatha in 8th century BC and twenty-fourth being the Mahāvīra around 500 BCE. Jains believe that Jainism is an eternal dharma with the tirthankaras guiding every cycle of the Jain cosmology; the main religious premises of Jainism are anekāntavāda, aparigraha and asceticism. Devout Jains take five main vows: ahiṃsā, asteya and aparigraha; these principles have impacted Jain culture in many ways, such as leading to a predominantly vegetarian lifestyle that avoids harm to animals and their life cycles.
Parasparopagraho Jīvānām is the motto of Jainism. Ṇamōkāra mantra is the most basic prayer in Jainism. Jainism has Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras; the Digambaras and Śvētāmbaras have different views on ascetic practices and which Jain texts can be considered canonical. Jain mendicants are found in all Jain sub-traditions except Kanji Panth sub-tradition, with laypersons supporting the mendicants' spiritual pursuits with resources. Jainism has between five million followers, with most Jains residing in India. Outside India, some of the largest Jain communities are present in Canada, Kenya, the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, Suriname and the United States. Major Jain festivals include Paryushana and Daslakshana, Mahavir Jayanti, Diwali; the principle of ahimsa is a fundamental tenet of Jainism. It believes that one must abandon all violent activity, without such a commitment to non-violence all religious behavior is worthless. In Jain theology, it does not matter how correct or defensible the violence may be, one must not kill any being, "non-violence is one's highest religious duty".
Jain texts such as Acaranga Sūtra and Tattvarthasūtra state that one must renounce all killing of living beings, whether tiny or large, movable or immovable. Its theology teaches that one must neither kill another living being, nor cause another to kill, nor consent to any killing directly or indirectly. Furthermore, Jainism emphasizes non-violence against all beings not only in action but in speech and in thought, it states that instead of hate or violence against anyone, "all living creatures must help each other". Violence negatively affects and destroys one's soul when the violence is done with intent, hate or carelessness, or when one indirectly causes or consents to the killing of a human or non-human living being; the idea of reverence for non-violence is founded in Hindu and Buddhist canonical texts, it may have origins in more ancient Brahmanical Vedic thoughts. However, no other Indian religion has developed the non-violence doctrine and its implications on everyday life as has Jainism.
The theological basis of non-violence as the highest religious duty has been interpreted by some Jain scholars not to "be driven by merit from giving or compassion to other creatures, nor a duty to rescue all creatures", but resulting from "continual self-discipline", a cleansing of the soul that leads to one's own spiritual development which affects one's salvation and release from rebirths. Causing injury to any being in any form creates bad karma which affects one's rebirth, future well being and suffering. Late medieval Jain scholars re-examined the Ahiṃsā doctrine when one is faced with external threat or violence. For example, they justified violence by monks to protect nuns. According to Dundas, the Jain scholar Jinadatta Suri wrote during a time of Muslim destruction of temples and persecution that "anybody engaged in a religious activity, forced to fight and kill somebody would not lose any spiritual merit but instead attain deliverance". However, such examples in Jain texts that condone fighting and killing under certain circumstances are rare.
The second main principle of Jainism is anekāntavāda or anekantatva, a word derived from anekānta and vada. The anekāntavāda doctrine states that reality is complex and always has multiple aspects. Reality can be experienced, but it is not possible to express it with language. Human attempts to communicate is Naya, explained as "partial expression of the truth". Language is not Truth. From Truth, according to Mahāvīra, language returns and not the other way round. One can experience the truth of a taste, but cannot express that taste through language. Any attempts to express the experience is syāt, or valid "in some respect" but it remains a "perhaps, just one perspective, incomplete". In the same way, spiritual truths are complex, they have multiple aspects, language cannot express their plurality, yet through effort and appropriate karma they can be experienced. Since reality is many-sided the great error, according to Jainism, is ekānta where some relative truth is treated as an absolute truth to the exclusion of others.
The anekāntavāda premise of the Jains is ancient, as evidenced by its mention in Buddhist texts such as the Samaññapha
The endless knot or eternal knot is a symbolic knot and one of the Eight Auspicious Symbols. It is in important symbol in both Buddhism, it is an important cultural marker in places influenced by Tibetan Buddhism such as Tibet, Tuva and Buryatia. It is sometimes found in Chinese art and used in Chinese knots. In Jainism it is one of the eight auspicious items, an asthamangala, however found only in the Svetambara sect, it is found marking the chests of the 24 Saints, the tirthankaras. It is more referred to as the Shrivatsa; the endless knot symbol appears on clay tablets from the Indus Valley Civilization, the same symbol appears on an historic era inscription. Various interpretations of the symbol are: The eternal continuum of mind; the endless knot iconography symbolised Samsara i.e. the endless cycle of suffering or birth and rebirth within Tibetan Buddhism. The inter-twining of wisdom and compassion. Interplay and interaction of the opposing forces in the dualistic world of manifestation, leading to their union, to harmony in the universe.
The mutual dependence of religious doctrine and secular affairs. The union of wisdom and method; the inseparability of emptiness and dependent origination, the underlying reality of existence. Symbolic of knot symbolism in linking ancestors and omnipresence Since the knot has no beginning or end it symbolizes the wisdom of the Buddha. See 7₄ knot for decorations or symbols in other cultures which are topologically equivalent to the interlaced form of the simplest version of the Buddhist endless knot. "The Endless Knot", TwilightBridge.com. "Endless Knot", ReligionFacts.com
Chakras are the various focal points in the subtle body used in a variety of ancient meditation practices, collectively denominated as Tantra, or the esoteric or inner traditions of Hinduism. The concept is found in the early traditions of Hinduism. Theories differ between the Indian religions, with many Buddhist texts mentioning five Chakras, while Hindu sources offer six or seven, they are believed to be embedded within the actual physical body, whilst originating within the context of mental and spiritual fields. Or, in modern interpretations, complexes of electromagnetic variety, the precise degree and variety of which directly arise from a synthetic average of all positive and negative so-called "fields", this eventuating the complex Nadi. Within kundalini yoga, the techniques of breath exercises, mudras, bandhas and mantras are focused on transmuting subtle energy through "chakras"; the concept of the chakra etymologically originates directly from the Sanskrit root चक्र. The "tsschakra" remained in virtual linguistic conformity throughout possible adaptations throughout the relative temporal and linguist adversity of two thousand years.
At heart, the chakra denotes a "wheel", a "circle", a "cycle". One of the Hindu scriptures Rigveda mentions Chakra with the meaning of "wheel", with ara. According to Frits Staal, Chakra has Indo-European roots, is "related to Greek Kuklos, Latin circus, Anglo-Saxon hveohl and English wheel." However, the Vedic period texts use the same word as a simile in other contexts, such as the "wheel of time" or "wheel of dharma", such as in Rigveda hymn verse 1.164.11. In Buddhism and Theravada the Pali noun cakka connotes "wheel". Within the central "Tripitaka", the Buddha variously references the "dhammacakka", or "wheel of dharma", connoting that his dharma, universal in its advocacy, should bear the marks which bear the characteristic of any temporal dispensation. While further, it should be added that the Buddha himself insinuated freedom from cycles in and of themselves - sui generis - be they karmic, liberative, cognitive or emotional. In Jainism, the term Chakra means "wheel" and appears in various context in its ancient literature.
As in other Indian religions, Chakra in esoteric theories in Jainism such as those by Buddhisagarsuri means yogic-energy centers. The term Chakra appears to first emerge within the Vedas, the most authoritative Hindu text, though not in the sense of psychic energy centers, rather as chakravartin or the king who "turns the wheel of his empire" in all directions from a center, representing his influence and power; the iconography popular in representing the Chakras, states White, trace back to the five symbols of yajna, the Vedic fire altar: "square, triangle, half moon and dumpling". The hymn 10.136 of the Rigveda mentions a renunciate yogi with a female named kunamnama. It means "she, bent, coiled", representing both a minor goddess and one of many embedded enigmas and esoteric riddles within the Rigveda; some scholars, such as David Gordon White and Georg Feuerstein, interpret this might be related to kundalini shakti, an overt overature to the terms of esotericism that would emerge in Post-Aryan Bramhanism.
The Upanishad. Breath channels of Yoga practices are mentioned in the classical Upanishads of Hinduism dated to 1st millennium BCE, but not psychic-energy Chakra theories; the latter, states David Gordon White, were introduced about 8th-century CE in Buddhist texts as hierarchies of inner energy centers, such as in the Hevajra Tantra and Caryāgiti. These are called by various terms such as padma or pitha; these medieval Buddhist texts mention only four chakras, while Hindu texts such as the Kubjikāmata and Kaulajñānanirnaya expanded the list to many more. In contrast to White, according to Georg Feuerstein, early Upanishads of Hinduism do mention cakra in the sense of "psychospiritual vortices", along with other terms found in tantra: prana or vayu along with nadi. According to Gavin Flood, the ancient texts do not present chakra and kundalini-style yoga theories although these words appear in the earliest Vedic literature in many contexts; the chakra in the sense of four or more vital energy centers appear in the medieval era Hindu and Buddhist texts.
Chakra is a part of the esoteric medieval era theories about physiology and psychic centers that emerged across Indian traditions. The theory posited that human life exists in two parallel dimensions, one "physical body" and other "psychological, mind, non-physical" it is called the "subtle body"; this subtle body is energy. The psyche or mind plane corresponds to and interacts with the body plane, the theory posits that the body and the mind mutually affect each other; the subtle body consists of nadi connected by nodes of psychic energy it called chakra. The theory grew into extensive elaboration, with some suggesting 88,000 chakras throughout the subtle body; the chakra it considered most important varied between various traditions, but they ranged between four and seven. The important chakras are stated in Hindu and Buddhist texts to be arranged in a column along the spinal cord, from its base to the top of the head, connected by vertical channels; the tantric traditions sought to master them and energize them through various breathing exercises or with assistance of a teacher.
These chakras were symbolically mapped to specific human physiological capacity, seed syllables, sub
Sanskrit is a language of ancient India with a history going back about 3,500 years. It is the primary liturgical language of Hinduism and the predominant language of most works of Hindu philosophy as well as some of the principal texts of Buddhism and Jainism. Sanskrit, in its variants and numerous dialects, was the lingua franca of ancient and medieval India. In the early 1st millennium CE, along with Buddhism and Hinduism, Sanskrit migrated to Southeast Asia, parts of East Asia and Central Asia, emerging as a language of high culture and of local ruling elites in these regions. Sanskrit is an Old Indo-Aryan language; as one of the oldest documented members of the Indo-European family of languages, Sanskrit holds a prominent position in Indo-European studies. It is related to Greek and Latin, as well as Hittite, Old Avestan and many other extinct languages with historical significance to Europe, West Asia, Central Asia, South Asia, it traces its linguistic ancestry to the Proto-Indo-Aryan language, Proto-Indo-Iranian and the Proto-Indo-European languages.
Sanskrit is traceable to the 2nd millennium BCE in a form known as the Vedic Sanskrit, with the Rigveda as the earliest known composition. A more refined and standardized grammatical form called the Classical Sanskrit emerged in mid-1st millennium BCE with the Aṣṭādhyāyī treatise of Pāṇini. Sanskrit, though not Classical Sanskrit, is the root language of many Prakrit languages. Examples include numerous modern daughter Northern Indian subcontinental languages such as Hindi, Bengali and Nepali; the body of Sanskrit literature encompasses a rich tradition of philosophical and religious texts, as well as poetry, drama, scientific and other texts. In the ancient era, Sanskrit compositions were orally transmitted by methods of memorisation of exceptional complexity and fidelity; the earliest known inscriptions in Sanskrit are from the 1st-century BCE, such as the few discovered in Ayodhya and Ghosundi-Hathibada. Sanskrit texts dated to the 1st millennium CE were written in the Brahmi script, the Nāgarī script, the historic South Indian scripts and their derivative scripts.
Sanskrit is one of the 22 languages listed in the Eighth Schedule of the Constitution of India. It continues to be used as a ceremonial and ritual language in Hinduism and some Buddhist practices such as hymns and chants; the Sanskrit verbal adjective sáṃskṛta- is a compound word consisting of sam and krta-. It connotes a work, "well prepared and perfect, sacred". According to Biderman, the perfection contextually being referred to in the etymological origins of the word is its tonal qualities, rather than semantic. Sound and oral transmission were valued quality in ancient India, its sages refined the alphabet, the structure of words and its exacting grammar into a "collection of sounds, a kind of sublime musical mold", states Biderman, as an integral language they called Sanskrit. From late Vedic period onwards, state Annette Wilke and Oliver Moebus, resonating sound and its musical foundations attracted an "exceptionally large amount of linguistic and religious literature" in India; the sound was visualized as "pervading all creation", another representation of the world itself, the "mysterious magnum" of the Hindu thought.
The search for perfection in thought and of salvation was one of the dimensions of sacred sound, the common thread to weave all ideas and inspirations became the quest for what the ancient Indians believed to be a perfect language, the "phonocentric episteme" of Sanskrit. Sanskrit as a language competed with numerous less exact vernacular Indian languages called Prakritic languages; the term prakrta means "original, normal, artless", states Franklin Southworth. The relationship between Prakrit and Sanskrit is found in the Indian texts dated to the 1st millennium CE. Patanjali acknowledged that Prakrit is the first language, one instinctively adopted by every child with all its imperfections and leads to the problems of interpretation and misunderstanding; the purifying structure of the Sanskrit language removes these imperfections. The early Sanskrit grammarian Dandin states, for example, that much in the Prakrit languages is etymologically rooted in Sanskrit but involve "loss of sounds" and corruptions that result from a "disregard of the grammar".
Dandin acknowledged that there are words and confusing structures in Prakrit that thrive independent of Sanskrit. This view is found in the writing of the author of the ancient Natyasastra text; the early Jain scholar Namisadhu acknowledged the difference, but disagreed that the Prakrit language was a corruption of Sanskrit. Namisadhu stated that the Prakrit language was the purvam and they came to women and children, that Sanskrit was a refinement of the Prakrit through a "purification by grammar". Sanskrit belongs to the Indo-European family of languages, it is one of the three ancient documented languages that arose from a common root language now referred to as the Proto-Indo-European language: Vedic Sanskrit. Mycenaean Greek and Ancient Greek. Mycenaean Greek is the older recorded form of Greek, but the limited material that has survived has a ambiguous writing system. More important to Indo-European studies is Ancient Greek, documented extensively beginning with the two Homeric poems. Hittite.
This is the earliest-recorded of all Indo-European languages, distinguishable into Old Hittite, Middle Hittite and Neo-Hittite. I
Mañjuśrī is a bodhisattva associated with prajñā in Mahayana Buddhism. In Tibetan Buddhism, he is a yidam, his name means "Gentle Glory"（Chinese：妙吉祥, 妙乐） in Sanskrit. Mañjuśrī is known by the fuller name of Mañjuśrīkumārabhūta "Mañjuśrī, Still a Youth" or, less "Prince Mañjuśrī". Other deity name of Mañjuśrī is Manjughosha. Scholars have identified Mañjuśrī as the oldest and most significant bodhisattva in Mahāyāna literature. Mañjuśrī is first referred to in early Mahayana sutras such as the Prajnaparamita sutras and through this association early in the tradition he came to symbolize the embodiment of prajñā; the Lotus Sutra assigns him a pure land called Vimala, which according to the Avatamsaka Sutra is located in the East. His pure land is predicted to be one of the two best pure lands in all of existence in all the past and future; when he attains buddhahood his name will be Universal Sight. In the Lotus Sūtra, Mañjuśrī leads the Nagaraja's daughter to enlightenment, he figures in the Vimalakirti Sutra in a debate with Vimalakirti where he is presented as an Arhat who represents the wisdom of the Hinayana.
An example of a wisdom teaching of Mañjuśrī can be found in the Saptaśatikā Prajñāpāramitā Sūtra. This sūtra contains the Buddha on the One Samadhi. Sheng-yen renders the following teaching of Mañjuśrī, for entering samādhi through transcendent wisdom: Contemplate the five skandhas as empty and quiescent, non-arising, non-perishing, without differentiation, thus practicing, day or night, whether sitting, standing or lying down one reaches an inconceivable state without any obstruction or form. This is the Samadhi of One Act. Within Vajrayana Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is a meditational deity and considered a enlightened Buddha. In Shingon Buddhism, he is one of the Thirteen Buddhas, he figures extensively in many esoteric texts such as the Mañjuśrī-mūla-kalpa and the Mañjuśrīnāmasamgīti. His consort in some traditions is Saraswati; the Mañjusrimulakalpa, which came to classified under Kriyatantra, states that mantras taught in the Saiva and Vaisnava tantras will be effective if applied by Buddhists since they were all taught by Manjushri.
Mañjuśrī is depicted as a male bodhisattva wielding a flaming sword in his right hand, representing the realization of transcendent wisdom which cuts down ignorance and duality. The scripture supported by the padma held in his left hand is a Prajñāpāramitā sūtra, representing his attainment of ultimate realization from the blossoming of wisdom. Mañjuśrī is depicted as riding on a blue lion or sitting on the skin of a lion; this represents the use of wisdom to tame the mind, compared to riding or subduing a ferocious lion. In Chinese and Japanese Buddhist art, Mañjuśrī's sword is sometimes replaced with a ruyi scepter in representations of his Vimalakirti Sutra discussion with the layman Vimalakirti. According to Berthold Laufer, the first Chinese representation of a ruyi was in an 8th-century Mañjuśrī painting by Wu Daozi, showing it held in his right hand taking the place of the usual sword. In subsequent Chinese and Japanese paintings of Buddhas, a ruyi was represented as a Padma with a long stem curved like a ruyi.
He is one of the Four Great Bodhisattvas of Chinese Buddhism, the other three being Kṣitigarbha, Avalokiteśvara, Samantabhadra. In China, he is paired with Samantabhadra. In Tibetan Buddhism, Mañjuśrī is sometimes depicted in a trinity with Vajrapāṇi. A mantra associated with Mañjuśrī is the following: oṃ arapacana dhīḥThe Arapacana is a syllabary consisting of forty-two letters, is named after the first five letters: a, ra, pa, ca, na; this syllabary was most used for the Gāndhārī language with the Kharoṣṭhī script but appears in some Sanskrit texts. The syllabary features in Mahāyāna texts such as the longer Prajñāpāramitā texts, the Gaṇḍavyūha Sūtra, the Lalitavistara Sūtra, the Avataṃsaka Sūtra, the Dharmaguptaka Vinaya, the Mūlasarvāstivāda Vinaya. In some of these texts, the Arapacana syllabary serves as a mnemonic for important Mahāyāna concepts. Due to its association with him, Arapacana may serve as an alternate name for Mañjuśrī; the Sutra on Perfect Wisdom defines the significance of each syllable thus: A is a door to the insight that all dharmas are unproduced from the beginning.
RA is a door to the insight. PA is a door to the insight. CA is a door to the insight that the decrease or rebirth of any dharma cannot be apprehended, because all dharmas do not decrease, nor are they reborn. NA is a door to the insight. Tibetan pronunciation is different and so the Tibetan characters read: oṃ a ra pa tsa na dhīḥ. In Tibetan tradition, this mantra is believed to enhance wisdom and improve one's skills in debating, memory and other literary abilities. "Dhīḥ" is the seed syllable of the mantra and is chanted with greater emphasis and repeated a number of times as a decrescendo. Mañjuśrī is known in China as Wenshu. Mount Wutai in Shanxi, one of the four Sacred Mountains of China, is considered by Chinese Buddhists to be his bodhimaṇḍa, he was said to bestow spectacular visionary experiences to those on selected mountain peaks and caves
Naraka is the realm of existence in Jain cosmology characterized by great suffering. Naraka is translated into English as "hell" or "purgatory". However, Naraka differs from the hells of Abrahamic religions as souls are not sent to Naraka as the result of a divine judgment and punishment. Furthermore, the length of a being's stay in a Naraka is not eternal, though it is very long—measured in billions of years. A soul is born into a Naraka as a direct result of his or her previous karma, resides there for a finite length of time until his karma has achieved its full result. After his karma is used up, he may be reborn in one of the higher worlds as the result of an earlier karma that had not yet ripened; these realms are situated in the seven lower levels of the universe while the human abode of Jambudvip is in the middle and the heavenly realms exist above. These layers together, form the shape of a man with arms akimbo, with the human realm of Jambudvip at the waist, adho lok below, urdhva lok above, siddha lok or siddhashila at or above the head.
Many Jain temples are built to display this cosmology such Jambudvip in Hastinapur and the fifteen story Trilok Teerth Dham temple in Uttar Pradesh. The seven lower grounds are: Ratna prabha. Sharkara prabha. Valuka prabha. Panka prabha. Dhuma prabha. Tamaha prabha. Mahatamaha prabha; the first ground, owing to a predominance of ratnas or jewels, is called Ratnaprabha. The second, owing to a predominance of sarkara or gravel, is called Sarkraprabha; the third owing to a predominance of valuka or sands, is called Valukaprabha. The fourth, owing to an excess of panka or mud, is called Pankaprabha; the fifth, owing to an excess of dhuma or smoke, is called Dhumaprabha. The sixth, owing to a marked possession of tamas or darkness, is called Tamahprabha, while the seventh, owing to a high concentration of mahatamas or dense darkness, is called Mahatamahprabha; the hellish beings are a type of soul. They are born in hells by sudden manifestation; the hellish beings each possess a vaikriya body. They have a fixed life span in the respective hells.
The minimum life span of hellish beings in the first to seventh hellish grounds is 10000 years, 1 sagaropama year, 3 sagaropama years, 7 sagaropama years, 10 sagaropama years, 17 sagaropama years and 22 sagaropama years respectively. The maximum life span of hellish beings in the first to sixth hellish grounds is 1 sagaropama year, 3 sagaropama years, 7 sagaropama years, 10 sagaropama years, 17 sagaropama years and 22 sagaropama years respectively, they experience five types of sufferings: bodily pain, inauspicious leśyā or soul colouring and pariṇāma or physical transformation, from the nature and location of hells, pain inflicted on one other and torture inflicted by mansion-dwelling demi-gods. In a dialogue between Sudharma Swami and Mahavira in the Jain text Sutrakritanga, Mahavira speaks of various reasons a soul may take birth in hells: Sudharma Swami: What is the punishment in the hells? Knowing it, O sage, tell it me who do not know it! How do sinners go to hell? Mahavira: I shall describe the insupportable pains where there is distress and evil deeds.
Those cruel sinners who, from a desire of life, commit bad deeds, will sink into the dreadful hell, full of dense darkness and great suffering. He who always kills movable and immovable beings for the sake of his own comfort, who injures them, who takes what is not given, who does not learn what is to be practised; the impudent sinner, who injures many beings without relenting will go to hell. The prisoners in hell lose their senses from fright, do not know in what direction to run. Going to a place like a burning heap of coals on fire, being burnt they cry horribly. According to Jain scripture, following are the causes for birth in hell: Killing or causing pain with intense passion. Excessive attachment to things and worldly pleasure with indulging in cruel and violent acts. Vowless and unrestrained life. In a dialogue between Sudharma and Mahavira the Jain text Sutrakritanga, Mahavira describes various tortures and sufferings in hells: They cross the horrible Vaitarani, being urged on by arrows, wounded with spears.
The punishers pierce them with darts. Some, round whose neck big stones are tied, are drowned in deep water. Others again roll about in the Kadambavâlukâ or in burning chaff, are roasted in it, and they come to the great impassable hell, full of agony, called Asûrya, where there is great darkness, where fires, placed above and all around, are blazing. There, as in a cave, being roasted on the fire, he is burned, having lost the reminiscence and consciousness of everything else; the prisoners in hell come to the dreadful place called Santakshana, where the cruel punishers tie their hands and feet, with axes in their hands cut the