Chinese Indonesian cuisine
Chinese Indonesian cuisine is characterized by the mixture of Chinese with local Indonesian style. Chinese Indonesians brought their legacy of Chinese cuisine, modified some of the dishes with the addition of Indonesian ingredients, such as kecap manis, palm sugar, peanut sauce, chili and local spices to form a hybrid Chinese-Indonesian cuisine; some of the dishes and cakes share the same style as in Malaysia and Singapore which are known as the Nonya cuisine by the Peranakan. Chinese influences are evident in Indonesian food, with several quintessential Chinese favourite has made their way into mainstream Indonesian culinary scene. Popular Chinese Indonesian foods including bakmi, mie ayam, bakso, kwetiau goreng and mie goreng. Chinese culinary culture is evident in Indonesian cuisine through the Hokkien and Cantonese loanwords used for various dishes. Words beginning with bak signify the presence of e.g. bakpau. Mi or mie signify noodle as in mi goreng. Most of these loanwords for food dishes and their ingredients are Hokkien in origin and are used throughout the Indonesian language and vernacular speech of large cities.
Because they have become an integral part of the local language, many Indonesians and ethnic Chinese do not recognize their Hokkien origins. Some of popular Indonesian dishes such as nasi goreng, mi goreng, kwetiau and bakpia can trace their origin to Chinese influence; some food and ingredients are part of the daily diet of both the indigenous and ethnic Chinese populations as side dishes to accompany rice, the staple food of most of the country. Chinese influence is so evident in cities with large Chinese settlements since colonial era in Jakarta, Semarang, Medan and Pontianak; as the result numbers of mi and tahu recipes were developed in these cities. Chinese influence is so evident in Betawi people cuisines, formed as peranakan culture, as the result Betawi people held Chinese Indonesians dishes such as asinan and rujak juhi as theirs. To a certain extent, Javanese in Semarang and Surabaya willingly absorbs Chinese culinary influences, as the result they considered Chinese-influenced dishes such as mi goreng, lumpia and tahu gunting as theirs.
Because food is so prevalent in Chinese culture as Chinese families allocate their quality time to go eating out—just like banquet customs found in Chinese communities worldwide—many Pecinan in Indonesian cities are well known as the culinary hot spots of the city, with rows of shops and restaurants. As Chinese and native Indonesians establishing their food business, many eating establishments sprung up, from humble street side cart hawker to fancy restaurants offering their specialty. Areas such as Glodok and Kelapa Gading in Jakarta, Gardu Jati in Bandung, Kya-kya Kembang Jepun in Surabaya, Pecinans in Cirebon, Semarang and Medan are teeming with lots of warungs and restaurants, not only offering Chinese Indonesians' dishes, but local and international cuisines; the Indonesian Chinese cuisine vary with locations. For example, in different parts of Java the dishes are adapted to local culture and taste, in return Chinese Indonesians residing in this region had developed a taste for local cuisine.
In central Java, the food tends to be much sweeter. In East Java, Chinese food there is more savory with a preference of petis shrimp paste. In Medan, North Sumatra and in Pontianak, West Kalimantan, a more traditional Chinese style can be found. Chinese cuisine in Indonesia have absorbed local preference of spicy food and local ingredients. For example, it is common to have sambal chili sauce, acar pickles and sprinkle of bawang goreng crispy fried shallot as condiment. Chinese cuisine influences on Indonesian cuisine is evident in Indonesian take on Chinese dishes, such as mie goreng, lumpia and siomay; however the culinary influences is taken another way around. Vice versa, Chinese Indonesian been influenced by native Indonesian cuisine, it is believed that Lontong Cap Go Meh is a Chinese Indonesian take on traditional Indonesian dishes. The dish reflect the assimilation among Chinese immigrants with local community; because Indonesia is Muslim majority country, some of ingredients were replaced to create a halal Chinese food.
Most of Chinese eating establishments with significant Muslim native Indonesian clientele would do so. However, in Chinatowns in major Indonesian cities where there is significant Chinese and non-Muslim population, Chinese restaurants that serve pork dishes such as babi kecap, char siew, crispy roast pork, sweet pork sausage and sate babi are available. There are different styles of Chinese food in Indonesia: Traditional Chinese food, such as the Teochew, Hakka dishes. Chinese-Indonesian food with recipes borrowed from local Indonesian cuisine and other European cuisine. Chinese dishes adapted to the local culture and taste, such as replacing pork with chicken or beef to make it halal. New style Chinese food with chefs from China, Hong Kong or Taiwan. Most of the times, the name of Chinese Indonesian foods are preserved from its original Chinese Hokkien name. However, sometimes the name are derived from the translation of its meanings, ingredients or process
Noodles are an essential ingredient and staple in Chinese cuisine. Chinese noodles vary according to the region of production, shape or width, manner of preparation, they are an important part of most regional cuisines within China, as well as in Singapore, other Southeast Asian nations with sizable overseas Chinese populations. Chinese-style noodles have entered the cuisines of neighboring East Asian countries such as Korea and Japan, as well as Southeast Asian countries such as Vietnam, the Philippines and Cambodia. Nomenclature of Chinese noodles can be difficult due to the vast spectrum available in China and the many dialects of Chinese used to name them. In Mandarin, miàn refers to noodles made from wheat, while fěn or "fun" refers to noodles made from rice flour, mung bean starch, or indeed any kind of non-wheat starch; each noodle type can be rendered in pinyin for Mandarin, but in Hong Kong and neighboring Guangdong it will be known by its Cantonese pronunciation. Taiwan, Malaysia and many other Overseas Chinese communities in Southeast Asia may use Hokkien instead.
The earliest written record of noodles is from a book dated to the Han dynasty. Noodles made from wheat dough, became a prominent staple of food during the Han dynasty. In the Western Han Dynasty, due to the demand for military, it was necessary for the Government to implement food processing technologies that would make the food storage easier and more affordable. During this time, “Laomian” was emerged, it was made with starch rich buckwheat and pea, flours, it consists lower water content making it easier to transport around. During the Song dynasty noodle shops were popular in the cities, remained open all night. During the earlier dynastic periods Chinese wheat noodles were known as "soup cake", as explained by the Song dynasty scholar Huang Chaoying mentions in his work "A delightful mixed discussion on various scholarly topics" that in ancient times bready foods like pasta are referred collectively as "bing" and differentiated through their cooking methods. Chinese noodles are made from either wheat flour, rice flour, or mung bean starch, with wheat noodles being more produced and consumed in northern China and rice noodles being more typical of southern China.
Egg and cereal may be added to noodles made from wheat flour in order to give the noodles a different color or flavor. Egg whites, arrowroot or tapioca starch are sometimes added to the flour mixture in low quantities to change the texture and tenderness of the noodles' strands. Although illegal, the practice of adding the chemical cross-linker borax to whiten noodles and improve their texture is quite common in East Asia. In general, the chinese noodles cooking method involves making a dough with flour and water. Chinese type noodles are made from hard wheat flours, characterized by bright creamy white or bright yellow color and firm texture. Before the automatic noodle machine was invented in 1950s, the processing of Chinese noodles were made with four steps, including Fresh - The noodles are consumed within 24 hours of manufacture due to quick discoloration, their shelf life can be extended to 3-5 days. Chinese noodles, can be in dried form. After parboiling, Chinese noodles are rinsed in cold water and covered with 1-2% vegetable oil to prevent sticking.
The dough for noodles made from wheat flour is made from wheat flour and water, with the addition of eggs or lye depending on the desired texture and taste of the noodles. Rice- or other starch-based noodles are made with only the starch or rice flour and water. After the formation of a pliable dough mass, one of five types of mechanical processing may be applied to produce the noodles: While cut and extruded noodles can be dried to create a shelf-stable product to be eaten months after production, most peeled and kneaded noodles are consumed shortly after they are produced. Noodles may be cooked from either their dry forms, they are boiled, although they may be deep-fried in oil until crispy. Boiled noodles may be stir fried, served with sauce or other accompaniments, or served in soup with meat and other ingredients. Certain rice-noodles are made directly from steaming the raw rice slurry and are only consumed fresh. Unlike many Western noodles and pastas, Chinese noodles made from wheat flour are made from salted dough, therefore do not require the addition of salt to the liquid in which they are boiled.
Chinese noodles cook quickly requiring less than 5 minutes to become al dente and some taking less than a minute to finish cooking, with thinner noodles requiring less time to cook. Chinese noodles made from rice or mung bean starch do not contain salt; these noodles are made only with wheat water. If the intended product is dried noodles, salt is always added to the recipe; these wheat flour noodles are more
Hainan cuisine, or Hainanese cuisine, is derived from the cooking styles of the peoples of Hainan Province in China. The food is lighter, less oily, more mildly seasoned than that of the Chinese mainland. Seafood predominates the menu, as prawn and freshwater and ocean fish are available. Congee and baozi are eaten for breakfast, with a noodle dish being eaten; this consists of vermicelli-type noodles with various toppings and gravy. Along with lunch and dinner, late night outdoor barbecue dishes are served. Chinese cuisine List of Chinese dishes Images of Hainan dishes Images of Wenchang chicken, other signature Hainan dishes
Zhejiang cuisine, alternatively known as Zhe cuisine, is one of the Eight Culinary Traditions of Chinese cuisine. It derives from the traditional ways of cooking in Zhejiang Province, located south of Shanghai and centred around Hangzhou, a historical Chinese capital. In general, Zhejiang cuisine has a fresh and soft flavour with a mellow fragrance. Zhejiang cuisine consists of at least three styles, each originating from a major city in the province: Hangzhou style: Characterised by rich variations and the use of bamboo shoots, it is served in restaurants such as the Dragon Well Manor. Shaoxing style: Specialising in poultry and freshwater fish. Ningbo style: Specialising in seafood, with emphasis on freshness and salty dishes; some sources include the Wenzhou style as a separate subdivision due to its proximity to Fujian Province. Wenzhou style is characterised as the greatest source of seafood as well as livestock. Ningbo cuisine is regarded as rather salty. Ningbo confectioneries were celebrated all over China during the Qing dynasty
Korean Chinese cuisine
Korean Chinese cuisine is a hybrid cuisine developed by the ethnic Chinese and the ethnic Koreans in South Korea. Derived from Chinese cuisine, Korean Chinese cuisine consists of unique dishes with Korean flavors and ingredients. Most Korean Chinese restaurants in and outside South Korea are owned and operated by Koreans rather than ethnic Chinese. In South Korea, the food is delivered. In the United States, only Mandarin-style Chinese restaurants are familiar with Korean Chinese cuisine, as it is a hybrid of Korean and Mandarin Chinese cuisines; the cuisine was first developed during the 19th century in the port city of Incheon, where most of the ethnic Chinese population of Korea lived. Due to geographic proximity and the demographics of the Korean Chinese population, most Korean Chinese dishes are derived from northern and northeastern Chinese dishes from Beijing and Shandong. Chinese restaurants in Korea are unusual in that most are owned and operated by Koreans, rather than ethnic Chinese.
This was because the assimilation of the ethnic Chinese into Korean culture and their emigration due to legal discrimination under the Park Chung-hee administration. The most authentic Korean Chinese cuisine may be found in overseas Korean communities; the food is delivered, comparable to pizza delivery in the US or Indian take-away in the UK, is priced relative to other dining options. Chinese dishes popular in South Korea, are served at upscale Chinese restaurants rather than Korean Chinese establishments. Three primarily-Chinese dishes are served in most Korean Chinese restaurants in South Korea and elsewhere: Jajangmyeon is a noodle dish topped with a thick sauce made of sweet bean sauce, diced pork or seafood, vegetables. Derived from the Shandong zhájiàngmiàn, Korean jajangmyeon is distinct from the zhájiàngmiàn dishes served in China. Jjamppong is a spicy noodle soup flavored with vegetables, meat or seafood, chili oil; the dish derived from the Shandong chǎomǎmiàn and its name derived from chanpon, a Japanese Chinese dish derived from the Fujian mènmiàn.
The addition of chili powder and chili oil to jjamppong began during the 1960s. Tangsuyuk is a Korean version of a sour meat dish derived from the Shandong tángcùròu, it can be coated with corn - or potato starch or glutinous rice flour. The dish is served with a sweet-and-sour sauce made with soy sauce, sugar, corn- or potato starch and fruits and vegetables such as carrots, onions, wood ear mushrooms and pineapples. Other dishes served in Korean Chinese restaurants include: Gochu-japchae Jungguk-naengmyeon "Chinese cold noodles", is enjoyed during the summer. Jungguk-naengmyeon is made with junghwa-myeon, shredded five-spice marinated beef or pork, crab sticks, jellyfish and a fried egg in a cold chicken broth seasoned with soy sauce and spices. A sauce, mixed with mustard and peanut sauce, gives it a spicy flavor. Kkanpunggi, fried chicken glazed with a sweet, spicy sauce Kkanpung saeu: Deep-fried, breaded sweet-and-sour shrimp, with a mild spiciness distinct from tangsuyuk, tangsu saeu and the stir-fried Kung Pao shrimp served in Chinese restaurants.
Kkanpung saeu is served with a sweet sauce, carrots, green onions and red chilli peppers. Rajogi, similar to the Sichuan laziji, a Chinese chilli chicken dish Udong, a noodle soup similar to jjamppong but with non-spicy white soup Ulmyeon, similar to udon, consists of wheat-flour noodles, chopped vegetables and seafood in a chowder-like broth thickened with cornstarch, it is derived from wēnlŭmiàn. Dumplings are served at Korean Chinese restaurants a pan-fried cross between a Japanese gyoza and a northern-Chinese dumpling. Koreans traditionally eat Chinese food with a side dish of raw onion dipped in chunjang. Kimchi, a Korean staple, is eaten with Chinese food. Dried red-chili flakes are provided to season food or mixed with soy sauce. Chinese people in Korea Korean diaspora American Chinese cuisine
Malaysian Chinese cuisine
Malaysian Chinese cuisine is derived from the culinary traditions of Chinese Malaysian immigrants and their descendants, who have adapted or modified their culinary traditions under the influence of Malaysian culture as well as immigration patterns of Chinese to Malaysia. Because the vast majority of Chinese Malaysians are descendants of immigrants from southern China, Malaysian Chinese cuisine is predominantly based on an eclectic repertoire of dishes with roots from Fujian, Cantonese and Teochew cuisines; as these early immigrants settled in different regions throughout what was British Malaya and Borneo, they carried with them traditions of foods and recipes that were identified with their origins in China, which became infused with the characteristics of their new home locale in Malaysia while remaining distinctively Chinese. For example, Hainanese chicken rice is flavoured with tropical pandan leaves and served with chilli sauce for dipping, tastes unlike the typical chicken dishes found in Hainan Island itself.
Some of these foods and recipes became associated with a specific city, town or village developing iconic status and culminating in a proliferation of nationwide popularity in the present day. Chinese food is prominent in areas with concentrated Chinese communities, at roadside stalls, hawker centres and kopitiam, as well as smart cafes and upmarket restaurants throughout the nation. Many Chinese dishes have pork as a component ingredient, but chicken is available as a substitution for Muslim customers from the wider community, some Chinese restaurants are halal-certified. Bak Kut Teh; the root meaning for the dish, "Bak Kut" is the term for meaty ribs, at its simplest cooked with garlic, dark soy sauce and a specific combination of herbs and spices which have been boiled for many hours. Popularly regarded as a health tonic, this soup is eaten by hard working Chinese coolies working on the wharfs at Port Swettenham and clearing estates, accompaniment with strong tea on the side. There are some differences in seasoning amongst other Chinese communities.
Variations include the so-called chik kut teh, seafood bak kut teh, a "dry" version which originated from the town of Klang. Bakkwa - "dried meat", bakkwa is better understood as barbequed meat jerky. While this delicacy is popular during the Chinese New Year celebration period, it is available everywhere and eaten year round as a popular snack. Bean Sprouts Chicken - Ipoh's most well known dish, Bean Sprouts Chicken consists of poached or steamed chicken accompanied with a plate of blanched locally grown bean sprouts in a simple dressing of soy sauce and sesame oil; the crunchy and stout texture of Ipoh-grown bean sprouts is attributed to the mineral-rich properties of local water supplies. The dish is served with hor fun noodles in a chicken broth, or plain rice. Beaufort Mee is a speciality of Beaufort town. Handmade noodles are smoked wok-tossed with meat or seafood and plenty of choy sum, finished off with a thick viscous gravy. Cantonese fried noodles refers to a preparation of noodles which are shallow or deep fried to a crisp served as the base for a thick egg and cornstarch white sauce cooked with sliced lean pork and green vegetables like choy sum.
A related dish called wa tan hor uses hor fun noodles, but the noodles are not deep fried charred. Another variation called yuen yong involves mixing both crisp-fried rice vermicelli as well as hor fun to form a base for the sauce. Chai tow kway - a common dish in Malaysia made of rice flour, it known as fried radish cake, although no radish is included within the rice cakes, save the occasional addition of preserved radish during the cooking process. Seasonings and additives vary from region, may include bean sprouts and eggs. Char kway teow. Stir fried rice noodles with bean sprouts, eggs and thin slices of preserved Chinese sausages. Cockles and lardons were once standard offerings, but relegated to optional additions these days due to changing taste preferences and growing health concerns. Penang-style char kway teow is the most regarded variant both in Malaysia as well as abroad. Chee cheong fun is square rice sheets made from a viscous mixture of rice water; this liquid is poured onto a specially made flat pan in which it is steamed to produce the square rice sheets.
The steamed rice sheets is folded for ease in serving. It is served with tofu stuffed with fish paste; the dish is eaten with accompaniment of semi sweet fermented bean paste sauce, chilli paste or light vegetable curry gravy. Ipoh and Penang have different versions of the dish as well. Chun gen is beef wrapped with a thin omelette and steamed; the name is derived from the Hakka word for the spring season, pronounced as "chun". It is said to have been around since Chunqiu period with a rumor of
Teochew cuisine known as Chiuchow cuisine, Chaozhou cuisine or Chaoshan cuisine, originated from the Chaoshan region in the eastern part of China's Guangdong Province, which includes the cities of Chaozhou and Jieyang. Teochew cuisine bears more similarities to that of Fujian cuisine Southern Min cuisine, due to the similarity of Chaoshan's and Fujian's culture and their geographic proximity to each other. However, Teochew cuisine is influenced by Cantonese cuisine in its style and technique. Teochew cuisine is well known for its vegetarian dishes, its use of flavouring is much less heavy-handed than most other Chinese cuisines and depends much on the freshness and quality of the ingredients for taste and flavour. As a delicate cuisine, oil is not used in large quantities and there is a heavy emphasis on poaching and braising, as well as the common Chinese method of stir-frying. Teochew cuisine is known for serving congee, in addition to steamed rice or noodles with meals; the Teochew mue is rather different from the Cantonese counterpart, being watery with the rice sitting loosely at the bottom of the bowl, while the Cantonese dish is more a thin gruel.
Authentic Teochew restaurants serve strong oolong tea called Tieguanyin in tiny cups before and after the meal. Presented as gongfu tea, the tea has a thickly bittersweet taste, colloquially known as gam gam. A condiment, popular in Fujian and Taiwanese cuisine and associated with cuisine of certain Teochew groups is shacha sauce, it is made from soybean oil, shallots, brill fish and dried shrimp. The paste has a savoury and spicy taste; as an ingredient, it has multiple uses: as a base for soups, as a rub for barbecued meats, as a seasoning for stir-fried dishes, or as a component for dipping sauces. In addition to soy sauce, the Teochew diaspora in Southeast Asia use fish sauce in their cooking, it is used as a flavouring agent in soups and sometimes as a dipping sauce, as in Vietnamese spring rolls. Teochew chefs use a special stock called superior broth; this stock is continuously replenished. Portrayed in popular media, some Hong Kong chefs use the same superior broth, preserved for decades.
This stock can as well be seen on Chaozhou TV's cooking programmes. There is a notable feast in Teochew cuisine called jiat dot. A myriad of dishes are served, which include shark fin soup, bird's nest soup, steamed fish, roasted suckling pig and braised goose. Teochew chefs take pride in their skills of vegetable carving, carved vegetables are used as garnishes on cold dishes and on the banquet table. Teochew cuisine is known for a late night meal known as meh siao or daa laang among the Cantonese. Teochew people enjoy eating out close at roadside food stalls; some dai pai dong-like eateries stay open till dawn. Unlike the typical menu selections of many other Chinese cuisines, Teochew restaurant menus have a dessert section. Many people of Chaoshan origin known as Teochiu or Teochew people, have settled in Hong Kong and places in Southeast Asia like Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand. Influences they bring can be noted in that of other settlements. A large number of Teochew people have settled in Taiwan, evident in Taiwanese cuisine.
Other notable Teochew diaspora communities are in France. There is a large diaspora of Teochew people in the United States - in California. There is a Teochew Chinese Association in Paris called L'Amicale des Teochews en France. List of Chinese dishes Teochew porridge Teochew people Yeo's Teochew Popiah Recipe Jenius' Teochew peach shaped kueh Recipe