Side-scan sonar is a category of sonar system, used to efficiently create an image of large areas of the sea floor. Side-scan sonar may be used to conduct surveys for marine archaeology. Side-scan sonar imagery is a used tool to detect debris items and other obstructions on the seafloor that may be hazardous to shipping or to seafloor installations by the oil and gas industry. In addition, the status of pipelines and cables on the seafloor can be investigated using side-scan sonar. Side-scan data are acquired along with bathymetric soundings and sub-bottom profiler data, thus providing a glimpse of the shallow structure of the seabed. Side-scan sonar is used for fisheries research, dredging operations and environmental studies, it has military applications including mine detection. Side-scan uses a sonar device that emits conical or fan-shaped pulses down toward the seafloor across a wide angle perpendicular to the path of the sensor through the water, which may be towed from a surface vessel or submarine, or mounted on the ship's hull.
The intensity of the acoustic reflections from the seafloor of this fan-shaped beam is recorded in a series of cross-track slices. When stitched together along the direction of motion, these slices form an image of the sea bottom within the swath of the beam; the sound frequencies used in side-scan sonar range from 100 to 500 kHz. The earliest side-scan sonars used a single conical-beam transducer. Next, units were made with two transducers to cover both sides; the transducers were either contained in one hull-mounted package or with two packages on either side of the vessel. Next the transducers evolved to fan-shaped beams to produce sonar image. In order to get closer to the bottom in deep water the side-scan transducers were placed in a "tow fish" and pulled by a tow cable. Up until the mid-1980s, commercial side scan images were produced on paper records; the early paper records were produced with a sweeping plotter that burned the image into a scrolling paper record. Plotters allowed for the simultaneous plotting of position and ship motion information onto the paper record.
In the late 1980s, commercial systems using the newer, cheaper computer systems developed digital scan-converters that could mimic more cheaply the analog scan converters used by the military systems to produce TV and computer displayed images of the scan, store them on video tape. Data is stored on computer hard drives or solid-state media. One of the inventors of side-scan sonar was German scientist, Dr. Julius Hagemann, brought to the US after World War II and worked at the US Navy Mine Defense Laboratory, Panama City, FL from 1947 until his death in 1964, his work is documented in US Patent 4,197,591, first disclosed in Aug 1958, but remained classified by the US Navy until it was issued in 1980. Experimental side-scan sonar systems were made during the 1950s in laboratories including Scripps Institution of Oceanography and Hudson Laboratories and by Dr. Harold Edgerton at MIT. Military side-scan sonars were made in the 1950s by Westinghouse. Advanced systems were developed and built for special military purposes, such as to find H-Bombs lost at sea or to find a lost Russian submarine, at the Westinghouse facility in Annapolis up through the 1990s.
This group produced the first and only working Angle Look Sonar that could trace objects while looking under the vehicle. The first commercial side-scan system was the Kelvin Hughes "Transit Sonar", a converted echo-sounder with a single-channel, pole-mounted, fan-beam transducer introduced around 1960. In 1963 Dr. Harold Edgerton, Edward Curley, John Yules used a conical-beam 12 kHz side-scan sonar to find the sunken Vineyard Lightship in Buzzards Bay, Massachusetts. A team led by Martin Klein at Edgerton, Germeshausen & Grier developed the first successful towed, dual-channel commercial side-scan sonar system from 1963 to 1966. Martin Klein is considered to be the "father" of commercial side-scan sonar. In 1967, Edgerton used Klein's sonar to help Alexander McKee find Henry VIII's flagship Mary Rose; that same year Klein used the sonar to help archaeologist George Bass find a 2000-year-old ship off the coast of Turkey. In 1968 Klein founded Klein Associates and continued to work on improvements including the first commercial high frequency systems and the first dual-frequency side-scan sonars, the first combined side-scan and sub-bottom profiling sonar.
In 1985, Charles Mazel of Klein Associates produced the first commercial side-scan sonar training videos and the first Side Scan Sonar Training Manual and two oceanographers found the wreck of the RMS Titanic. For surveying large areas, the GLORIA sidescan sonar was developed by Marconi Underwater Systems and the Institute of Oceanographic Sciences for NERC; this operated at low frequencies to obtain long range. It was used by the US Geological Survey and the IOS in the UK to obtain images of continental shelves worldwide. Aperture synthesis Beamforming Phased array Sonar 2087 Synthetic aperture sonar Marine Sonic HDS Sonar System Side Scan Sonar Use of side scan sonar to recover drowning victims Pictures and description of USGS Benthos SIS-1000 sidescan sonar tow vehicle. NOAA's use of sidescan and multibeam sonar to make official US nautical charts Examples of geocoded sidescan
Asbury Theological Seminary is an evangelical Christian seminary in Wilmore, Kentucky. It is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools and the Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. Asbury Theological Seminary was founded in Wilmore, Kentucky in 1923 by its first president, Henry Clay Morrison, at the time the president of Asbury College. In 1940, Asbury Seminary separated from the college in order to satisfy accreditation requirements; because of the proximity of the two schools, similar name, common theological heritage, many people confuse the relationship between the college and the seminary. While they are separate institutions, the schools maintain a collegial relationship that benefits both communities; the current president of Asbury Seminary is Dr. Timothy Tennent, Ph. D. who has served as the eighth President since July 1, 2009. Henry Clay Morrison J. C. McPheeters Frank Stanger David McKenna Maxie Dunnam Jeff Greenway Ellsworth Kalas Timothy Tennent In addition to the main campus at Wilmore, the seminary offers courses at the Florida Dunnam Campus in Orlando, through online courses, extension sites in Memphis, TN and Tulsa, OK.
Asbury Theological Seminary is accredited by the Commission on Colleges of the Southern Association of Colleges and Schools to award master's and doctoral degrees. It is an accredited member of The Association of Theological Schools in the United States and Canada. Asbury Theological Seminary does not, within the context of its religious principles, its heritage, its mission, its goals, discriminate on the basis of race, national origin, physical impairment, or gender in administration of its admission policies, educational policies and loan programs, athletic or other school-administered programs; the seminary is authorized under federal law to enroll nonimmigrant alien students. Craig S. Keener, professor of New Testament, known for his expertise in Greco-Roman and Jewish sources. John N. Oswalt, visiting distinguished professor of Old Testament, involved with the NIV and NLT Bible translations and author of a major commentary on Isaiah. Ben Witherington III, Jean R. Amos Professor of New Testament for Doctoral Studies and prolific author.
Jacob DeShazer, a member of the Doolittle Raid, prisoner of war in Japan, a missionary to Japan in the Free Methodist Church. Jim Garlow, pastor of Skyline Church in San Diego Alfred W. Gwinn, former United Methodist Bishop of the North Carolina Annual Conference Stephen Hance, Church of England priest and Dean of Derby Cathedral Joe Hilley, New York Times bestselling author James W. Holsinger, M. Div. Former chair of Board of Trustees, former member of the Board of Trustees, nominated United States Surgeon General. David Seamands, United Methodist pastor and writer Ted Strickland, 68th Governor of Ohio and former member of the United States House of Representatives. David Toshio Tsumura, noted Christian scholar and author of New International Commentary on the Old Testament. Official website
Second Chance is a rock opera conceived by Stéphane Prémont and Frédérick Desroches about high schoolers' not-so-easy lives. The central character, sees his life turn sour because of rumors and bad communication; the story deals with suicide, anorexia and teen pregnancy. It is based on his first play entitled Holding Out for Hero, presented in 1994, he started composing the musical version of the show in 2008, the finished product was ready that year, in August. The original run started on March 15, 2009. A French production opened in February 2010 at the Quebec City Salle Dina-Belanger, it was the first professional production of the show. Stéphane Prémont received the "Personnel Engagé" Prize at the "Forces Avenir" gala presented June 14, 2008 at the Capitole's Cabaret in Quebec City; the original run of the musical played at the 400-seats Externat Saint-Jean-Eudes' Auditorium under the name Second Chance. The show was performed nine times between March 15, 2009 and March 21, 2009. Stephane Prémont and Émilie Desgagnés directed the production, François Ouellet designed the lighting and Jean-François "Frisco" Roy was the sound engineer.
Roxanne Rondeau, Justine Bilodeau, Sarah Morin and Valerie Goulet-Marceau were the choreographers, Genevieve Brousseau was the vocal arranger. A new production opened in February 2010 in Quebec City. There were several major changes in the plot, including the translation of the show into French by Alexandre Martel and the show's name changed to Au Pied du Mur, it was a two-week run at the Salle Dina-Bélanger. Jean-Pierre Cloutier, "Conservatoire d'art dramatique de Québec" alumni, directed the new production. 2010 French Cast Understudies: Yannick Vézina, 2009 Original Quebec City Cast Ensemble and understudies: Genevieve Brousseau, Stéphane Prémont, Alexandre Martel, Justine Bilodeau, Sarah Morin, Valérie Goulet-Marceau, Roxanne Rondeau Previous roles that were cut during the productions process: Au Pied du Mur