A slide show is a presentation of a series of still images on a projection screen or electronic display device in a prearranged sequence. The changes may be automatic and at regular intervals or they may be manually controlled by a presenter or the viewer. Slide shows consisted of a series of individual photographic slides projected onto a screen with a slide projector; when referring to the video or computer-based visual equivalent, in which the slides are not individual physical objects, the term is written as one word, slideshow. A slide show may be a presentation of images purely for their own visual interest or artistic value, sometimes unaccompanied by description or text, or it may be used to clarify or reinforce information, comments, solutions or suggestions which are presented verbally. Slide shows are sometimes still conducted by a presenter using an apparatus such as a carousel slide projector or an overhead projector, but now the use of an electronic video display device and a computer running presentation software is typical.
Slide shows had their beginnings in the 1600s, when hand-painted images on glass were first projected onto a wall with a "magic lantern". By the late 1700s, showmen were using magic lanterns to thrill audiences with supernatural apparitions in a popular form of entertainment called a phantasmagoria. Sunlight and oil lamps were the only available light sources; the development of new, much brighter artificial light sources opened up a world of practical applications for image projection. In the 1800s, a series of hand-painted glass "lantern slides" was sometimes projected to illustrate story-telling or a lecture. Widespread and varied uses for amusement and education evolved throughout the century. By 1900, photographic images on glass had replaced hand-painted images, but the black-and-white photographs were sometimes hand-colored with transparent dyes; the production of lantern slides had become a considerable industry, with dimensions standardized at 3.25 inches high by 4 inches wide in the US and 3.25 inches square in the UK and much of Europe.
"Magic lantern shows" served as a form of home entertainment and were popular with children. They continued to have a place among commercial public amusements after the coming of projected "moving pictures". Between films, early movie theaters featured "illustrated songs", which were community sing-alongs with the lyrics and illustrations provided by a series of projected lantern slides. Theaters used their lanterns to project advertising slides and messages such as "Ladies, kindly remove your hats". After 35 mm Kodachrome color film was introduced in 1936, a new standard 2×2 inch miniature lantern slide format was created to better suit the small transparencies the film produced. In advertising, the antique "magic lantern" terminology was streamlined, so that the framed pieces of film were "slides" and the lantern used to project them was a "slide projector"; the old-fashioned magic lantern show became an up-to-date "slide show". Home slide shows were a common phenomenon in middle-class American homes during the 1950s and 1960s.
If there was an enthusiast in the family, any visit from relatives or the arrival of a new batch of Kodachrome slides from the film processing service provided an excuse to bring out the entire collection of 35 mm slides, set up the slide projector and the screen, turn out the lights test the endurance of the assembled audience with a marathon of old vacation photos and pictures taken at weddings and other family events, all accompanied by live commentary. An image on 35 mm film mounted in a 2×2 inch metal, card or plastic frame is still by far the most common photographic slide format. A well-organized slide show allows a presenter to fit visual images to an oral presentation; the old adage "A picture is worth a thousand words" holds true, in that a single image can save a presenter from speaking a paragraph of descriptive details. As with any public speaking or lecturing, a certain amount of talent and rehearsal is required to make a successful slide show presentation. Presentation software is most used in the business world, where millions of presentations are created daily.
Another important area where it is used is for instructional purposes with the intention of creating a dynamic, audiovisual presentation. The relevant points to the entire presentation are put on slides, accompany a spoken monologue. Slide shows have artistic uses as well, such as being used as a screensaver, or to provide dynamic imagery for a museum presentation, for example, or in installation art. David Byrne, among others, has created PowerPoint art. Since the late 1960s, visual artists have used slide shows in museums and galleries as a device, either for presenting specific information about an action or research or as a phenomenological form in itself. According to the introduction of Slide Show, an exhibition organized at the Baltimore Museum of Art: “Through the simple technology of the slide projector and 35 mm color transparency, artists discovered a tool that enabled the transformation of space through the magnification of projected pictures and images.” Although some artists have not used 35 mm or color slides, some, such as Robert Barry, have abandoned images for texts, 35 mm color film slides are most used.
The images are sometimes accompanied by written text, either as an intertitle. Some artists, such as James Coleman and Robert Smithson, have used a voice-over with their slide presentations. Slide shows have been used by artists who use other media such as painting and sculpture to present their work publicly. In recent years there has been a growin
In biomechanics, balance is an ability to maintain the line of gravity of a body within the base of support with minimal postural sway. Sway is the horizontal movement of the centre of gravity when a person is standing still. A certain amount of sway is essential and inevitable due to small perturbations within the body or from external triggers. An increase in sway is not an indicator of dysfunctional balance so much as it is an indicator of decreased sensorimotor control. Maintaining balance requires coordination of input from multiple sensory systems including the vestibular and visual systems. Vestibular system: sense organs that regulate equilibrium. There are environmental factors that can affect balance such as light conditions, floor surface changes, alcohol and ear infection. There are balance impairments associated with aging. Age-related decline in the ability of the above systems to receive and integrate sensory information contributes to poor balance in older adults; as a result, the elderly are at an increased risk of falls.
In fact, one in three adults aged 65 and over will fall each year. In the case of an individual standing upright, the limit of stability is defined as the amount of postural sway at which balance is lost and corrective action is required. Body sway can occur in all planes of motion, which make it an difficult ability to rehabilitate. There is strong evidence in research showing that deficits in postural balance is related to the control of medial-lateral stability and an increased risk of falling. To remain balanced, a person standing must be able to keep the vertical projection of their center of mass within their base of support, resulting in little medial-lateral or anterior-posterior sway. Ankle sprains are one of the most occurring injuries among athletes and physically active people; the most common residual disability post ankle sprain is instability along with body sway. Mechanical instability includes insufficient stabilizing structures and mobility that exceed physiological limits. Functional instability involves a feeling of giving way of the ankle.
Nearly 40 % of patients with ankle sprains suffer from an increase in body sway. Injury to the ankle causes impaired postural control. Individuals with muscular weakness, occult instability, decreased postural control are more susceptible to ankle injury than those with better postural control. Balance can be affected in individuals with neurological conditions. People who suffer a stroke or spinal cord injury for example, can struggle with this ability. Impaired balance is associated with future function and recovery after a stroke, is the strongest predictor of falls. Another population where balance is affected is Parkinson's disease patients. A study done by Nardone and Schieppati showed that individuals with Parkinson's disease problems in balance have been related to a reduced limit of stability and an impaired production of anticipatory motor strategies and abnormal calibration. Balance can be negatively affected in a normal population through fatigue in the musculature surrounding the ankles and hips.
Studies have found, that muscle fatigue around the hips and knees have a greater effect on postural stability. It is thought that muscle fatigue leads to a decreased ability to contract with the correct amount of force or accuracy; as a result and kinesthetic feedback from joints are altered so that conscious joint awareness may be negatively effected. Since balance is a key predictor of recovery and is required in so many of our activities of daily living, it is introduced into treatment plans by physiotherapists and occupational therapists when dealing with geriatrics, patients with neurological conditions, or others whom they have determined it to be beneficial. Balance training in stroke patients has been supported in the literature. Methods used and proven to be effective for this population include sitting or standing balance practice with various progressions including reaching, variations in base of support, use of tilt boards, gait training varying speed, stair climbing exercises. Another method to improve balance is perturbation training, an external force applied to a person's center of mass in an attempt to move it from the base of support.
The type of training should be determined by a physiotherapist and will depend on the nature and severity of the stroke, stage of recovery, the patient's abilities and impairments after the stroke. Populations such as the elderly, children with neuromuscular diseases, those with motor deficits such as chronic ankle instability have all been studied and balance training has been shown to result in improvements in postural sway and improved “one-legged stance balance” in these groups; the effects of balance training can be measured by
Lollapalooza is an annual 4-day music festival based in Chicago, Illinois at Grant Park. Performances include but are not limited to alternative rock, heavy metal, punk rock, hip hop, electronic music. Lollapalooza has provided a platform for non-profit and political groups and various visual artists; the music festival hosts more than 160,000 people each year. Conceived and created in 1991 by Jane's Addiction singer Perry Farrell as a farewell tour for his band, Lollapalooza ran annually until 1997, was revived in 2003. From its inception through 1997 and its revival in 2003, the festival toured North America. In 2004, the festival organizers decided to expand the dates to two days per city, but poor ticket sales forced the 2004 tour to be cancelled. In 2005, Farrell and the William Morris Agency partnered with Austin, Texas–based company Capital Sports Entertainment and retooled it into its current format as a weekend destination festival in Chicago at Grant Park. In 2014, Live Nation Entertainment bought a controlling interest in C3 Presents.
In 2010 it was announced that Lollapalooza would debut outside the United States, with a branch of the festival staged in Chile's capital Santiago on April 2–3, 2011 where they partnered up with Santiago-based company Lotus. In 2011, the company Geo Events confirmed the Brazilian version of the event, held at the Jockey Club in São Paulo on 7 and 8 April 2012. In September 2013, Buenos Aires was selected as the third Lollapalooza in South America, starting on April 2014, in November 2014, the first European Lollapalooza was announced, held at the former Tempelhof Airport in Berlin; the word—sometimes alternatively spelled and pronounced as lollapalootza or lalapaloosa—or "lallapaloosa" dates from a late 19th-/early 20th-century American idiomatic phrase meaning "an extraordinary or unusual thing, person, or event. Its earliest known use was in 1896. In time the term came to refer to a large lollipop. Farrell, searching for a name for his festival, liked the euphonious quality of the by-then-antiquated term upon hearing it in a Three Stooges short film.
Paying homage to the term's double meaning, a character in the festival's original logo holds one of the lollipops. The word has caused a slang suffix to appear in event-planning circles as well as in news and opinion shows, used synonymously with other suffixes like "a-go-go", "o-rama", etc; the suffix "palooza" is used to imply that an entire event or crowd was made over that term, e.g.: "Parks"-apalooza, popular Chicago sushi restaurant "Roll"-apalooza, etc. Inspired by events such as Britain's Reading Festival – which Lollapalooza cofounder Perry Farrell had been due to play in 1990 – Farrell, Ted Gardner, Don Muller, Marc Geiger conceived the festival in 1990 as a farewell for Farrell's band Jane's Addiction. Unlike previous festivals such as Woodstock, A Gathering of the Tribes and the US Festival, which were one-time events held at single venues, Lollapalooza toured across the United States and Canada from mid-July until late August 1991; the inaugural lineup was made up of artists from industrial music and rap.
Another key concept was the inclusion of nonmusical features. Performers such as the Jim Rose Circus Side Show, an alternative freak show, the Shaolin monks stretched the boundaries of rock culture. There was a tent for display of art pieces, virtual reality games, information tables for political and environmental non-profit groups, promoting counter-culture and political awareness. "Basically, I'm bored," Farrell said at the time. "I just want to see things that are unexpected and bizarre. The way Barnum & Bailey perceived putting on a show... well, they had a different angle." It was at Lollapalooza where Farrell coined the term "Alternative Nation". The explosion of alternative rock in the early 1990s propelled Lollapalooza forward. Punk rock standbys like mosh pits and crowd surfing became part of the canon of the concerts; these years saw great increases in the participatory nature of the event with the inclusion of booths for open-microphone readings and oratory, television-smashing pits and tattooing and piercing parlors.
After 1991, the festival included a second stage for local acts. Attendee complaints of the festival included high ticket prices as well as the high cost for food and water at the shows; the festival played at the Alpine Valley festival in East Troy, Wisconsin on August 29, 1992, at World Music Theater in Tinley Park, IL, where concertgoers ripped up chunks of sod and grass and threw them at each other and at the bands, resulting in tens of thousands of dollars in damages to the venue. Grunge band Nirvana was scheduled to headline at the festival in 1994, but the band dropped out of the festival on April 7, 1994. Nirvana frontman Kurt Cobain's body was discovered in Seattle the next day. Cobain's widow, Courtney Love, made guest appearances at several shows, including the Philadelphia show at FDR Park, speaking to the crowds about the loss singing a minimum of two songs. Farrell worked with rock poster artist Jim Evans to create a series of posters and the complete graphic decoration for the 1994 event, including two 70 foot tall Buddha statues that f
Coney Island USA
Coney Island USA is a 501 not-for-profit arts organization founded in 1980, dedicated to the cultural and economic revitalization of the Coney Island neighborhood of the Borough of Brooklyn in New York City. Its landmark building in the heart of Coney Island's amusement district houses a theater in which the organization presents "Sideshows by the Seashore", a showcase for performers with unusual talents that runs continuously during the warmer months, as well as the Coney Island Museum, it is notable as the organizer of the annual Coney Island Mermaid Parade, the first of which took place in 1983. The Coney Island Museum features artifacts and memorabilia about the amusement park and neighborhood's history and culture, as well as changing exhibits of art and culture; the museum is open seasonally. Coney Island USA was founded in 1980 by Jane Savitt-Tennen and Dick D. Zigun. Coney Island USA is governed by a Board of Directors composed of Jeff Birnbaum, Mark Alhadeff, Jane Crotty, Kate Dale, Carol Spawn Desmond, John di Domenico, Harris M. Falk, Marie Roberts, Lynn Kelly, Jon Dohlin, David Loewy, Lisa Mangels-Schaefer, Rick Himes, Dick D. Zigun, James Fitzsimmons.
Legal Advice is provided by Gibson, Dunn & Crutscher, LLP, Lewis & Bockius, LLP and Frankfurt, Klein & Selz, PC. Coney Island USA is funded, in part, the New York City Department of Cultural Affairs, the New York Council for the Humanities, Brooklyn Borough President Eric Adams, New York City Councilman Mark Treyger and its members. Official website Tumblr
A freak show is an exhibition of biological rarities, referred to in popular culture as "freaks of nature". Typical features would be physically unusual humans, such as those uncommonly large or small, those with both male and female secondary sexual characteristics, those with extraordinary diseases and conditions, others with performances expected to be shocking to viewers. Tattooed or pierced people have sometimes been seen in freak shows, as have attention-getting physical performers such as fire-eating and sword-swallowing acts. In the mid-16th century, freak shows became popular pastimes in England. Deformities began to be treated as objects of interest and entertainment, the crowds flocked to see them exhibited. A famous early modern example was the exhibition at the court of Charles I of Lazarus and Joannes Baptista Colloredo, two conjoined brothers born in Genoa, Italy. While Lazarus appeared to be otherwise ordinary, the underdeveloped body of his brother dangled from his chest; when Lazarus was not exhibiting himself, he covered his brother with his cloak to avoid unnecessary attention.
As well as exhibitions, freak shows were popular in the taverns and fairgrounds where the freaks were combined with talent displays. For example, in the 18th century, Matthias Buchinger, born without arms or lower legs, entertained crowds with astonishing displays of magic and musical ability, both in England and Ireland, it was in the 19th century, both in England and the United States, where freak shows reached maturity as successful commercially run enterprises. During the late 19th century and the early 20th century freak shows were at their height of popularity. Although not all abnormalities were real, some being alleged, the exploitation for profit was seen as an accepted part of American culture; the attractiveness of freak shows led to the spread of the shows that were seen at amusement parks, dime museums and vaudeville. The amusement park industry flourished in the United States by the expanding middle class who benefited from short work weeks and a larger income. There was a shift in American culture which influenced people to see leisure activities as a necessary and beneficial equivalent to working, thus leading to the popularity of the freak show.
The showmen and promoters exhibited all types of freaks. People who appeared non-white or who had a disability were exhibited as unknown races and cultures; these “unknown” races and disabled whites were advertised as being undiscovered humans to attract viewers. For example, those with microcephaly, a condition linked to mental retardation and characterized by a small, pointed head and small overall structure, were considered or characterized as “missing links” or as atavistic specimens of an extinct race. Hypopituitary dwarfs who tend to be well proportioned and physically attractive, were advertised as lofty. Achondroplastic dwarfs, whose head and limbs tend to be out of proportion to their trunks, were characterized as exotic mode; those who were armless, legless, or limbless were characterized in the exotic mode as animal-people, such as “The Snake-Man”, “The Seal man”. There were four ways freak shows were marketed; the first was lecture. This featured a showman or professor who managed the presentation of the people or “freaks”.
The second was a printed advertisement using long pamphlets and broadside or newspaper advertisement of the freak show. The third step included costuming, choreography and space used to display the show, designed to emphasize the things that were considered abnormal about each performer; the final stage was a collectable drawing or photograph that portrayed the group of freaks on stage for viewers to take home. The collectable printed souvenirs were accompanied by recordings of the showmen’s pitch, the lecturer’s yarn, the professor’s exaggerated accounts of what was witnessed at the show. Exhibits were authenticated by doctors who used medical terms that many could not comprehend but which added an air of authenticity to the proceedings. Freak show culture normalized a specific way of thinking about gender, sexual aberrance and disability. Scholars believe that freak shows contributed to the way American culture views nonconforming bodies. Freak shows were a space for the general public to scrutinize bodies different from their own, from dark-skinned people, to victims of war and diseases, to ambiguously sexed bodies.
People felt that paying to view these “freaks” gave them permission to compare themselves favorably to the freaks. During the first decade of the twentieth century the popularity of the freak show was starting to dwindle. In their prime, freak shows had been the main attraction of the midway, but by 1940 they were starting to lose their audience, with credible people turning their backs on the show. In the nineteenth century science supported and legitimized the growth of freak shows, but by the twentieth century, the medicalization of human abnormalities contributed to the end of the exhibits' mystery and appeal. P. T. Barnum was considered the father of modern-day advertising, one of the most famous showmen/managers of the freak show industry. In the United States he was a major figure in popularizing the entertainment. However, it was common for Barnum's acts to be schemes and not altogether true. Barnum was aware of the improper ethics behind his business as he said, "I don't believe in duping the public, but I believe in first attracting and pleasing them."
During the 1840s Barnum began his museum, which had a rotating acts schedule, which included The Fat Lady
Acrobatics is the performance of extraordinary human feats of balance and motor coordination. It can be found in many of the performing arts, sporting events, martial arts. Acrobatics is most associated with activities that make extensive use of gymnastic elements, such as acro dance and gymnastics, but many other athletic activities — such as ballet and diving — may employ acrobatics. Although acrobatics is most associated with human body performance, it may apply to other types of performance, such as aerobatics. Acrobatic traditions are found in many cultures, there is evidence that the earliest such traditions occurred thousands of years ago. For example, Minoan art from c. 2000 BC contains depictions of acrobatic feats on the backs of bulls. Ancient Greeks practiced acrobatics, the noble court displays of the European Middle Ages would include acrobatic performances that included juggling. In China, acrobatics have been a part of the culture since the Western Han Dynasty. Acrobatics were part of village harvest festivals.
During the Tang Dynasty, acrobatics saw much the same sort of development as European acrobatics saw during the Middle Ages, with court displays during the 7th through 10th century dominating the practice. Acrobatics continues to be an important part of modern Chinese variety art. Though the term applied to tightrope walking, in the 19th century, a form of performance art including circus acts began to use the term as well. In the late 19th century and other acrobatic and gymnastic activities became competitive sport in Europe. Acrobatics has served as a subject for fine art. Examples of this are paintings such as Acrobats at the Cirque Fernando by Impressionist Pierre-Auguste Renoir, which depicts two German acrobatic sisters, Pablo Picasso's 1905 Acrobat and Young Harlequin, Acrobats in a Paris suburb by Viktor Vasnetsov. An aerialist is an acrobat who performs in the air, on a suspended apparatus such as a trapeze, cloud swing, aerial cradle, aerial pole, aerial silk, or aerial hoop. Acrobatic gymnastics Contortion List of acrobatic activities
Slacklining refers to the act of walking or balancing along a suspended length of flat webbing, tensioned between two anchors. Slacklining is similar to tightrope walking. Slacklines differ from tightwires and tightropes in the type of material used and the amount of tension applied during use. Slacklines are tensioned less than tightropes or tightwires in order to create a dynamic line which will stretch and bounce like a long and narrow trampoline. Tension can be adjusted to suit the user, different webbing may be used in various circumstances. Urbanlining or urban slacklining combines all the different styles of slacklining, it is practiced for example in city parks and on the streets. Most urban slackliners prefer wide 2-inch lines for tricklining on the streets, but some may use narrow lines for longline purposes or for waterlining. See the other sections of slackline styles below. One type of urbanlining is timelining, where one tries to stay on a slackline for as long as possible without falling down.
This takes tremendous concentration and focus of will, is a great endurance training for postural muscles. Another type of urbanlining is streetlining, which combines street workout power moves with the slackline's dynamic, bouncy feeling. Main focus are static handstands, super splits — hands and feet together, front lever, back lever, one arm handstand and other interesting extreme moves that are evolving in street workout culture. Tricklining has become the most common form of slacklining because of the easy setup of 2-inch slackline kits. Tricklining is done low to the ground but can be done on highlines as well. A great number of tricks can be done on the line, because the sport is new, there is plenty of room for new tricks; some of the basic tricks done today are walking, walking backwards, drop knee and jumping onto the slackline to start walking, bounce walking. Some intermediate tricks include: Buddha sit, sitting down, lying down, cross-legged knee drop, surfing forward, surfing sideways, jump turns, or "180s."
Some of the advanced tricks are: jumps, tree plants, jumping from line-to-line, 360s, butt bounces, chest bounces. With advancements in webbing technology & tensioning systems, the limits for what can be done on a slackline are being pushed constantly, it is not uncommon to see expert slackliners incorporating flips and twists into slackline trick combinations. Highlining is slacklining at elevation above the water. Many slackliners consider highlining to be the pinnacle of the sport. Highlines are set up in locations that have been used or are still used for Tyrolean traverse; when rigging highlines, experienced slackers take measures to ensure that solid and equalized anchors are used to secure the line into position. Modern highline rigging entails a mainline of webbing, backup webbing, either climbing rope or amsteel rope for redundancy. However, many highlines are rigged with a mainline and backup only if the highline is low tension, or rigged with high quality webbing like Type 18 or MKII Spider Silk.
It is common to pad all areas of the rigging which might come in contact with abrasive surfaces. To ensure safety, most highliners wear a climbing harness or swami belt with a leash attached to the slackline itself. Leash-less, or "free-solo" slacklining – a term loosely taken from rockclimbing – is not unheard of, with proponents such as Dean Potter and Andy Lewis. Slackline yoga takes traditional yoga moves them to the slackline, it has been described as "distilling the art of yogic concentration". To balance on a 1-inch piece of webbing tensioned between two trees is not easy, doing yoga poses on it is more challenging; the practice develops focus, dynamic balance, breath, core integration and confidence. Using standing postures, sitting postures, arm balances, kneeling postures and unique vinyasa, a skilled slackline yogi is able to create a flowing yoga practice without falling from the line. Slackline yoga has been covered in Yoga Journal and Climbing Magazine. Rodeo slacklining is the art and practice of cultivating balance on a piece of rope or webbing draped slack between two anchor points about 15 to 30 feet apart and 2 to 3 feet off the ground in the center.
This type of "slack" slackline provides a wide array of opportunities for both swinging and static maneuvers. A rodeo line has no tension in it, while tightropes are tensioned; this slackness in the rope or webbing allows it to swing at large amplitudes and adds a different dynamic. This form of slacklining first came into popularity in 1999, through a group of students from Colby College in Waterville, Maine, it was first written about on a website called the "Vultures Peak Center for Freestyle and Rodeo Slackline Research" in 2004. The article "Old Revolution — New Recognition - 3-10-04" describes these early developments in detail. Windlining is a practice of slacklining performed in windy conditions. Depending on the intensity of the wind, it can be difficult to remain on the line without being blown off; the sensation one experiences is like flying as the slacker must angle his body and arms in an aerodynamic manner to maintain balance. While rope walking has been around in one manner or another for thousands of years, the origins of modern-day slacklining is attributed to a young rock climber named Adam Grosowsky from southern Illinois i