SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory
SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory named Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, is a United States Department of Energy National Laboratory operated by Stanford University under the programmatic direction of the U. S. Department of Energy Office of Science and located in Menlo Park, California. SLAC research centers on a broad program in atomic and solid-state physics, chemistry and medicine using X-rays from synchrotron radiation and a free-electron laser as well as experimental and theoretical research in elementary particle physics, astroparticle physics, cosmology. Founded in 1962 as the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center, the facility is located on 172 hectares of Stanford University-owned land on Sand Hill Road in Menlo Park, California—just west of the University's main campus; the main accelerator is 3.2 kilometers long—the longest linear accelerator in the world—and has been operational since 1966. Research at SLAC has produced three Nobel Prizes in Physics: 1976: The charm quark—see J/ψ meson 1990: Quark structure inside protons and neutrons 1995: The tau leptonSLAC's meeting facilities provided a venue for the Homebrew Computer Club and other pioneers of the home computer revolution of the late 1970s and early 1980s.
In 1984 the laboratory was named an ASME National Historic Engineering Landmark and an IEEE Milestone. SLAC developed and, in December 1991, began hosting the first World Wide Web server outside of Europe. In the early-to-mid 1990s, the Stanford Linear Collider investigated the properties of the Z boson using the Stanford Large Detector; as of 2005, SLAC employed over 1,000 people, some 150 of whom were physicists with doctorate degrees, served over 3,000 visiting researchers yearly, operating particle accelerators for high-energy physics and the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory for synchrotron light radiation research, "indispensable" in the research leading to the 2006 Nobel Prize in Chemistry awarded to Stanford Professor Roger D. Kornberg. In October 2008, the Department of Energy announced that the Center's name would be changed to SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory; the reasons given include a better representation of the new direction of the lab and the ability to trademark the laboratory's name.
Stanford University had opposed the Department of Energy's attempt to trademark "Stanford Linear Accelerator Center". In March 2009 it was announced that the SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory was to receive $68.3 Million in Recovery Act Funding to be disbursed by Department of Energy's Office of Science. The main accelerator was an RF linear accelerator that accelerated electrons and positrons up to 50 GeV. At 3.2 km long, the accelerator was the longest linear accelerator in the world, was claimed to be "the world's most straight object." Until 2017 when the European x-ray free electron laser opened. The main accelerator is buried 9 m below ground and passes underneath Interstate Highway 280; the above-ground klystron gallery atop the beamline is the longest building in the United States. A portion of the original linear accelerator is now part of the Linac Coherent Light Source; the Stanford Linear Collider was a linear accelerator that collided electrons and positrons at SLAC. The center of mass energy was about 90 GeV, equal to the mass of the Z boson, which the accelerator was designed to study.
Grad student Barrett D. Milliken discovered the first Z event on 12 April 1989 while poring over the previous day's computer data from the Mark II detector; the bulk of the data was collected by the SLAC Large Detector, which came online in 1991. Although overshadowed by the Large Electron-Positron Collider at CERN, which began running in 1989, the polarized electron beam at SLC made certain unique measurements possible, such as parity violation in Z Boson-b quark coupling. Presently no beam enters the south and north arcs in the machine, which leads to the Final Focus, therefore this section is mothballed to run beam into the PEP2 section from the beam switchyard; the SLAC Large Detector was the main detector for the Stanford Linear Collider. It was designed to detect Z bosons produced by the accelerator's electron-positron collisions; the SLD operated from 1992 to 1998. PEP began operation in 1980, with center-of-mass energies up to 29 GeV. At its apex, PEP had five large particle detectors in operation, as well as a sixth smaller detector.
About 300 researchers made used of PEP. PEP stopped operating in 1990, PEP-II began construction in 1994. From 1999 to 2008, the main purpose of the linear accelerator was to inject electrons and positrons into the PEP-II accelerator, an electron-positron collider with a pair of storage rings 2.2 km in circumference. PEP-II was host to the BaBar experiment, one of the so-called B-Factory experiments studying charge-parity symmetry; the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource is a synchrotron light user facility located on the SLAC campus. Built for particle physics, it was used in experiments where the J/ψ meson was discovered, it is now used for materials science and biology experiments which take advantage of the high-intensity synchrotron radiation emitted by the stored electron beam to study the structure of molecules. In the early 1990s, an independent electron injector was built for this storage ring, allowing it to operate independently of the main linear accelerator. SLAC plays a primary role in the mission and operation of the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, launched in August 2008.
The principal scientific objectives of this mission are: To understand the mechanisms of particle acceleration in AGNs, SNRs. To resolve the gamma-ray sky: unidentified sources and diffuse emiss
Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its motion, behavior through space and time, that studies the related entities of energy and force. Physics is one of the most fundamental scientific disciplines, its main goal is to understand how the universe behaves. Physics is one of the oldest academic disciplines and, through its inclusion of astronomy the oldest. Over much of the past two millennia, chemistry and certain branches of mathematics, were a part of natural philosophy, but during the scientific revolution in the 17th century these natural sciences emerged as unique research endeavors in their own right. Physics intersects with many interdisciplinary areas of research, such as biophysics and quantum chemistry, the boundaries of physics which are not rigidly defined. New ideas in physics explain the fundamental mechanisms studied by other sciences and suggest new avenues of research in academic disciplines such as mathematics and philosophy. Advances in physics enable advances in new technologies.
For example, advances in the understanding of electromagnetism and nuclear physics led directly to the development of new products that have transformed modern-day society, such as television, domestic appliances, nuclear weapons. Astronomy is one of the oldest natural sciences. Early civilizations dating back to beyond 3000 BCE, such as the Sumerians, ancient Egyptians, the Indus Valley Civilization, had a predictive knowledge and a basic understanding of the motions of the Sun and stars; the stars and planets were worshipped, believed to represent gods. While the explanations for the observed positions of the stars were unscientific and lacking in evidence, these early observations laid the foundation for astronomy, as the stars were found to traverse great circles across the sky, which however did not explain the positions of the planets. According to Asger Aaboe, the origins of Western astronomy can be found in Mesopotamia, all Western efforts in the exact sciences are descended from late Babylonian astronomy.
Egyptian astronomers left monuments showing knowledge of the constellations and the motions of the celestial bodies, while Greek poet Homer wrote of various celestial objects in his Iliad and Odyssey. Natural philosophy has its origins in Greece during the Archaic period, when pre-Socratic philosophers like Thales rejected non-naturalistic explanations for natural phenomena and proclaimed that every event had a natural cause, they proposed ideas verified by reason and observation, many of their hypotheses proved successful in experiment. The Western Roman Empire fell in the fifth century, this resulted in a decline in intellectual pursuits in the western part of Europe. By contrast, the Eastern Roman Empire resisted the attacks from the barbarians, continued to advance various fields of learning, including physics. In the sixth century Isidore of Miletus created an important compilation of Archimedes' works that are copied in the Archimedes Palimpsest. In sixth century Europe John Philoponus, a Byzantine scholar, questioned Aristotle's teaching of physics and noting its flaws.
He introduced the theory of impetus. Aristotle's physics was not scrutinized until John Philoponus appeared, unlike Aristotle who based his physics on verbal argument, Philoponus relied on observation. On Aristotle's physics John Philoponus wrote: “But this is erroneous, our view may be corroborated by actual observation more than by any sort of verbal argument. For if you let fall from the same height two weights of which one is many times as heavy as the other, you will see that the ratio of the times required for the motion does not depend on the ratio of the weights, but that the difference in time is a small one, and so, if the difference in the weights is not considerable, that is, of one is, let us say, double the other, there will be no difference, or else an imperceptible difference, in time, though the difference in weight is by no means negligible, with one body weighing twice as much as the other”John Philoponus' criticism of Aristotelian principles of physics served as an inspiration for Galileo Galilei ten centuries during the Scientific Revolution.
Galileo cited Philoponus in his works when arguing that Aristotelian physics was flawed. In the 1300s Jean Buridan, a teacher in the faculty of arts at the University of Paris, developed the concept of impetus, it was a step toward the modern ideas of momentum. Islamic scholarship inherited Aristotelian physics from the Greeks and during the Islamic Golden Age developed it further placing emphasis on observation and a priori reasoning, developing early forms of the scientific method; the most notable innovations were in the field of optics and vision, which came from the works of many scientists like Ibn Sahl, Al-Kindi, Ibn al-Haytham, Al-Farisi and Avicenna. The most notable work was The Book of Optics, written by Ibn al-Haytham, in which he conclusively disproved the ancient Greek idea about vision, but came up with a new theory. In the book, he presented a study of the phenomenon of the camera obscura (his thousand-year-old
George Joseph Stigler was an American economist, the 1982 laureate in Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences and a key leader of the Chicago School of Economics. Stigler was born in Seattle, the son of Elsie Elizabeth and Joseph Stigler, he spoke German in his childhood. He graduated from the University of Washington in 1931 with a BA and spent a year at Northwestern University from which he obtained his MBA in 1932, it was during his studies at Northwestern that Stigler developed an interest in economics and decided on an academic career. After he received a tuition scholarship from the University of Chicago, Stigler enrolled there in 1933 to study economics and went on to earn his Ph. D. in economics there in 1938. He taught at Iowa State College from 1936 to 1938, he spent much of World War II at Columbia University, performing mathematical and statistical research for the Manhattan Project. He spent one year at Brown University, he served on the Columbia faculty from 1947 to 1958. At Chicago, he was influenced by Frank Knight, his dissertation supervisor.
Milton Friedman, a friend for over 60 years, commented that it was remarkable for Stigler to have passed his dissertation under Knight, as only three or four students had managed to do so in Knight's 28 years at Chicago. Stigler's influences included Jacob Viner and Henry Simons as well as students W. Allen Wallis and Friedman. Stigler is best known for developing the Economic Theory of Regulation known as capture, which says that interest groups and other political participants will use the regulatory and coercive powers of government to shape laws and regulations in a way, beneficial to them; this theory is a component of the public choice field of economics but is deeply opposed by public choice scholars belonging to the "Virginia School," such as Charles Rowley. He carried out extensive research in the history of economic thought. Stigler's most important contribution to economics was published in his landmark article, "The Economics of Information." According to Friedman, Stigler "essentially created a new area of study for economists."
Stigler stressed the importance of information: "One should hardly have to tell academicians that information is a valuable resource: knowledge is power. And yet it occupies a slum dwelling in the town of economics."His 1962 article "Information in the Labor Market" developed the theory of search unemployment. In 1963 he was elected as a Fellow of the American Statistical Association, he was known for his sharp sense of humor, he wrote a number of spoof essays. In his book The Intellectual and the Marketplace, for instance, he proposed Stigler's Law of Demand and Supply Elasticities: "all demand curves are inelastic and all supply curves are inelastic too." The essay referenced studies that found many goods and services to be inelastic over the long run and offered a supposed theoretical proof. Another essay, "A Sketch on the Truth in Teaching," described the consequences of a set of court decisions that held universities responsible for the consequences of teaching errors; the Stigler diet is named after him.
Stigler wrote numerous articles on the history of economics, published in the leading journals and republished 14 of them in 1965. The American Economic Review said, "many of these essays have become such well-known landmarks that no scholar in this field should be unfamiliar with them.... The lucid prose, penetrating logic, wry humor... have become the author's trademarks." However, economist Deirdre McCloskey referred to Stigler as "among the worst historians of economic thought in the history of the discipline" who "read a lot but was defective in paying attention."Stigler was a founding member of the Mont Pelerin Society and was its president from 1976 to 1978. He received National Medal of Science in 1987.. Production and Distribution Theories: The Formative Period. New York: Macmillan. Preview.. "The Economics of Information," Journal of Political Economy, 69, pp. 213–25. "Information in the Labor Market." Journal of Political Economy, 70, Part 2, pp. 94–105. The Intellectual and the Marketplace.
Selected Papers, no. 3. Chicago: University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Reprinted in Sigler, pp. 79–88. "A Dialogue on the Proper Economic Role of the State." Selected Papers, no. 7. Pp. 3–20. Chicago: University of Chicago Graduate School of Business. Capital and Rates of Return in Manufacturing Industries. National Bureau of Economic Research, Princeton, N. J.: Princeton University Press. Essays in the History of Economics. University of Chicago Press. 1965.. The Organization of Industry. Homewood, IL: Richard D. Irwin; the Behavior of Industrial Prices. National Bureau of Economic Research, New York: Columbia University Press. "The Theory of Economic Regulation." Bell Journal of Economics and Management Science, no. 3, pp. 3–18. Citizen and the State: Essays on Regulation. "The Process and Progress of Economics," Nobel Memorial Lecture, 8 December. The Economist as Preacher, Other Essays. Chicago: University of Chicago Press; the Organization of Industry. Memoirs of an Unregulated Economist. University of Chicago Press.
2003. ISBN 978-0-226-77440-4. Autobiography; the Essence of Stigler, K. R. Leube and T. G. Moore, ed. Scroll or page-arrow to respective essays. ISBN 0-8179-8462-3; the Theory of Price, Fourth Edition. New York: Macmillan. Ed. Chicago Studies in Political Economy Stephen Stigler, hi
Palo Alto, California
Palo Alto is a charter city located in the northwest corner of Santa Clara County, United States, in the San Francisco Bay Area. Palo Alto means tall stick in Spanish; the city was established by Leland Stanford Sr. when he founded Stanford University, following the death of his son, Leland Stanford Jr. Palo Alto includes portions of Stanford University and shares its borders with East Palo Alto, Mountain View, Los Altos, Los Altos Hills, Portola Valley, Menlo Park; as of the 2010 census, the city's total resident population is 64,403. Palo Alto is one of the five most expensive cities in the United States to live in and its residents are among the highest educated in the country. Palo Alto is headquarters to a number of high-technology companies, including Hewlett-Packard, Space Systems/Loral, VMware, Ford Research and Innovation Center, PARC, IDEO, Palantir Technologies and Lockheed Martin Advanced Technology Center. Palo Alto has served as an incubator and as headquarters to several other prominent high-technology companies such as Apple, Facebook, Intuit and PayPal.
Prior to the arrival of Europeans, the Ohlone lived on the San Francisco peninsula. The area of modern Palo Alto was first recorded by the 1769 party of Gaspar de Portolà, a 63-man, 200-horse expedition from San Diego to Monterey; the group overshot Monterey in the fog and when they reached modern-day Pacifica, ascended Sweeney Ridge and saw the San Francisco Bay. Portolà descended from Sweeney Ridge southeast down San Andreas Creek to Laguna Creek and the Filoli estate, thence to the San Francisquito Creek watershed camping from November 6–11, 1769 by a tall redwood to be known as El Palo Alto. Thinking the bay was too wide to cross, the group retraced their journey to Monterey, never became aware of the Golden Gate entrance to the Bay. In 1777, Father Junipero Serra established the Mission Santa Clara de Asis, whose northern boundary was San Francisquito Creek and whose lands included modern Palo Alto; the area was under the control of the viceroy of Mexico and under the control of Spain. On November 29, 1777, Pueblo de San Jose de Guadalupe was established by order of the viceroy despite the displeasure of the local mission.
The Mexican War of Independence ending in 1821 led to Mexico becoming an independent country, though San Jose did not recognize rule by the new Mexico until May 10, 1825. Mexico proceeded to grant much of the mission land. During the Mexican–American War, the United States seized Alta California in 1846. Mexican citizens in the area could choose to become United States citizens, their land grants were to be recognized if they chose to do so; the land grant, Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito, of about 2,230-acre on the lower reaches of San Francisquito Creek was given to Maria Antonia Mesa in 1841. She and her husband Rafael Soto had settled in 1835 near present day Newell and Middlefield roads and sold supplies. In 1839, their daughter María Luisa Soto married John Coppinger, to be, in 1841, the grantee of Rancho Cañada de Raymundo. Upon Coppinger's death in 1847, Maria inherited it and married a visiting boat captain, John Greer. Greer owned a home on the site, now Town & Country Village on Embarcadero and El Camino Real.
Greer Avenue and Court are named for him. To the south of the Sotos, the brothers Secundino and Teodoro Robles in 1849 bought Rancho Rincon de San Francisquito from José Peña, the 1841 grantee; the grant covered the area south of Rancho Rinconada del Arroyo de San Francisquito to more or less present day Mountain View. The grant was bounded on the south by Mariano Castro's Rancho Pastoria de las Borregas grant across San Antonio Road; this became the Robles Rancho, which constitutes about 80% of Palo Alto and Stanford University today. In 1863, it was whittled down in the courts to 6,981 acres. Stories say the grand hacienda was built on the former meager adobe of José Peña near Ferne off San Antonio Road, midway between Middlefield and Alma Street, their hacienda hosted fiestas and bull fights. It was ruined in the 1906 earthquake and its lumber was used to build a large barn nearby, said to have lingered until the early 1950s. On April 10, 1853, 250 acres, comprising the present day Barron Park, Matadero Creek and Stanford Business Park, was sold for $2,000 to Elisha Oscar Crosby, who called his new property Mayfield Farm.
The name of Mayfield was attached to the community that started nearby. On September 23, 1856, the Crosby land was transferred to Sarah Wallis to satisfy a debt he owed her. In 1880, Secundino Robles, father to twenty-nine children, still lived just south of Palo Alto, near the location of the present-day San Antonio Shopping Center in Mountain View. Many of the Spanish names in the Palo Alto area represent the local heritage, descriptive terms and former residents. Pena Court, Miranda Avenue, Foothill Expwy, was the married name of Juana Briones and the name occurs in Courts and Avenues and other street names in Palo Alto and Mountain View in the quadrant where she owned vast areas between Stanford University, Grant Road in Mountain View and west of El Camino Real. Yerba Buena was to her credit. Rinconada wa
Professor is an academic rank at universities and other post-secondary education and research institutions in most countries. Professor derives from Latin as a "person who professes" being an expert in arts or sciences, a teacher of the highest rank. In most systems of academic ranks the word "Professor" only refers to the most senior academic position, sometimes informally known as "full professor". In some countries or institutions, the word professor is used in titles of lower ranks such as associate professor and assistant professor; this colloquial usage would be considered incorrect among most other academic communities. However, the unqualified title Professor designated with a capital letter refers to a full professor in English language usage. Professors conduct original research and teach undergraduate and postgraduate courses in their fields of expertise. In universities with graduate schools, professors may mentor and supervise graduate students conducting research for a thesis or dissertation.
In many universities,'full professors' take on senior managerial roles, leading departments, research teams and institutes, filling roles such as president, principal or vice-chancellor. The role of professor may be more public facing than that of more junior staff, professors are expected to be national or international leaders in their field of expertise; the term "professor" was first used in the late 14th century to mean "one who teaches a branch of knowledge". The word comes "...from Old French professeur and directly from Latin professor'person who professes to be an expert in some art or science. As a title, "prefixed to a name, it dates from 1706"; the "hort form prof is recorded from 1838". The term "professor" is used with a different meaning: "ne professing religion; this canting use of the word comes down from the Elizabethan period, but is obsolete in England." A professor is an accomplished and recognized academic. In most Commonwealth nations, as well as northern Europe, the title professor is the highest academic rank at a university.
In the United States and Canada, the title of professor applies to most post-doctoral academics, so a larger percentage are thus designated. In these areas, professors are scholars with doctorate degrees or equivalent qualifications who teach in four-year colleges and universities. An emeritus professor is a title given to selected retired professors with whom the university wishes to continue to be associated due to their stature and ongoing research. Emeritus professors do not receive a salary, but they are given office or lab space, use of libraries, so on; the term professor is used in the titles assistant professor and associate professor, which are not considered professor-level positions in all European countries. In Australia, the title associate professor is used in place of the term reader as used in the United Kingdom and other Commonwealth countries. Beyond holding the proper academic title, universities in many countries give notable artists and foreign dignitaries the title honorary professor if these persons do not have the academic qualifications necessary for professorship and they do not take up professorial duties.
However, such "professors" do not undertake academic work for the granting institution. In general, the title of professor is used for academic positions rather than for those holding it on honorary basis. Professors are qualified experts in their field who perform some or all the following tasks: Managing teaching and publications in their departments. Other roles of professorial tasks depend on the institution, its legacy, protocols and time. For example, professors at research-oriented universities in North America and at European universities, are promoted on the basis of research achievements and external grant-raising success. Many colleges and universities and other institutions of higher learning throughout the world follow a similar hierarchical ranking structure amongst scholars in academia. A professor earns a base salary and a range of benefits. In addition, a professor who undertakes additional roles in their institution earns additional income; some professors earn additional income by moonlighting in other jobs, such as consulting, publishing academic or popular press books, giving speeches, or coaching executives.
Some fields give professors more opportun
In English, the word laureate has come to signify eminence or association with literary awards or military glory. It is used for winners of the Nobel Prize, Gandhi Peace Award and the Student Peace Prize. In ancient Greece, the laurel was sacred to Apollo and as such sprigs of it were fashioned into a crown or wreath of honor for poets and heroes; this symbolism has been widespread since. "Laureate letters" in old times meant the dispatches announcing a victory. The name of "bacca-laureate" for a bachelor's degree shows a confusion with a supposed etymology from Latin bacca lauri, though incorrect, involves the same idea. From the more general use of the term "poet laureate" arose its restriction in England to the office of the poet attached to the royal household, first held by Ben Jonson, for whom the position was, in its essentials, created by Charles I of England in 1617. Jonson's appointment does not seem to have been formally made as poet laureate, but his position was equivalent to that.
The office was a development of the practice of earlier times, when minstrels and versifiers were part of the retinue of the King. Moreover, the crown had shown its patronage in various ways. Sir William Davenant succeeded Jonson in 1638, the title of poet laureate was conferred by letters patent on John Dryden in 1670 two years after Davenant's death, coupled with a pension of £300 and a butt of Canary Islands wine; the post became a regular institution, though the emoluments varied, Dryden's successors being T. Shadwell, who originated annual birthday and New Year odes; the office took on a new luster from the personal distinction of Southey and Tennyson. However, the undesirability of breaking with tradition for temporary reasons, thus severing the one official link between literature and the state, prevailed over the protests against following Tennyson by any one of inferior genius. Abolition was advocated when Thomas Warton and William Wordsworth died; the poet laureate, being a court official, was considered responsible for producing formal and appropriate verses on birthdays and state occasions.
Wordsworth stipulated, before accepting the honor, that no formal effusions from him should be considered a necessity. The emoluments of the post have varied. To Pye an allowance of £27 was made instead of the wine. Tennyson drew £72 a year from the Lord Chamberlain's department, £27 from the Lord Steward's in lieu of the "butt of sack." Glory
Roger Adams was an American organic chemist. He is best known for the eponymous Adams' catalyst, his work did much to determine the composition of occurring substances such as complex vegetable oils and plant alkaloids; as the Department Head of Chemistry at the University of Illinois from 1926 to 1954, he greatly influenced graduate education in America, taught over 250 Ph. D. students and postgraduate students, served the U. S. as a scientist at the highest levels during World War I and World War II. Adams was born in Boston and grew up in a prosperous neighborhood in South Boston, the last child in a gifted family that included Adams's three older sisters. Adams was part of the prominent Adams family, was descended from John Adams's grandfather. Adams attending Boston Latin School and Cambridge Latin High School. In 1900, the family moved to Cambridge, closer to the two colleges. Adams entered Harvard University in 1905 and completed the requirements for a bachelor's degree in three years. In his first year, he earned a John Harvard Honorary Scholarship by getting four As, in his last year he took advanced courses and began research in organic chemistry under H.
A. Torrey, his years at Harvard were undistinguished, earning high grades in mining. After graduation from Harvard in 1909 he worked towards his Ph. D. at Radcliffe College supported by a teaching assistantship. Torrey died unexpectedly in 1910, so Adams finished his Ph. D. under Charles Loring Jackson, George Shannon Forbes, Latham Clarke. In 1912 he was initiated as a brother of Alpha Chi Sigma at Omicron Chapter at Harvard; as an outstanding Ph. D. of 1912, Adams received a Parker Traveling Scholarship for 1912 and 1913, which he used to work at the laboratory of Emil Fischer and Otto Diels in Berlin and that of Richard Willstätter in Dahlem outside of Berlin. After returning from Europe in 1913, Adams returned to Harvard and worked as a research assistant for Charles L. Jackson for $800 a year. During the next three years he taught organic chemistry at Harvard and Radcliffe, initiated the first elementary organic chemistry laboratory at Harvard and began his own research program. Several other prominent contemporaries of Adams at Harvard Graduate School were Elmer Keiser Bolton, Farrington Daniels, Frank C.
Whitmore, James B. Sumner and James Bryant Conant. In 1916, Adams accepted an offer of an assistant professorship from William A. Noyes, head of the chemistry department at University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, he began a career at UIUC. Adams succeeded Noyes as department head in 1926, remained in that position until 1954. During this time, Adams made several well-known discoveries. Roger Adams and his students developed the so-called Adams' catalyst, one of the most readily-prepared and active catalysts for hydrogenation reactions; the catalyst can be prepared by fusing sodium nitrate with chloroplatinic acid or ammonium chloroplatinate. Adams's group developed a low-pressure apparatus for using the catalyst, which had a profound effect in the synthesis and structural elucidation of organic compounds as well as biochemical compounds. Working at the Noyes Laboratory and his more than 250 graduate students made many significant discoveries: Synthesis of chloralkyl esters by combining aldehydes and acyl chlorides.
That aliphatic acid anhydrides form ketones in the Friedel-Crafts reaction. Determination of the structure of disalicylaldehyde and dehydroacetic acid. A method of synthesizing polyhydroxyanthraquinones with precisely-known stereochemistry using phthalides. Determination of the structures of leprosy drugs chaulmoogric acid and hydnocarpic acid and the synthesis of their dihydro derivatives. Determination of the structure of gossypol for the cottonseed industry. Isolated and identified cannabidiol from Cannabis sativa, showed its relationship to cannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol. Synthesized cannabinol and tetrahydrocannabinol analogs. Studies of Senecio and Crotalaria alkaloids that opened two fields of study:pyrrolizidine and large-ring diester chemistry. At UIUC, Adams took charge of the Organic Chemical Manufactures started by his predecessor C. G. Derick for the synthesis of organic compounds from Germany that were cut off by the Blockade of Germany; the lab was expanded and reorganized with the help of students Ernest H. Volwiler and C.
S. Marvel. Strict cost accounting procedures were implemented in the lab, so that it became a financial as well as scientific success; the tested procedures developed in the lab led to the annual publication of the journal Organic Syntheses, which James Bryant Conant referred to as the "Adams Annual." Adams vigorously researched methods of preparing local anaesthetics with Oliver Kamm, on the faculty of UIUC and a consultant to Abbott Laboratories in a relationship that lasted into the 1960s. Ernest H. Volwiler, Adams' first Ph. D. student, joined Abbott as a chemist in 1918. In 1917, Adams was drawn into research for the U. S. Army into poison gases at American University in Washington, D. C.. P. Kohler, an old faculty friend of Adams from Harvard, was in charge of the Offense Section. Adams' return to UIUC began a period of intense research, with 45 Ph. D. students that resulted in 73 publications. In July 1940, Vannevar Bush was working to mobilize American scientists in the World War II war effort.
Bush wanted to bring Adams into the National Defense Research Committee that he was organizing for President Franklin D. Roosevelt. Many believed that Adams was the leading orga