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Siege of Sarajevo

The Siege of Sarajevo was the siege of the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina, the longest of a capital city in the history of modern warfare. After being besieged by the forces of the Yugoslav People's Army, Sarajevo was besieged by the Army of Republika Srpska from 5 April 1992 to 29 February 1996 during the Bosnian War; the siege lasted three times longer than the Battle of Stalingrad and more than a year longer than the Siege of Leningrad. When Bosnia and Herzegovina declared independence from Yugoslavia after the 1992 Bosnian independence referendum, the Bosnian Serbs—whose strategic goal was to create a new Bosnian Serb state of Republika Srpska that would include Bosniak-majority areas—encircled Sarajevo with a siege force of 13,000 stationed in the surrounding hills. From there they assaulted the city with artillery and small arms. From 2 May 1992, the Serbs blockaded the city; the Bosnian government defence forces inside the besieged city, 19 months since start of conflict, numbered some 70,000 troops, were poorly equipped and unable to break the siege.

A total of 13,952 people were killed during the siege, including 5,434 civilians. The ARBiH suffered 6,137 fatalities, while Bosnian Serb military casualties numbered 2,241 soldiers killed; the 1991 census indicates that before the siege the city and its surrounding areas had a population of 525,980. There are estimates that prior to the siege the population in the city proper was 435,000; the estimates of the number of persons living in Sarajevo after the siege ranged from between 300,000 and 380,000. After the war, the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia convicted four Serb officials for numerous counts of crimes against humanity committed during the siege, including terrorism. Stanislav Galić and Dragomir Milošević were sentenced to life imprisonment and 29 years imprisonment respectively, their superiors, Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić, were convicted and sentenced to life imprisonment. From its creation following World War II, the government of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia kept a close watch on nationalist sentiment among the many ethnic and religious groups that composed the country, as it could have led to chaos and the breakup of the state.

When Yugoslavia's longtime leader Marshal Josip Broz Tito died in 1980, this policy of containment underwent a dramatic reversal. Nationalism experienced a renaissance in the following decade. While the goal of Serbian nationalists was the centralisation of a Serb-dominated Yugoslavia, other nationalities in Yugoslavia aspired to federalisation and the decentralisation of the state. On 18 November 1990, the first multi-party parliamentary elections were held in Bosnia and Herzegovina, they resulted in a national assembly dominated by three ethnically-based parties, which had formed a loose coalition to oust the communists from power. Croatia and Slovenia's subsequent declarations of independence and the warfare that ensued placed Bosnia and Herzegovina and its three constituent peoples in an awkward position. A significant split soon developed on the issue of whether to stay with the Yugoslav federation or to seek independence; the Serb members of parliament, consisting of Serb Democratic Party members, abandoned the central parliament in Sarajevo, formed the Assembly of the Serb People of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 24 October 1991, which marked the end of the tri-ethnic coalition that governed after the 1990 elections.

This Assembly established the Serbian Republic of Bosnia and Herzegovina on 9 January 1992, which became the Republika Srpska in August 1992. Throughout 1990, the RAM Plan was developed by the State Security Administration and a group of selected Serb officers of the Yugoslav People's Army with the purpose of organizing Serbs outside Serbia, consolidating control of the fledgling SDP, the prepositioning of arms and ammunition; the plan was meant to prepare the framework for a third Yugoslavia in which all Serbs with their territories would live together in the same state. Alarmed by its existence and possible implementation, the Bosnian government declared independence of Bosnia and Herzegovina, shortly followed by the establishment of the Serbian National Assembly by Bosnian Serbs; the declaration of Bosnian sovereignty on 15 October 1991 was followed by a referendum for independence from Yugoslavia on 29 February and 1 March 1992. This independence referendum was boycotted by the vast majority of the Serbs.

The turnout in the referendum was 63.4% and 99.7% of voters voted for independence. The city was peaceful except for the Sarajevo wedding shooting at a Serbian wedding; the wedding guests had brandished Serbian flags, interpreted by the Muslims present there as a deliberate provocation while the independence referendum had been held. The Bosnian leader Momčilo Krajišnik declared it as a "great injustice aimed at the Serbian people". Within hours, the city was cut off by the SDS and barricades were thrown up by masked men. Violence had broken out in many places after the referendum. Armed Muslims known as "Green Berets" erected barricades in and around Sarajevo. Barricades were erected near Banja Luka and a motorist was killed by armed Serbs in Doboj. Twelve people overall were killed before fighting died down on March 2. On 3 March, Izetbegović claimed. Meanwhile, clashes had begun at the same time in the town of Bosanski Brod, eleven Serbs were killed in the village of Sijekovac outside of Brod on 26 March.

The SDS stated they were massacred by a Croat-Muslim militia, denied. The town

Proby Cautley

Sir Proby Thomas Cautley, KCB, English engineer and palaeontologist, born in Stratford St Mary, Suffolk, is best known for conceiving and supervising the construction of the Ganges canal during East India Company rule in India. The canal stretches some 350 miles between its headworks at Haridwar and, after bifurcation near Aligarh, its confluences with the Ganges river mainstem in Kanpur and the Yamuna river in Etawah. At the time of completion, it had the greatest discharge of any irrigation canal in the world. Proby Cautley was educated at Charterhouse School, followed by the East India Company's Military Seminary at Addiscombe. After less than a year there, he was commissioned second lieutenant and dispatched to India, joining the Bengal Presidency artillery in Calcutta. In 1825, he assisted Captain Robert Smith, the engineer in charge of constructing the Eastern Yamuna canal called the Doab canal, he was in charge of this canal for 12 years between 1831 and 1843. By 1836, he was Superintendent-General of Canals.

In 1840 Cautley reported on the proposed Ganges canal, for the irrigation of the country between the rivers Ganges and Yamuna, his most important work. Cautley began working towards his dream of building a Ganges canal, spent six months walking and riding through the area taking each measurement himself, he was confident. There were many obstacles and objections to his project financial, but Cautley persevered and persuaded the British East India Company to back him; this project was sanctioned in 1841, but the work was not begun till 1843, then Cautley found himself hampered in its execution by the opposition of Lord Ellenborough. Digging of the canal began in April 1842. Cautley had to make brick kiln and mortar, he was opposed by the Hindu priests at Haridwar, who felt that the waters of the holy river Ganges would be imprisoned. He further appeased the priests by undertaking the repair of bathing ghats along the river, he inaugurated the dam by the worship of Lord Ganesh, the god of good beginnings.

Construction of the dam faced many complications, including the problem of the mountainous streams that threatened the canal. Near Roorkee, the land fell away and Cautley had to build an aqueduct to carry the canal for half a kilometre; as a result, at Roorkee the canal is 25 metres higher than the original river. From 1845 to 1848 he was absent in England owing to ill-health, on his return to India he was appointed director of canals in the North-Western Provinces; when the canal formally opened on 8 April 1854, its main channel was 348 miles long, its branches 306 miles long and the various tributaries over 3,000 miles long. Over 767,000 acres in 5,000 villages were irrigated, he was instrumental in the establishment of the Roorkee college, named the Thomason College of Civil Engineering in 1854 and now known as IIT Roorkee. One of the twelve student hostels of IIT Roorkee is named after him. Cautley was involved in Dr Hugh Falconer's fossil expeditions in the Siwalik Hills, he presented a large collection of mammalian fossils, including hippopotamus and crocodile fossils indicating that the area had once been a swampland.

Other animal remains that he found here included the sabre-toothed tiger, Elephis ganesa, the bones of a fossil ostrich and the remains of giant cranes and tortoises. He contributed numerous memoirs, some written in collaboration with Falconer, to the Proceedings of the Bengal Asiatic Society and the Geological Society of London on the geology and fossil remains of the Sivalik Hills. Cautley's writings indicated his varied interests, he wrote on a submerged city, twenty feet underground, in the Doab: on the coal and lignite in the Himalayas. In 1860 he published a full account of the making of the Ganges canal. In 1837, he received Wollaston medal of the Geological Survey of Great Britain; the plant genus. A student hostel in Indian Institute of Technology Roorkee is named after him. After the Ganges canal was opened in 1854 he went back to England, where he was made KCB, from 1858 to 1868 he occupied a seat on the Council of India, he died at Sydenham, near London, on 25 January 1871. Cautley, Proby T..

Report on the Ganges Canal Works: from their commencement until the opening of the Canal in 1854. London: Smith, Elder. Cautley, Proby Thomas. Ganges canal: a disquisition on the heads of the Ganges of Jumna canals, North-western Provinces. London. Brown, Joyce, "A Memoir of Colonel Sir Proby Cautley, F. R. S. 1802–1871, Engineer and Palaeontologist", Notes and Records of the Royal Society of London, 34: 185–225, doi:10.1098/rsnr.1980.0008, JSTOR 531808 Stone, Canal Irrigation in British India: Perspectives on Technological Change in a Peasant Economy and London: Cambridge University Press. Pp. 392, ISBN 0-521-52663-9 Vibart, H. M.. Addiscombe: its heroes and men of note. Westminster: Archibald Constable. Pp. 333–6

Danish National Library Authority

The Danish National Library Authority is an inter-disciplinary public and research library institution and an independent agency under the Danish Ministry of Culture. It is the Danish government's central administrative and advisory body to the public libraries and the research libraries as well as the administrative authority for the Danish law no. 340, Act on library activities of 17 May 2000, the amendment, law no. 30 of 10 January 2005. The ideal aim of the institution is at any time to ensure the optimal exploitation of resources and the development of the cooperative Danish library service across municipal and governmental sectors; the institution’s primary administrative task is to administrate a number of grants and pools to authors, via the Public Lending Right scheme, special libraries or projects, to be responsible for standards, including cataloguing and classification, to develop national services like bibliotek.dk, the national webbased search-, request- and ordering facility.

Apart from the administration of Act on library activities, the institution has no formal executive power in relation to the libraries, but runs for the most part its development tasks on the basis of grants given to projects which pursue the development of new services or as temporary strategic grants. Statens Bibliotekstilsyn was created on 5 March 1920, following the first Danish library act, law no. 160 of the same date. The object of the inspectorate was to implement the law. In practice this meant administrating annual government grants to the public libraries and to advise on collections and staff and to keep a watch on whether the local authorities complied with the regulations in the library act. In 1964, it changed name to Bibliotekstilsynet. In 1986, the Rigsbibliotekarembedet, created in 1943 under the Danish Royal Library, became an independent institution, it was merged with Bibliotekstilsynet in 1990 to form Statens Bibliotekstjeneste, when the public libraries changed status as purely municipal institutions and state inspection of the public libraries ceased.

It in turn changed name in 1997 to the current Biblioteksstyrelse. From 1920 - 1961, the agency was under the Ministry of Education