Mexico the United Mexican States, is a country in the southern portion of North America. It is bordered to the north by the United States. Covering 2,000,000 square kilometres, the nation is the fifth largest country in the Americas by total area and the 13th largest independent state in the world. With an estimated population of over 120 million people, the country is the eleventh most populous state and the most populous Spanish-speaking state in the world, while being the second most populous nation in Latin America after Brazil. Mexico is a federation comprising 31 states and Mexico City, a special federal entity, the capital city and its most populous city. Other metropolises in the state include Guadalajara, Puebla, Tijuana and León. Pre-Columbian Mexico dates to about 8000 BC and is identified as one of five cradles of civilization and was home to many advanced Mesoamerican civilizations such as the Olmec, Teotihuacan, Zapotec and Aztec before first contact with Europeans. In 1521, the Spanish Empire conquered and colonized the territory from its politically powerful base in Mexico-Tenochtitlan, administered as the viceroyalty of New Spain.
Three centuries the territory became a nation state following its recognition in 1821 after the Mexican War of Independence. The post-independence period was tumultuous, characterized by economic inequality and many contrasting political changes; the Mexican–American War led to a territorial cession of the extant northern territories to the United States. The Pastry War, the Franco-Mexican War, a civil war, two empires, the Porfiriato occurred in the 19th century; the Porfiriato was ended by the start of the Mexican Revolution in 1910, which culminated with the promulgation of the 1917 Constitution and the emergence of the country's current political system as a federal, democratic republic. Mexico has the 11th largest by purchasing power parity; the Mexican economy is linked to those of its 1994 North American Free Trade Agreement partners the United States. In 1994, Mexico became the first Latin American member of the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, it is classified as an upper-middle income country by the World Bank and a newly industrialized country by several analysts.
The country is considered both a regional power and a middle power, is identified as an emerging global power. Due to its rich culture and history, Mexico ranks first in the Americas and seventh in the world for number of UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Mexico is an ecologically megadiverse country, ranking fourth in the world for its biodiversity. Mexico receives a huge number of tourists every year: in 2018, it was the sixth most-visited country in the world, with 39 million international arrivals. Mexico is a member of the United Nations, the World Trade Organization, the G8+5, the G20, the Uniting for Consensus group of the UN, the Pacific Alliance trade bloc. Mēxihco is the Nahuatl term for the heartland of the Aztec Empire, namely the Valley of Mexico and surrounding territories, with its people being known as the Mexica, it is believed to be a toponym for the valley which became the primary ethnonym for the Aztec Triple Alliance as a result, although it could have been the other way around.
In the colonial era, back when Mexico was called New Spain this territory became the Intendency of Mexico and after New Spain achieved independence from the Spanish Empire it came to be known as the State of Mexico with the new country being named after its capital: the City of Mexico, which itself was founded in 1524 on top of the ancient Mexica capital of Mexico-Tenochtitlan. Traditionally, the name Tenochtitlan was thought to come from Nahuatl tetl and nōchtli and is thought to mean "Among the prickly pears rocks". However, one attestation in the late 16th-century manuscript known as "the Bancroft dialogues" suggests the second vowel was short, so that the true etymology remains uncertain; the suffix -co is the Nahuatl locative, making the word a place name. Beyond that, the etymology is uncertain, it has been suggested that it is derived from Mextli or Mēxihtli, a secret name for the god of war and patron of the Mexica, Huitzilopochtli, in which case Mēxihco means "place where Huitzilopochtli lives".
Another hypothesis suggests that Mēxihco derives from a portmanteau of the Nahuatl words for "moon" and navel. This meaning might refer to Tenochtitlan's position in the middle of Lake Texcoco; the system of interconnected lakes, of which Texcoco formed the center, had the form of a rabbit, which the Mesoamericans pareidolically associated with the moon rabbit. Still another hypothesis suggests that the word is derived from Mēctli, the name of the goddess of maguey; the name of the city-state was transliterated to Spanish as México with the phonetic value of the letter x in Medieval Spanish, which represented the voiceless postalveolar fricative. This sound, as well as the voiced postalveolar fricative, represented by a j, evolved into a voiceless velar fricative during the 16th century; this led to the use of the variant Méjico in many publications in Spanish, most notably in Spain, whereas in Mexico and most other Spanish–speaking countries, México was the preferred spelling. In recent years, the Real Academia Española, which regulates the Spanish l
Atenango del Río (municipality)
Atenango del Río is one of the 81 municipalities of Guerrero, in south-western Mexico. The municipal seat lies at Atenango del Río; the municipality covers an area of 398.8 km². As of 2005, the municipality had a total population of 7,648
The American Cordillera is a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an continuous sequence of mountain ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, South America and West Antarctica. It is the backbone of the volcanic arc that forms the eastern half of the Pacific Ring of Fire. From north to south, this sequence of overlapping and parallel ranges begins with the Alaska Range and the Brooks Range in Alaska and runs through the Yukon into British Columbia; the main belt of the Rocky Mountains along with the parallel Columbia Mountains and Coast Ranges of mountains and islands continue through British Columbia and Vancouver Island. In the United States, the Cordillera branches include the Rockies, the Sierra Nevada, the Cascades, various small Pacific coastal ranges. In Mexico, the Cordillera continues through the Sierra Madre Occidental and Sierra Madre Oriental, as well as the backbone mountains of the Baja California peninsula; the ranges of the Cordillera from Mexico northwards are collectively called the North American Cordillera.
Other terms for the North American Cordillera are "Western Cordillera of North America", in the United States and Canada, the "Canadian Cordillera" in Canada. The Cordillera continues on through the mountain ranges of Central America in Guatemala, Nicaragua, Costa Rica, Panama, becomes the Andes Mountains of South America; the Andes with their parallel chains and the island chains off the coast of Chile continue through Colombia, Ecuador, Bolivia and Chile to the tip of South America at Tierra del Fuego. The Cordillera continues along the Scotia Arc before reaching the mountains of the Antarctic Peninsula. Silberling, N. J. et al.. Lithotectonic terrane map of the North American Cordillera. Reston, Va.: U. S. Department of the Interior, U. S. Geological Survey
Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt
The Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt known as the Transvolcanic Belt and locally as the Sierra Nevada, is a volcanic belt that covers central-southern Mexico. Several of its highest peaks have snow all year long, during clear weather, they are visible to a large percentage of those who live on the many high plateaus from which these volcanoes rise; the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt spans across Central-Southern Mexico from the Pacific Ocean to the Gulf of Mexico between 18°30'N and 21°30'N, resting on the southern edge of the North American Plate. This 1000 kilometer long, 90–230 km broad structure is an east-west, continental volcanic arc. Over several million years, the subduction of the Rivera and Cocos plates beneath the North American Plate along the northern end of the Middle America Trench formed the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt; the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt is a unique volcanic belt. In addition to the physiographic complexities, igneous compositions vary—dominant subduction related products contrast with intraplate geo-chemical signatures.
The many intriguing aspects of the belt has spurred several hypotheses based on a typical subduction scenario. These features are related to the reactivation of early fault systems during the Trans-Mexican Volcanic belt's evolution; the main brittle fault system's geometry and age define a complex array of what could be multiple factors affecting the deformation of the belt. It exhibits many volcanic features, not limited to large stratovolcanoes, including monogenetic volcano cones, shield volcanoes, lava dome complexes, major calderas. Prior to the formation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, Robby F an older, but related volcanic belt, the Sierra Madre Occidental occupied the area. Resuming in the Eocene, post-Laramide deformation, subduction related volcanism formed the Sierra Madre Occidental silic volcanic arc at a paleo-subduction zone off the coast of Baja California, before the peninsula rifted away. From the ocene to the Middle Miocene, counterclockwise rotation of the volcanic arc transitioned the once active Sierra Madre Occidental to a now active Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt.
By the Middle Miocene, the transition from the silicic to more mafic compositions was complete, can be considered the beginning of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt. Due to the orthogonal orientation of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt in relation to the trend of Mexican tectonic provinces, its Pre-Cretaceous basement is heterogeneous; the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt east of 101°W rests upon Precambrian terranes, assembled into the Oaxaquia microcontinent and on the Paleozoic Mixteco terrane. West of 101°W, the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt resides on top of the Guerro composite terrane - a make up of Jurassic to Cretaceous marine marginal arcs, which are built on Triassic - Early Jurassic siliclastic turbidites. Assemblage of these basement rocks results with a thickness of 50–55 km east of 101°W and 35–40 km west of 101°W; the subducting plates originated from the breakup of the Farallon Plate at 23 Ma, which created two plates at equatorial latitudes, the Cocos Plate and southern Nazca Plate.
The Rivera Plate was the last fragment detached from the Cocos Plate, becoming a microplate at around 10 Ma. This small plate is bounded by the Rivera fracture zone, the East Pacific Rise, the Tamayo fracture zone, the Middle American Trench; the larger Cocos Plate is bordered by the North American Plate and the Caribbean Plate to the northeast, the Pacific Plate to the west, to the south by the Nazca Plate. The Cocos and Rivera are young oceanic plates that are subducting along the Middle American Trench at different convergence rates. Found subduction related rocks such as calc-alkaline rocks volumetrically occupy a majority of the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt but smaller volumes of intraplate-like lavas, potassium rich rocks, adakites are associated with the area. Middle Miocene adakitic rocks are found furthest from the trench and along the volcanic front of the central Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt during the Pliocene-Quaternary, it has been suggested that slab melting contributed to the adakitic imprint on the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt, prompted by the prolonged flat subduction of the Cocos Plate.
1) From the early to mid Miocene ~20 to 8 Ma, the initial Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt volcanic arc consisted of intermediate effusive volcanism, producing andesitic and dacitic polygenetic volcanoes extending from western Michoacan to the Palma Sola area. The plate boundary geometry and sub-horizontal subducting slab's thermal structure are the controlling factors for initial arc volcanism. Magmatism migrated away from the trench, moving northeast towards the Gulf of Mexico—giving the arc its characteristic E-W orientation, the inland push of the arc showed progressively drier melting, slab melting began to occur—suggesting flattening of the subducted slab; the oldest rocks of this age may be exposed in Central Mexico. 2) A Late Miocene ~11 Ma eastward traveling pulse of mafic volcanism swept across the whole of Central Mexico, north of the formed arc, ending ~ 3 Ma. The onset of the mafic lavas indicates lateral propagation of slab tear, prompted by the end of subduction beneath Baja California, allowing the influx of
A summit is a point on a surface, higher in elevation than all points adjacent to it. The topographic terms acme, apex and zenith are synonymous; the term top is used only for a mountain peak, located at some distance from the nearest point of higher elevation. For example, a big massive rock next to the main summit of a mountain is not considered a summit. Summits near a higher peak, with some prominence or isolation, but not reaching a certain cutoff value for the quantities, are considered subsummits of the higher peak, are considered part of the same mountain. A pyramidal peak is an exaggerated form produced by ice erosion of a mountain top. Summit may refer to the highest point along a line, trail, or route; the highest summit in the world is Everest with height of 8844.43 m above sea level. The first official ascent was made by Sir Edmund Hillary, they reached the mountain`s peak in 1953. Whether a highest point is classified as a summit, a sub peak or a separate mountain is subjective; the UIAA definition of a peak is.
Otherwise, it's a subpeak. In many parts of the western United States, the term summit refers to the highest point along a road, highway, or railroad. For example, the highest point along Interstate 80 in California is referred to as Donner Summit and the highest point on Interstate 5 is Siskiyou Mountain Summit. A summit climbing differs from the common mountaineering. Summit expedition requires: 1+ year of training, a good physical shape, a special gear. Although a huge part of climber’s stuff can be left and taken at the base camps or given to porters, there is a long list of personal equipment. In addition to common mountaineers’ gear, Summit climbers need to take Diamox and bottles of oxygen. There are special requirements for crampons, ice axe, rappel device, etc. Geoid Hill – Landform that extends above the surrounding terrain Nadir Summit accordance Peak finder Summit Climbing Gear List
Zumpango del Río
Zumpango del Río is the capital of Eduardo Neri Municipality, within the state of Guerrero, in central−western Mexico. The Spanish discovered silver lodes here in 1531, which started commercial silver mining in the area. Francisco de Hoyos and Juan Juan Jaramillo made the discovery when returning from a military expedition to Guerrero. Using Indian slave labor until the ban from doing so was enforced in 1550, the resultant mines produced 1000 pounds of silver by 1539. Prominent mine owners included Hernan Cortes. Most of the mines were abandoned by 1582 however; the city is located at an altitude of 1,092 meters. It is on Mexican Federal Highway 95, about 8 miles northeast of the Guerrero state capital city of Chilpancingo Populated places in Guerrero
Biodiversity refers to the variety and variability of life on Earth. Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the genetic and ecosystem level. Terrestrial biodiversity is greater near the equator, the result of the warm climate and high primary productivity. Biodiversity is not distributed evenly on Earth, is richest in the tropics; these tropical forest ecosystems cover less than 10 percent of earth's surface, contain about 90 percent of the world's species. Marine biodiversity is highest along coasts in the Western Pacific, where sea surface temperature is highest, in the mid-latitudinal band in all oceans. There are latitudinal gradients in species diversity. Biodiversity tends to cluster in hotspots, has been increasing through time, but will be to slow in the future. Rapid environmental changes cause mass extinctions. More than 99.9 percent of all species that lived on Earth, amounting to over five billion species, are estimated to be extinct. Estimates on the number of Earth's current species range from 10 million to 14 million, of which about 1.2 million have been documented and over 86 percent have not yet been described.
More in May 2016, scientists reported that 1 trillion species are estimated to be on Earth with only one-thousandth of one percent described. The total amount of related DNA base pairs on Earth is estimated at 5.0 x 1037 and weighs 50 billion tonnes. In comparison, the total mass of the biosphere has been estimated to be as much as 4 TtC. In July 2016, scientists reported identifying a set of 355 genes from the Last Universal Common Ancestor of all organisms living on Earth; the age of the Earth is about 4.54 billion years. The earliest undisputed evidence of life on Earth dates at least from 3.5 billion years ago, during the Eoarchean Era after a geological crust started to solidify following the earlier molten Hadean Eon. There are microbial mat fossils found in 3.48 billion-year-old sandstone discovered in Western Australia. Other early physical evidence of a biogenic substance is graphite in 3.7 billion-year-old meta-sedimentary rocks discovered in Western Greenland. More in 2015, "remains of biotic life" were found in 4.1 billion-year-old rocks in Western Australia.
According to one of the researchers, "If life arose quickly on Earth.. it could be common in the universe."Since life began on Earth, five major mass extinctions and several minor events have led to large and sudden drops in biodiversity. The Phanerozoic eon marked a rapid growth in biodiversity via the Cambrian explosion—a period during which the majority of multicellular phyla first appeared; the next 400 million years included repeated, massive biodiversity losses classified as mass extinction events. In the Carboniferous, rainforest collapse led to a great loss of animal life; the Permian–Triassic extinction event, 251 million years ago, was the worst. The most recent, the Cretaceous–Paleogene extinction event, occurred 65 million years ago and has attracted more attention than others because it resulted in the extinction of the dinosaurs; the period since the emergence of humans has displayed an ongoing biodiversity reduction and an accompanying loss of genetic diversity. Named the Holocene extinction, the reduction is caused by human impacts habitat destruction.
Conversely, biodiversity positively impacts human health in a number of ways, although a few negative effects are studied. The United Nations designated 2011–2020 as the United Nations Decade on Biodiversity. 1916 - The term biological diversity was used first by J. Arthur Harris in "The Variable Desert," Scientific American, JSTOR 6182: "The bare statement that the region contains a flora rich in genera and species and of diverse geographic origin or affinity is inadequate as a description of its real biological diversity." 1975 - The term natural diversity was introduced 1980 - Thomas Lovejoy introduced the term biological diversity to the scientific community in a book.. It became used. 1985 -The contracted form biodiversity was coined by W. G. Rosen 1985 - The term "biodiversity" appears in the article, "A New Plan to Conserve the Earth's Biota" by Laura Tangley. 1988 - The term biodiversity first appeared in a publication. The present - the term has achieved widespread use. "Biodiversity" is most used to replace the more defined and long established terms, species diversity and species richness.
Biologists most define biodiversity as the "totality of genes and ecosystems of a region". An advantage of this definition is that it seems to describe most circumstances and presents a unified view of the traditional types of biological variety identified: taxonomic diversity ecological diversity morphological diversity functional diversity This multilevel construct is consistent with Datman and Lovejoy. An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. Wilcox commissioned by the International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources for the 1982 World National Parks Conference. Wilcox's definition was "Biological diversity is the variety of life forms...at all levels of biologi