Sigiriya or Sinhagiri is an ancient rock fortress located in the northern Matale District near the town of Dambulla in the Central Province, Sri Lanka. The name refers to a site of historical and archaeological significance, dominated by a massive column of rock nearly 200 metres high. According to the ancient Sri Lankan chronicle the Culavamsa, this site was selected by King Kashyapa for his new capital, he decorated its sides with colourful frescoes. On a small plateau about halfway up the side of this rock he built a gateway in the form of an enormous lion; the name of this place is derived from this structure -- the Lion Rock. The capital and the royal palace was abandoned after the king's death, it was used as a Buddhist monastery until the 14th century. Sigiriya today is a UNESCO listed World Heritage Site, it is one of the best preserved examples of ancient urban planning. Lal Srinivas and Mirando Obesekara described Sigiriya as a post-historical archeology turning point of Ravana. According to them, Sigiriya may be the Alakamandava, built up before 50 centuries ago by King Kuvera, the half-brother of Ravana as described in the Ramayanaya.

According to the Palm Leaf Book of Ravana Watha the architect of the Sigiriya was a Danava called Maya Danava. He built up Sigiriya on the instructions given by King Visthavasa the father of Ravana. During that period the Sigiriya was called Alakamandava and during the period of King Kuwera it was called Cithranakuta. After the death of Ravana, Vibeeshana became the king and he shifted the kingdom to Kelaniya; as per this book, Chiththaraja had used Alakamandava as his residence. Chiththaraja was a Patrician of Yakka, it was stated that Chiththaraja was one of the individuals who helped Prince Pandukabhaya to get the kingship. Parents of Pandukabhaya were descended from the tribe of Chiththaraja. In addition, Ravana Watha was described that Prince Kassapa, the son of King Daathusena has selected the Chithrakuta as his residence due to the fact that her mother was a follower of Yakka belief and she descended from them. King Kassapa was the only king who did reconstruction and maintained the Chiththakuta as done by the king Ravana.

The famous wall paintings in the Chiththakuta can be treated as displaying about the Sinhala Land i.e. Sri Lanka; the Ravana Watha explains that the picture of blue coloured lady represents the Yakka Tribe and other ladies represent the Tribes of Nāga, Deva and Gandabhbha and the beautiful flowers show the unity of the country. The environment around the Sigiriya may have been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is clear evidence that the many rock shelters and caves in the vicinity were occupied by Buddhist monks and ascetics from as early as the 3rd century BCE; the earliest evidence of human habitation at Sigiriya is the Aligala rock shelter to the east of Sigiriya rock, indicating that the area was occupied nearly five thousand years ago during the Mesolithic Period. Buddhist monastic settlements were established during the 3rd century BCE in the western and northern slopes of the boulder-strewn hills surrounding the Sigiriya rock. Several rock shelters or caves were created during this period.

These shelters were made with carved drip ledges around the cave mouths. Rock inscriptions are carved near the drip ledges on many of the shelters, recording the donation of the shelters to the Buddhist monastic order as residences; these were made in the period between the 3rd century BCE and the 1st century CE. In 477 CE, Kashyapa I, the king’s son by a non-royal consort, seized the throne from King Dhatusena, following a coup assisted by Migara, the King’s nephew and army commander; the rightful heir, fearing for his life, fled to South India. Afraid of an attack by Moggallana, Kashyapa moved the capital and his residence from the traditional capital of Anuradhapura to the more secure Sigiriya. During King Kashyapa's reign, Sigiriya was developed into fortress. Most of the elaborate constructions on the rock summit and around it, including defensive structures and gardens, date from this period; the Culavamsa describes King Kashyapa as the son of King Dhatusena. Kashyapa murdered his father by walling him up alive and usurping the throne which rightfully belonged to his half-brother Moggallana, Dhatusena's son by the true queen.

Moggallana vowed revenge. In India he raised an army with the intention of returning and retaking the throne of Sri Lanka, which he considered to be rightfully his. Expecting the inevitable return of Moggallana, Kashyapa is said to have built his palace on the summit of Sigiriya as a fortress as well as a pleasure palace. Moggallana arrived, declared war, defeated Kashyapa in 495 CE. During the battle Kashyapa's armies abandoned he committed suicide by falling on his sword; the Culavamsa and folklore inform us that the battle-elephant on which Kashyapa was mounted changed course to take a strategic advantage, but the army misinterpreted the movement as the king's having opted to retreat, prompting the army to abandon him altogether. It is said that being too proud to surrender he took his dagger from his waistband, cut his throat, raised the dagger proudly, sheathed it, fell dead. Moggallana returned the capital to Anuradhapura, converting Sigiriya into a Buddhist monastery complex, which s

Gmina Pisz

Gmina Pisz is an urban-rural gmina in Pisz County, Warmian-Masurian Voivodeship, in northern Poland. Its seat is the town of Pisz, which lies 88 kilometres east of the regional capital Olsztyn; the gmina covers an area of 634.8 square kilometres, as of 2006 its total population is 27,224. The gmina contains part of the protected area called Masurian Landscape Park. Apart from the town of Pisz, Gmina Pisz contains the villages and settlements of Anuszewo, Bogumiły, Ciesina, Czarny Róg, Hejdyk, Jabłoń, Jagodne, Jaśkowo, Jaśkowo-Leśniczówka, Jeglin, Jeże, Karwik, Kocioł, Kocioł Duży, Kociołek Szlachecki, Kwik, Lipa Przednia, Lipa Tylna, Lisie Jamy, Liski, Łupki, Łysonie, Maszty, Niedźwiedzie, Nowe Uściany, Pilchy, Pogobie Średnie, Pogobie Tylne, Rakowo Piskie, Rybitwy, Stare Guty, Stare Uściany, Szczechy Małe, Szczechy Wielkie, Szeroki Bór Piski, Trzonki, Turośl, Turowo Duże, Wądołek, Wąglik, Wąglik-Kolonia, Wiartel Mały, Wielki Las, Zaroślak, Zdory and Zimna. Gmina Pisz is bordered by the gminas of Biała Piska, Kolno, Łyse, Mikołajki, Rozogi, Ruciane-Nida and Turośl.

Polish official population figures 2006

John M. Newman

John M. Newman is an American author and retired major in the United States Army. Newman was on the faculty at the University of Maryland from 1995 to 2012, has been a Political Science professor at James Madison University in Harrisonburg, Virginia since January 2013. Newman served in the Armed Forces in Thailand, the Philippines and China, he served as an attaché in China. He served as executive assistant to the director of the National Security Agency, he was a faculty member of the University of Maryland, Honors College, is Adjunct Professor of Political Science at James Madison University, where he teaches courses in International Terrorism and America in the 60s. Newman was a consultant for Oliver Stone's film JFK, he was one of the experts called upon to testify before the JFK Assassination Records Review Board. He has been a critic of the 9/11 Commission Report. Newman is the author of JFK and Vietnam: Deception and the Struggle for Power and the CIA: The Documented Truth About the Unknown Relationship Between the U.

S. Government and the Alleged Killer of JFK, "Quest for the Kingdom: The Secret Teachings of Jesus in the Light of Yogic Mysticism", "Where Angels Tread Lightly: The Assassination of President Kennedy, Volume I", "Countdown to Darkness: The Assassination of President Kennedy, Volume II." JFK and Vietnam: Deception and the Struggle for Power argues that United States President John F. Kennedy would not have placed combat troops in Vietnam and was preparing to withdraw military advisors by the end of 1965. Oliver Stone, director of the 1991 film JFK called it "a breakthrough exploration of Kennedy and his generals, defines the 1961-1963 period in a light I never understood before". Arthur M. Schlesinger, Jr. a former special assistant to Kennedy, described it as "the most solid contribution yet" to speculation regarding the course of American history had the President not be assassinated. While calling it a "old and authoritative revisionist analysis", Kirkus Reviews said "this electrifying report portrays a wily, conflicted leader who grasped realities that eluded everyone else in the US establishment."

In the Los Angeles Times, historian Leonard Bushkoff wrote: "Newman's vision of warmongering hawks--a group of conspiratorial Washingtonians whose motives he examines--is indeed based more on suppositions and innuendoes than evidence. At another, deeper level, Newman's points are persuasive."In a critical review for The Baltimore Sun, Vietnam Magazine's editor Harry G. Summers Jr. said that Newman "uncritically accepts all the'evidence' that supports his thesis that JFK was secretly planning to withdraw from Vietnam as soon as he was re-elected, ignores all that does not." According to Summers, Newman "vilified Kennedy beyond the wildest dreams of his worst enemies" and "his chapter on the withdrawal decision turns JFK into a scheming politician, devoid of principle and devoted only to his re-election." Summers concluded: "By posing the issue in terms of deception and intrigue,'JFK and Vietnam' doesn't give you a clue." Based on the examination of 250,000 pages of government documents, Newman's 1995 book Oswald and the CIA presents the narrative that the "CIA had a keen operational interest in Lee Harvey Oswald from the day he defected to the Soviet Union in 1959 until the day he was murdered in the basement of the Dallas Police Department."

Kirkus Reviews summarized it as: "Exhaustive and diffuse, this study eschews sensationalism but threatens death by minutiae." Calling it a "meticulously documented expose" and a "heavily annotated tome", Publishers Weekly said Oswald and the CIA "reads like an intricate spy thriller serves as a corrective to Norman Mailer's Oswald's Tale." Amazon Biography of Dr. John M. Newman -