Sinhala language

Sinhala known as Sinhalese, is an Indo-Aryan language spoken by the Sinhalese people of Sri Lanka, who make up the largest ethnic group on the island, numbering about 16 million. Sinhala is spoken as the first language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about 4 million. Sinhala is written using the Sinhala script, one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script related to the Kadamba script. Sinhala is national languages of Sri Lanka. Sinhala, along with Pali, played a major role in the development of Theravada Buddhist literature; the oldest Sinhalese Prakrit inscriptions found are from the third to second century BCE following the arrival of Buddhism in Sri Lanka, the oldest extant literary works date from the ninth century. The closest relative of Sinhala is the Maldivian language. Sinhala has two main varieties – written and spoken, is a great example of the linguistic phenomenon known as diglossia. Sinhala is a Sanskrit term; the name is a derivation from siṃha, the Sanskrit word for "lion"Siṃhāla is attested as a Sanskrit name of the island in the Bhagavata Purana.

The name is sometimes glossed as "abode of lions", attributed to a supposed former abundance of lions on the island. According to the chronicle Mahavamsa, written in Pali, Prince Vijaya and his entourage merged with two exotic tribes of ancient India present in Lanka, the Yakkha and Naga peoples. In the following centuries, there was substantial immigration from Eastern India which led to an admixture of features of Eastern Prakrits; the development of Sinhala is divided into four periods: Sinhalese Prakrit Proto-Sinhala Medieval Sinhala Modern Sinhala The most important phonetic developments of Sinhala include the loss of the aspiration distinction the loss of a vowel length distinction. The simplification of consonant clusters and geminate consonants into geminates and single consonants development of /j/ to /d/ An example for a Western feature in Sinhala is the retention of initial /v/ which developed into /b/ in the Eastern languages. An example of an Eastern feature is the ending -e for masculine nominative singular in Sinhalese Prakrit.

There are several cases of vocabulary doublets, e.g. the words mässā and mäkkā, which both correspond to Sanskrit makṣikā but stem from two regionally different Prakrit words macchiā and makkhikā. In 1815 the island of Ceylon came under British rule. During the career of Christopher Reynolds as a Sinhalese lecturer at the SOAS, University of London, he extensively researched the Sinhalese language and its pre-1815 literature: the Sri Lankan government awarded him the Sri Lanka Ranjana medal for this, he wrote the 377-page An anthology of Sinhalese literature up to 1815, selected by the UNESCO National Commission of Ceylon According to Wilhelm Geiger, Sinhala has features that set it apart from other Indo-Aryan languages. Some of the differences can be explained by the substrate influence of the parent stock of the Vedda language. Sinhala has many words that are only found in Sinhala, or shared between Sinhala and Vedda and not etymologically derivable from Middle or Old Indo-Aryan. Common examples are kola for leaf in Sinhala and Vedda, dola for pig in Vedda and offering in Sinhala.

Other common words are rera for wild duck, gala for stones. There are high frequency words denoting body parts in Sinhala, such as olluva for head, kakula for leg, bella for neck and kalava for thighs, that are derived from pre-Sinhalese languages of Sri Lanka; the author of the oldest Sinhala grammar, written in the 13th century CE, recognised a category of words that belonged to early Sinhala. The grammar lists kolamba as belonging to an indigenous source. Kolamba is the source of the name of the commercial capital Colombo. In addition to many Tamil loanwords, several phonetic and grammatical features present in neighbouring Dravidian languages, setting today's spoken Sinhala apart from its Northern Indo-Aryan siblings, bear witness to the close interactions with Dravidian speakers. However, formal Sinhala is more similar to medieval Sinhala; some of the features that may be traced to Dravidian influence are – the distinction between short e, o and long ē, ō the loss of aspiration left-branching syntax the use of the attributive verb of kiyana "to say" as a subordinating conjunction with the meanings "that" and "if", e.g.:"I know that it is new."

"I do not know whether it is new." As a result of centuries of colonial rule, modern Sinhala contains some Portuguese and English loanwords. Macanese Patois or Macau Creole is a creole language derived from Malay, Sinhala and Portuguese, spoken by the Macanese people of the Portuguese colony of Macau, it is now spoken in the Macanese diaspora. The language developed first among the descendants of Portuguese settlers who married women from M

Kaliganj massacre

Kaliganj massacre refers to the massacre of unarmed Bengali Hindus fleeing to India in Kaliganj market, in the present day Jaldhaka Upazila of Nilphamari District on 27 April 1971. An estimated 400 Bengali Hindus were killed by the Pakistan Army, it is alleged that this massacre was masterminded by Muslim League leader and central minister Kazi Abdul Kader. In 1971, Kaliganj market fell under Jaldhaka police station of Nilphamari sub-division of the erstwhile greater Rangpur district. Now, known as the Bangabandhu market, it falls under the Golna Union of Jaldhaka Upazila of Nilphamari District in Rangpur Division; the Bangabandhu market is situated 9 km to the north west of Jaldhaka Upazila headquarters. In 1971, when the Pakistan army launched a genocidal campaign in Bangladesh, the Bengali Hindus of the area began to flee to India. On 27 April, more than a thousand Bengali Hindus of different unions of the present day Jaldhaka Upazila took refuge in Kaliganj market; some of them left towards India.

At around 10 am, an estimated 300 Bengali Hindu men and children from Balagram Union arrived in Kaliganj market. Around the same time a contingent of the Pakistan army arrived in Kaliganj market in four convoys. Before the stranded Bengali Hindu refugees could understand anything, they were sprayed with bullets. According to survivor Amar Krishna Adhikari, a Pakistani major separated the refugees into two groups. One group was taken to the nearby canal; the rest were shot on the spot. The wounded were buried alive along with those. In 1999, a memorial was built in the memory of the victims

New River Mountains

The New River Mountains are a small 14-mi long, mountain range in central Arizona, on the north border of the Phoenix valley. The range is a sub-part of landforms extending south from the Black Hills of Yavapai County. Rivers and canyons border west; the New River Mountains are part of a region extending southwards from the southeast of the Black Hills of central Arizona. The region contains mesas and mountain peaks; the small sub-range is about 14 mi long. Hills are attached south and southeastwards of the New River Mesa on the mountain range's south, meet the cities at the north of Phoenix, Cave Creek and Carefree; the north of the New River Mountains are attached to two mesas: Squaw Creek Mesa which extends west towards the Black Canyon, Cooks Mesa which extends east towards West Cedar Mountain. West and East Cedar Mountain lie on the southwest of Tangle Creek, whose outfall lies on the Verde River, borders the west of the extensive north-south Mazatzal Wilderness; the center of the range is located near Benchmark Mountain, 5,855 feet, the highpoint of the range is at the range's north, Squaw Mountain, 5,905 feet, located at the east perimeter of Squaw Creek Mesa.

The New River Mountains are accessed from Interstate 17 which borders the range on the west. The cities on I-17, directly west and southwest of the range are Black Canyon City, Rock Springs, New River, Desert Hills. Benchmark Mountain, Squaw Mountain,