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Sigismund II Augustus

Sigismund II Augustus was King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania, the son of Sigismund I the Old, whom Sigismund II succeeded in 1548. He was the first ruler of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and the last male monarch from the Jagiellonian dynasty. Sigismund was the only legitimate son of Sigismund the Old. From the beginning he was extensively educated as a successor. In 1529 he was crowned vivente rege. Sigismund Augustus continued a tolerance policy towards minorities and maintained peaceful relations with neighbouring countries, with the exception of the Northern Seven Years' War which aimed to secure Baltic trade. Under his patronage the culture flourished in Poland. Sigismund Augustus' rule is considered as the apex of the Polish Golden Age. In 1569 he oversaw the signing of the Union of Lublin between Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania, which formed the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth and introduced an elective monarchy. Sigismund Augustus married three times, he was involved in several relationships with mistresses, the most famous being Barbara Radziwiłł, who became Sigismund's second wife and Queen of Poland in spite of his mother's disapproval.

The marriage was fiercely opposed by the royal court and the nobility. Barbara died five months after her coronation due to ill health, rumours circulated that she was poisoned. Sigismund wedded Catherine of Austria, but remained childless throughout his life. Sigismund Augustus was last male member of the Jagiellons. Following the death of his sister Anna in 1596 the Jagiellonian dynasty came to an end. Royal titles, in Latin: "Sigismundus Augustus, Dei gratia rex Poloniae, magnus dux Lithuaniae, nec non terrarum Cracoviae, Siradiae, Cuiaviae, dominus hereditarius Russiae, Prussiae, Podlachiae, Elbingensis, Samogitiae, Livoniae etc. dominus et heres." English translation: "Sigismund Augustus, by the Grace of God, King of Poland, Grand Duke of Lithuania and heir of the Lands of Kraków, Sieradz, Łęczyca, Kiev, Hereditary Lord of Ruthenia, Prussia, Podlaskie, Culmer Land, Pomerania, Livonia etc. Lord and heir" Sigismund Augustus was born in Kraków on 1 August 1520 to Sigismund I the Old and his wife, Bona Sforza of Milan.

His paternal grandparents were Casimir IV Jagiellon, King of Poland, Elizabeth of Austria. Sigismund's maternal grandparents, Gian Galeazzo Sforza and Isabella of Aragon, daughter of King Alfonso II of Naples, both ruled the Duchy of Milan until Sforza's suspicious death in 1494. Throughout his youth, Sigismund Augustus was under the careful watch of Bona. Being the only legitimate male heir to the Polish throne throughout his father's reign, he was well educated and taught by the most renowned scholars in the country, it was his mother's wish to name her only son Augustus, after the first Roman Emperor Gaius Octavius Augustus. However, this decision was met with Sigismund the Old's strong disapproval, who hoped for a lineage of Sigismunds on the Polish throne, it was established that the child will bear two names to settle the conflict. The tradition of adopting Augustus as a second or middle name was observed during the coronation of Stanisław Antoni Poniatowski who became King Stanisław II Augustus in 1764.

In 1530, the ten-year-old Sigismund Augustus was crowned by Primate Jan Łaski as co-ruler alongside his father, in accordance with the vivente rege law. Sigismund the Old hoped to secure his son's succession to the throne and maintain the Jagiellonian dynasty's position in Poland; the move was crucial to silence the members of nobility who were against the Jagiellons and viewed the action as a step towards absolutism. The law was abolished by the Henrician Articles, or the new constitution adopted between nobles and the newly elected king Henry de Valois in 1573; when Sigismund Augustus was co-crowned, Chancellor Krzysztof Szydłowiecki organized a preliminary marriage treaty between the young king and Elizabeth Habsburg, daughter of Emperor Ferdinand I. The marriage was signed on 10–11 November 1530 in Poznań, the arrangement was delayed by Queen Bona Sforza, who detested the new bride; the treaty was renewed on 16 June 1538 in Wrocław by Johannes Dantiscus and the betrothal ceremony took place on 17 July 1538 in Innsbruck.

Bona continued to lobby against the marriage and instead proposed Princess Margaret of France to form an alliance with the French against the Habsburgs. On 5 May 1543, Elizabeth's escorted convoy entered Kraków and was greeted with enthusiasm by both the nobles and the townsfolk; the same day 16-year-old Elizabeth married 22-year-old Sigismund Augustus, whom she met for the first time shortly before marriage vows. The ceremony was performed at the Wawel Cathedral and the wedding continued for two weeks; as Elizabeth was granted the title of Queen, her mother-in-law Bona began to plot against the new monarchess. As a result, the newly wedded couple decided to reside in Vilnius, far from the royal court. Despite the initial euphoria demonstrated by royal subjects, the marriage was unsuccessful from the beginning. Sigismund Augustus did not find Elizabeth attractive and continued to have extramarital affairs with several

Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands

Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands is a practice of architects, urban designers and masterplanners established in 1986 and practising out of London. Alex Lifschutz and Ian Davidson met working on the Hong Kong and Shanghai Bank Headquarters for Foster and Partners, formed Lifschutz Davidson in 1986; the practice became resident in Richard Rogers' Thames Wharf Studios in 1989 having collaborated on the roof extension, became well known in the 1990s for work on London's South Bank with the Coin Street Community Builders, including the OXO Tower and Broadwall social housing. After the death of Ian Davidson in 2003 the practice became Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands with Paul Sandilands as Director, it moved to the former Island Records home in St Peter's Square, purchasing the building from the owners of Island, Universal Music, converting the former Royal Laundry to a large open-plan studio. In 2013, the practice finalised designing a new auction house for Bonhams in London, has collaborated with the auction company in New York and Hong Kong.

Additionally, it worked on a new sustainable suburb at Kidbrooke in South London, a high-profile residential tower with public swimming pool and leisure centre on the South Bank for Coin Street Community Builders. The practice was part of Team Populous, the official overlay architecture services provider for the London 2012 Olympics, led by Populous and comprising a consortium made up of Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands and Allies and Morrison. In August 2011 Delancey and Qatari Diar, working with Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands, beat rival developers to purchase the 2,800-home London 2012 Olympics Athletes’ Village in Stratford. In May 2017 the firm completed the University of Birmingham Sport and Fitness building that went on to win a national RIBA award. Ongoing projects range from a masterplan for 11,000 homes at Barking Riverside, to the first building for UCL in East London and a public art project lighting 15 Thames bridges with the American artist Leo Villareal. Offices at Thames Wharf, London Riverwalk, London Sainsbury's, Canley Broadwall Housing, South Bank, London Sainsbury's, Watford Oxo Tower Wharf, South Bank, London Royal Victoria Dock Bridge, London Sainsbury's, Deal Golden Jubilee Bridges, London Harvey Nichols restaurant, Edinburgh Harvey Nichols restaurant, London Davidson Building, Covent Garden, London Asticus Building, St James, London Fit-out for La Rinascente, Italy Island Studios, London Charlotte Building, Gresse Street, London Tsvetnoy Central Market, Moscow Kidbrooke Village Masterplan, replacing the former Ferrier Estate, London Teenage Cancer Trust Ward, Birmingham University College London masterplan, London N02 and N14, residential blocks on the Athletes Village, London Jewish Community Centre for London – "JW3" Headquarters for Bonhams auctioneers, London – longlisted for the 2015 Stirling Prize.

Foyles flagship store, Charing Cross Road, London – longlisted for the 2015 Stirling Prize. Fitzroy Place, the former Middlesex Hospital site, London The University of Birmingham's New Indoor Sports Facility, Birmingham La Rinascente, Italy Offices and station at Hanover Square Esders and Scheefhaals building "Au Pont Rouge", St Petersburg, Russia Masterplan for Chelsea F. C. with Herzog & de Meuron The Illuminated River, The practice has won many awards for architecture and design, including: Eight RIBA Awards, four Royal Fine Arts Commission Awards including Building of the Year for Broadwall Housing. Seven Civic Trust Awards and "Office Architect of the Year" from Building Design in 2011. In 2012 the practice's Tsvetnoy Central Market project won the Society of British Interior Design inaugural Best Interior Design Award. Vogue Russia's Store of the Year. Interior Design Magazine's award for best retail interior. In 2014 the JW3 reached the midlist for the RIBA Stirling Prize. Lifschutz Davidson Sandilands website

Church of St. Joseph in Greenwich Village

The Church of St. Joseph in Greenwich Village is a Roman Catholic parish church located at 365 Avenue of the Americas at the corner of Washington Place in the Greenwich Village neighborhood of Manhattan, New York City. Constructed in 1833–1834, it is the oldest church in New York City built to be a Roman Catholic sanctuary. St. Joseph's Parish was founded by Bishop John Dubois in 1829. At the time St. Joseph's Parish began, the population of New York, numbering 203,000, was concentrated in the southern half of Manhattan. Early church records indicate that St. Joseph's first congregants were predominantly Irish-Americans; the parish boundaries stretched from Canal Street to 20th Street, from Broadway to the Hudson River. As additional parishes were created, St. Joseph's boundaries were trimmed, spanning from Houston Street to 14th Street, from University Place to Hudson Street. St. Joseph's was the sixth parish to be established in Manhattan, among those still in existence in the Archdiocese of New York.

The five parishes that preceded it were St. Peter's on Barclay Street, St. Patrick's Old Cathedral on Mulberry Street, St. Mary's on Grand Street, St. James on Oliver Street and Transfiguration on Mott Street. After several years in a rented hall at Grove and Christopher Streets, the cornerstone of the present church was laid on June 10, 1833; the church was designed by John Doran in the Greek Revival style, but it has been extensively renovated over the years. Two fires, one in 1855 and the other in 1885, caused extensive damage to the interior. Renovations after the second fire were supervised by Arthur Crooks; the interior of the church was restored in 1972. At the time, a fresco of the Transfiguration, after Raphael's original in the Vatican, was discovered under layers of paint and restored. Structural restoration work was performed in 1991–1992. St. Joseph's School was established in 1855, with Sisters of Charity teaching the neighborhood girls and Christian Brothers teaching the boys; the first building was along Leroy Street, replaced in 1897 by a new building adjacent to the church.

The first public education program on AIDS held in Greenwich Village was held at St. Joseph's; the first meeting of Gay Men's Health Crisis took place there. The event organized by parishioner David Pais was planned to be held in the school, but so many people attended that it had to be moved to the church; when then-pastor Aldo Tos retired in 2003, the Archdiocese of New York asked the Dominican Order's Province of Saint Joseph, staffing the nearby Catholic Center at New York University, to assume the responsibility of staffing priests for the parish. The result was a merger of the parish with NYU's Catholic Center in December 2003. Tos was removed from ministry following accusations of sexual abuse of a minor, which were determined to be credible by the Archdiocese of New York, his laicization process was pending at his death in 2014. The Catholic Center provides a wide spectrum of activities, programs and outreach programs, it is the center of five New York University student clubs and for five groups of students and non-students.

In addition to its campus ministry and other missions, the parish organized a weekly soup kitchen in 1982 that operated for more than 30 years and has continued as an independent charity since 2015. Pastor: Boniface Endorf, O. P. Priests: John Baptist Hoang, O. P. Pier Giorgio Dengler, O. P. Previous pastors:James Cuddy, O. P. John P. McGuire, O. P. Aldo J. Tos John D. O'Leary Robert Wilde John P. A. Sullivan Timothy F. Herlihy John P. McCaffrey John J. Hickey John Edwards Denis Paul O'Flynn John B. Salter Felix H. Farrelly Thomas Farrell Michael McCarron Ambrose Manahan John McCloskey Archbishop of New York and the first U. S. cardinal Charles Constantine Pise Chaplain of the United States Senate James Cummiskey Patrick Duffy, first pastor Explanatory notes Citations "St. Joseph's Church in Greenwich Village", official website

Man from Two Worlds

Man from Two Worlds is an album by American jazz drummer Chico Hamilton featuring performances recorded in 1963 for the Impulse! label. The CD reissue added four compositions from Hamilton's previous album Passin' Thru as bonus tracks; the Allmusic review by Scott Yanow awarded the album 4½ stars stating "Although it tended to get overlooked at the time, one of drummer Chico Hamilton's finest groups was his 1962–1963 quartet/quintet...this band placed a stronger emphasis on melody and softer sounds than the more avant-garde groups of the time but still pushed away at musical boundaries". All compositions by Charles Lloyd except as indicated"Man from Two Worlds" - 5:53 "Blues Medley: Little Sister's Dance/Shade Tree/Island Blue" - 3:20 "Forest Flower: Sunrise/Sunset" - 10:11 "Child's Play" - 3:44 "Blues for O. T." - 4:34 "Mallet Dance" - 4:49 "Love Song to a Baby" - 3:47 "Passin' Thru" – 8:16 "Transfusion" – 2:42 "Lady Gabor" – 13:15 "Lonesome Child" – 5:41 Recorded at Rudy Van Gelder Studio in Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey on September 18, 1962 and September 20, 1962 and December 11, 1963 Chico Hamilton – drums Charles Lloyd – tenor saxophone, flute Gábor Szabóguitar Albert Stinsonbass George Bohanontrombone


Mahajangasuchus is an extinct genus of crocodyliform which had blunt, conical teeth. The type species, M. insignis, lived during the Late Cretaceous. It was a large predator, measuring up to 3 m with a weight up to 360 kg. Sereno et al.. Placed the genus within the family Trematochampsidae, although a more recent study by Turner and Calvo placed it within Peirosauridae, it was placed in the newly constructed family Mahajangasuchidae along with the genus Kaprosuchus by Sereno and Larrson. Buckley, G. A.. "A skull of Mahajangasuchus insignis from the Upper Cretaceous of Madagascar". Journal of Vertebrate Paleontology 21, supplement: A36 Rogers, Raymond R. David W. Krause and Kristina Curry Rogers. "Cannibalism in the Madagascan dinosaur Majungatholus atopus". Nature 422: 515-518. Turner, Alan H.. "Crocodyliform biogeography during the Cretaceous: evidence of Gondwanan vicariance from biogeographical analysis". Proceedings of the Royal Society B, 271: 2003-2009 DOI 10.1098/rspb.2004.2840

Tagg Flats, Oklahoma

Tagg Flats is a census-designated place in Delaware County, United States. The population was 13 at the 2010 census. Tagg Flats is located in southwestern Delaware County at 36°21′15″N 94°54′28″W, it is on the south side of Lake Eucha and is bordered to the west by Old Eucha and to the south by Bull Hollow. By road it is 16 miles southwest of the Delaware County seat. According to the United States Census Bureau, the Tagg Flats CDP has a total area of 5.0 square miles, all land. As of the census of 2000, there were 11 people, 6 households, 1 family residing in the CDP; the population density was 2.2 people per square mile. There were 7 housing units at an average density of 1.4/sq mi. The racial makeup of the CDP was 54.55% White, 36.36% Native American, 9.09% from two or more races. There were 6 households out of which 33.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, none were married couples living together, 16.7% had a female householder with no husband present, 66.7% were non-families.

50.0% of all households were made up of individuals and none had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 1.83 and the average family size was 2.50. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 18.2% under the age of 18, 9.1% from 18 to 24, 27.3% from 25 to 44, 27.3% from 45 to 64, 18.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 44 years. For every 100 females, there were 175.0 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 200.0 males. The median income for a household in the CDP was $0, the median income for a family was $8,750. Males had a median income of $6,250 versus $0 for females; the per capita income for the CDP was $2,774. There were 50.0% of families and 52.6% of the population living below the poverty line, including 50.0% of those under 18 and none of those over 64. The per capita income in Tagg Flats makes it the seventh-poorest place in the United States