Sikh gurus

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Guru Nanak with the Other Nine Gurus, Bhai Puran Singh

The Sikh gurus, referred to as the strong and powerful, are credited with establishing Sikhism, which started as a minor religion, but developed into a prominent religion over centuries. Guru Nanak was the first of the recognized Sikh gurus. There were ten recognized living gurus in the Nanak line. All 10 Sikh gurus were born into the Jat caste and sub castes (such as Bedi, Trehan, Bhalla and Sodhi gotras).[1][2][3] Modern Sikhism believes the Adi Granth or Granth Sahib, the writings of the gurus, to now be the guru, this belief has been integrated alongside the writings of Sikh gurus, and is now called Guru Granth Sahib. Modern Sikhism says that the Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh bestowed the guruship forever to the Guru Granth Sahib.

Of all 10 Sikh gurus, last 6 gurus were persecuted,[4][5][6][7][8] 2 gurus were tortured and executed (Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur),[9][10] and close kins of several gurus brutally killed (such as 6 and 9 years old sons of Guru Gobind Singh),[11][12] along with numerous other main revered figures of Sikhism were tortured and killed (such as Banda Bahadur, Bhai Mati Das, Bhai Sati Das and Bhai Dayala),[8][11][12] by Mughal rulers for refusing to convert to Islam,[13][4][12][11] and for opposing the persecution of Sikhs and Hindus.[14][10][5][8]

The Gurus[15][edit]

Family tree of Sikh Gurus

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Kamala Elizabeth Nayar (2004). The Sikh Diaspora in Vancouver: Three Generations Amid Tradition, Modernity, and Multiculturalism (illustrated ed.). University of Toronto Press. p. 48. ISBN 9780802086310. 
  2. ^ Marty, Martin E.; Appleby, R. Scott, eds. (2004). Fundamentalisms Comprehended (illustrated, reprint ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 453. ISBN 9780226508887. 
  3. ^ Gabriel A. Almond; R. Scott Appleby; Emmanuel Sivan (2003). Strong Religion: The Rise of Fundamentalisms Around the World (illustrated ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 157. ISBN 9780226014982. 
  4. ^ a b V. D. Mahajan (1970). Muslim Rule In India. S. Chand, New Delhi, p.223.
  5. ^ a b Irvine, William (2012). Later Mughals. Harvard Press. ISBN 9781290917766. 
  6. ^ Pashaura Singh; Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8. 
  7. ^ Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh gurus retold. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 653–691. ISBN 978-81-269-0858-5. 
  8. ^ a b c Singh, Prithi (2006). The history of Sikh gurus. Lotus Press. p. 124. ISBN 978-81-8382-075-2. 
  9. ^ Singh, Prof. Kartar (2003-01-01). Life Story Of Guru Nanak. Hemkunt Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-81-7010-162-8. Retrieved 26 November 2010. 
  10. ^ a b Siṅgha, Kirapāla (2006). Select documents on Partition of Punjab-1947. National Book. p. 234. ISBN 978-81-7116-445-5. 
  11. ^ a b c Singh, Prithi Pal. The history of Sikh Gurus. Lotus Press. p. 158. ISBN 81-8382-075-1. 
  12. ^ a b c Abel, Ernest. "Life of Banda Singh". [permanent dead link]
  13. ^ Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Dhan Dhan Sri Guru Arjan Dev Ji, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pages 29-62
  14. ^ McLeod, Hew (1987). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. 22 (s1): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379. 
  15. ^ Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee. "Ten Gurus" Archived 27 January 2010 at the Wayback Machine.

External links[edit]