|Part of a series on|
Sikhism (//, Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖੀ), or Sikhi Sikkhī, pronounced [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", or a "learner"), is a religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent about the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include constant spiritual meditation of God's name, being guided by the Guru instead of yielding to capriciousness of mind or psyche, living a householder's life instead of monasticism, truthful action to dharam (righteousness, moral duty), being of selfless service to others, equality of all human beings, and believing in God's grace. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in the Indian state of Punjab.
Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru (1469 – 1539), and the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him. The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs. Sikhism rejects claims that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly on Absolute Truth.
The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar (ੴ), its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being (God). Sikhism emphasizes simran (meditation on the words of the Guru Granth Sahib), that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo (repeat God's name) as a means to feel God's presence. It teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves" (lust, rage, greed, attachment, and ego). Hand in hand, secular life is considered to be intertwined with the spiritual life. Guru Nanak taught that living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, and that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, and carries out that Will". Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms to be mutually coexistent. Sikhism evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the Sikh gurus – Guru Arjan (14. April 1563 – 25 May 1605) and Guru Tegh Bahadur (12. April 1621 – 19. December 1675 ), after they refused to convert to Islam, were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers. The persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa, as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, with qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier.
- 1 Sikh terminology
- 2 Philosophy and teachings
- 3 Scripture
- 4 Observances
- 5 History
- 6 Sikh people
- 7 Prohibitions in Sikhism
- 8 See also
- 9 Notes
- 10 References
- 11 Further reading
- 12 External links
The majority of Sikh scriptures were originally written in Gurmukhī alphabet, a script standardised by Guru Angad out of Laṇḍā scripts used in North India. Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs, which means students or disciples of the Guru. The anglicised word 'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana (to learn), and Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning".
Philosophy and teachings
The basis of Sikhism lies in the teachings of Guru Nanak and his successors. Many sources call Sikhism a monotheistic religion, while others call it a monistic and panentheistic religion. According to Eleanor Nesbitt, English renderings of Sikhism as a monotheistic religion "tend misleadingly to reinforce a Semitic understanding of monotheism, rather than Guru Nanak's mystical awareness of the one that is expressed through the many. However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on 'one'".
In Sikhism, the concept of "God" is Waheguru considered Nirankar (shapeless), akal (timeless), and Alakh Niranjan (invisible). The Sikh scripture begins with Ik Onkar (ੴ), which refers to the "formless one", and understood in the Sikh tradition as monotheistic unity of God. Sikhism is classified as an Indian religion along with Buddhism, Hinduism and Jainism, given its geographical origin and its sharing some concepts with them.
Sikh philosophy does not approve dichotomy in spiritual development and moral truthful conduct (sach achar). Its founder Guru Nanak summarized this perspective with "Truth is the highest virtue, but higher still is truthful living".
Concept of God
God in Sikhism is known as Ik Onkar, the One Supreme Reality or the all-pervading spirit (which is taken to mean god). This spirit has no gender in Sikhism, though translations may present it as masculine. It is also Akaal Purkh (beyond time and space) and Nirankar (without form). In addition, Nanak wrote that there are many worlds on which it has created life.
ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥
Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat(i)-nām(u) karatā purakh(u) nirabha'u niravair(u) akāl(a) mūrat(i) ajūnī saibhan gur(a) prasād(i).
"There is one supreme being, the eternal reality, the creator, without fear and devoid of enmity, immortal, never incarnated, self-existent, known by grace through the true Guru."
Māyā—defined as a temporary illusion or "unreality"—is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of God and salvation: where worldly attractions which give only illusory temporary satisfaction and pain which distract the process of the devotion of God. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference to the unreality of the world, but of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, anger, greed, attachment, and lust—known as the Five Thieves—are believed to be particularly distracting and hurtful. Sikhs believe the world is currently in a state of Kali Yuga (Age of Darkness) because the world is led astray by the love of and attachment to Maya. The fate of people vulnerable to the Five Thieves ('Pānj Chor'), is separation from God, and the situation may be remedied only after intensive and relentless devotion.
According to Guru Nanak the supreme purpose of human life is to reconnect with Akal (The Timeless One), however, egotism is the biggest barrier in doing this. Using the Guru's teaching remembrance of nām (the divine Word or the Name of the Lord) leads to the end of egotism. Guru Nanak designated the word 'guru' (meaning teacher) to mean the voice of "the spirit": the source of knowledge and the guide to salvation. As Ik Onkar is universally immanent, guru is indistinguishable from "Akal" and are one and the same. One connects with guru only with accumulation of selfless search of truth. Ultimately the seeker realises that it is the consciousness within the body which is seeker/follower of the Word that is the true guru. The human body is just a means to achieve the reunion with Truth. Once truth starts to shine in a person's heart, the essence of current and past holy books of all religions is understood by the person.
Guru Nanak's teachings are founded not on a final destination of heaven or hell but on a spiritual union with the Akal which results in salvation or Jivanmukta (liberation whilst alive), a concept also found in Hinduism. Guru Gobind Singh makes it clear that human birth is obtained with great fortune, therefore one needs to be able to make the most of this life. Sikhs believe in reincarnation and karma concepts found in Hinduism and Buddhism. However, in Sikhism both karma and liberation "is modified by the concept of God's grace" (nadar, mehar, kirpa, karam etc.). Guru Nanak states "The body takes birth because of karma, but salvation is attained through grace". To get closer to God: Sikhs avoid the evils of Maya, keep the everlasting truth in mind, practice Shabad Kirtan, meditate on Naam, and serve humanity. Sikhs believe that being in the company of the Satsang or Sadh Sangat is one of the key ways to achieve liberation from the cycles of reincarnation.
Power and devotion (Shakti and Bhakti)
Sikhism was influenced by Bhakti movement, but it was not simply an extension of the Bhakti movement. Sikhism, for instance, disagreed with some views of Bhakti saints Kabir and Ravidas.
Guru Nanak, the first Sikh Guru and the founder of Sikhism, was a Bhakti saint. He taught, states Jon Mayled, that the most important form of worship is Bhakti. Guru Arjan, in his Sukhmani Sahib, recommended the true religion is one of loving devotion to God. The Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib includes suggestions on how a Sikh should perform constant Bhakti. Some scholars call Sikhism a Bhakti sect of Indian traditions, adding that it emphasises "nirguni Bhakti", that is loving devotion to a divine without qualities or physical form. However, Sikhism also accepts the concept of saguni, that is a divine with qualities and form. While Western scholarship generally places Sikhism as arising primarily within a Hindu Bhakti movement milieu while recognizing some Sufi Islamic influences, Indian Sikh scholars disagree and state that Sikhism transcended the environment it emerged from.
Some Sikh sects outside the Punjab-region of India, such as those found in Maharashtra and Bihar, practice Aarti with lamps during bhakti in a Sikh Gurdwara. But, most Sikh Gurdwaras forbid the ceremonial use of lamps (aarti) during their bhakti practices.
While emphasizing Bhakti, the Sikh Gurus also taught that the spiritual life and secular householder life are intertwined. In Sikh worldview, the everyday world is part of the Infinite Reality, increased spiritual awareness leads to increased and vibrant participation in the everyday world. Guru Nanak, states Sonali Marwaha, described living an "active, creative, and practical life" of "truthfulness, fidelity, self-control and purity" as being higher than the metaphysical truth.
The 6th Sikh Guru, Guru Hargobind, after Guru Arjan martyrdom and faced with oppression by the Islamic Mughal Empire, affirmed the philosophy that the political/temporal (Miri) and spiritual (Piri) realms are mutually coexistent. According to the 9th Sikh Guru, Tegh Bahadur, the ideal Sikh should have both Shakti (power that resides in the temporal), and Bhakti (spiritual meditative qualities). This was developed into the concept of the Saint Soldier by the 10th Sikh Guru, Gobind Singh.
The concept of man as elaborated by Guru Nanak, states Arvind-pal Singh Mandair, refines and negates the "monotheistic concept of self/God", and "monotheism becomes almost redundant in the movement and crossings of love". The goal of man, taught the Sikh Gurus, is to end all dualities of "self and other, I and not-I", attain the "attendant balance of separation-fusion, self-other, action-inaction, attachment-detachment, in the course of daily life".
Singing and music
Sikhs refer to the hymns of the Gurus as Gurbani (The Guru's word). Shabad Kirtan is the singing of Gurbani. The entire verses of Guru Granth Sahib are written in a form of poetry and rhyme to be recited in thirty one Ragas of the Classical Indian Music as specified. However, the exponents of these are rarely to be found amongst the Sikhs who are conversant with all the Ragas in the Guru Granth Sahib. Guru Nanak started the Shabad Kirtan tradition and taught that listening to kirtan is a powerful way to achieve tranquility while meditating; Singing of the glories of the Supreme Timeless One (God) with devotion is the most effective way to come in communion with the Supreme Timeless One. The three morning prayers for Sikhs consist of Japji Sahib, Jaap Sahib and Tav-Prasad Savaiye. Baptised Sikhs – Amritdharis, rise early and meditate and then recite all the Five Banis of Nitnem before breakfast.
Remembrance of the divine name
A key practice by Sikhs is remembrance of the Divine Name (Naam – the Name of the Lord). This contemplation is done through Nām Japna (repetition of the divine name) or Naam Simran (remembrance of the divine Name through recitation). The verbal repetition of the name of God or a sacred syllable has been an ancient established practice in religious traditions in India, however, Sikhism developed Naam-simran as an important Bhakti practice. Guru Nanak's ideal is the total exposure of one's being to the divine Name and a total conforming to Dharma or the "Divine Order". Nanak described the result of the disciplined application of nām simraṇ as a "growing towards and into God" through a gradual process of five stages. The last of these is sach khaṇḍ (The Realm of Truth)—the final union of the spirit with God.
Service and action
The Sikh Gurus taught that by constantly remembering the divine name (nam simaran) and through selfless service, or sēvā, the devotee overcomes egoism (Haumai). This, it states, is the primary root of five evil impulses and the cycle of rebirth.
Service in Sikhism takes three forms: "Tan" – physical service; "Man" – mental service (such as studying to help others); and "Dhan" – material service. Sikhism stresses kirat karō: that is "honest work". Sikh teachings also stress the concept of sharing, or vaṇḍ chakkō, giving to the needy for the benefit of the community.
Justice and equality
Sikhism regards God as the true king, the king of all kings, the one who dispenses justice through the law of karma, a retributive model and divine grace. The term for justice in the Sikh tradition is "Niau". It is related to the term "dharam" which in Sikhism connotes 'moral order' and righteousness. According to Pashaura Singh, in Sikhism "an attack on dharam is an attack on justice, on righteousness, and on the moral order generally". According to the Tenth Sikh Guru, Guru Gobind Singh "when all efforts to restore peace prove useless and no words avail, lawful is the flash of steel, it is right to draw the sword". Pain, stated Guru Nanak, is poison and the divine name is its antidote. Forgiveness is taught as a virtue in Sikhism, yet it also teaches its faithful to shun those with evil intentions and to pick up the sword to fight injustice and religious persecution.
Sikhism does not differentiate religious obligations by gender. The Sikh scripture does not discriminate against the woman, nor bar her from any roles. However, in practice, all ten Sikh Gurus were male and all major Sikh institutions have historically been overwhelmingly controlled as well as represented by males. God in Sikhism, like the Sant tradition of the Bhakti movement, has no gender.
The term guru comes from the Sanskrit gurū, meaning teacher, guide, or mentor. The traditions and philosophy of Sikhism were established by ten gurus from 1469 to 1708. Each guru added to and reinforced the message taught by the previous, resulting in the creation of the Sikh religion. Guru Nanak was the first guru and appointed a disciple as successor. Guru Gobind Singh was the final guru in human form. Before his death, Guru Gobind Singh decreed in 1708, that the Gurū Granth Sāhib would be the final and perpetual guru of the Sikhs.
Guru Nanak stated that his Guru is God who is the same from the beginning of time to the end of time. Nanak claimed to be God's mouthpiece, God's slave and servant and even God's dog, but maintained that he was only a guide and teacher, was neither a reincarnation of God nor in any way related to God. Nanak stated that the human Guru is mortal and not divine, who is to be respected and loved but not worshipped. When Guru, or Satguru (The true guru) is used in Gurbani it is often referring to the internal soul rather than a living Guru.
Guru Angad succeeded Guru Nanak. Later, an important phase in the development of Sikhism came with the third successor, Guru Amar Das. Guru Nanak's teachings emphasised the pursuit of salvation; Guru Amar Das began building a cohesive community of followers with initiatives such as sanctioning distinctive ceremonies for birth, marriage, and death. Amar Das also established the manji (comparable to a diocese) system of clerical supervision.
Guru Amar Das's successor and son-in-law Guru Ram Das founded the city of Amritsar, which is home of the Harimandir Sahib and regarded widely as the holiest city for all Sikhs. Guru Arjan was arrested by Mughal authorities who were suspicious and hostile to the religious order he was developing. His persecution and death inspired his successors to promote a military and political organization of Sikh communities to defend themselves against the attacks of Mughal forces.
The Sikh gurus established a mechanism which allowed the Sikh religion to react as a community to changing circumstances. The sixth guru, Guru Hargobind, was responsible for the creation of the concept of Akal Takht (throne of the timeless one), which serves as the supreme decision-making centre of Sikhism and sits opposite the Harmandir Sahib. The Sarbat Ḵẖālsā (a representative portion of the Khalsa Panth) historically gathers at the Akal Takht on special festivals such as Vaisakhi or Hola Mohalla and when there is a need to discuss matters that affect the entire Sikh nation. A gurmatā (literally, guru's intention) is an order passed by the Sarbat Ḵẖālsā in the presence of the Gurū Granth Sāhib. A gurmatā may only be passed on a subject that affects the fundamental principles of Sikh religion; it is binding upon all Sikhs. The term hukamnāmā (literally, edict or royal order) is often used interchangeably with the term gurmatā. However, a hukamnāmā formally refers to a hymn from the Gurū Granth Sāhib which is a given order to Sikhs.
|Chronology of the ten Sikh Gurus|
The word Guru in Sikhism also refers to Akal Purkh (God), and God and Guru are often synonymous in Gurbani (Sikh writings). Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood, states Singha, but "it has a pivotal concept of Guru; He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet; He is an illumined soul."
There is one primary scripture for the Sikhs: the Gurū Granth Sāhib. It is sometimes synonymously referred to as the Ādi Granth. Chronologically, however, the Ādi Granth – literally, The First Volume, refers to the version of the scripture created by Guru Arjan in 1604. The Gurū Granth Sāhib is the final expanded version of the scripture compiled by Guru Gobind Singh. While the Guru Granth Sahib is an unquestioned scripture in Sikhism, another important religious text, the Dasam Granth, does not enjoy universal consensus, and is considered a secondary scripture by many Sikhs.
The Ādi Granth was compiled primarily by Bhai Gurdas under the supervision of Guru Arjan between the years 1603 and 1604. It is written in the Gurmukhī script, which is a descendant of the Laṇḍā script used in the Punjab at that time. The Gurmukhī script was standardised by Guru Angad, the second guru of the Sikhs, for use in the Sikh scriptures and is thought to have been influenced by the Śāradā and Devanāgarī scripts. An authoritative scripture was created to protect the integrity of hymns and teachings of the Sikh gurus, and thirteen Hindu and two Muslim bhagats of the Bhakti movement sant tradition in medieval India. The thirteen Hindu bhagats whose teachings were entered into the text included Ramananda, Namdev, Pipa, Ravidas, Beni, Bhikhan, Dhanna, Jaidev, Parmanand, Sadhana, Sain, Sur, Trilochan, while the two Muslim bhagats were Kabir and Sufi saint Farid.
Guru Granth Sahib
The Guru Granth Sahib is the holy scripture of the Sikhs, and regarded as the living Guru.
The final version of the Gurū Granth Sāhib was compiled by Guru Gobind Singh in 1678. It consists of the original Ādi Granth with the addition of Guru Tegh Bahadur's hymns. The predominant bulk of Guru Granth Sahib is compositions by seven Sikh Gurus – Guru Nanak, Guru Angad, Guru Amar Das, Guru Ram Das, Guru Arjan, Guru Teg Bahadur and Guru Gobind Singh. It also contains the traditions and teachings of thirteen Hindu Bhakti movement sants (saints) such as Ramananda, Namdev among others, and two Muslim saints namely Kabir and the Sufi Sheikh Farid.
The text comprises 6,000 śabads (line compositions), which are poetically rendered and set to rhythmic ancient north Indian classical form of music. The bulk of the scripture is classified into thirty one rāgas, with each Granth rāga subdivided according to length and author. The hymns in the scripture are arranged primarily by the rāgas in which they are read.
Language and script
The main language used in the scripture is known as Sant Bhāṣā, a language related to both Punjabi and Hindi and used extensively across medieval northern India by proponents of popular devotional religion (bhakti). The text is printed in Gurumukhi script, believed to have been developed by Guru Angad, but it shares the Indo-European roots found in numerous regional languages of India.
The vision in the Guru Granth Sahib, states Torkel Brekke, is a society based on divine justice without oppression of any kind.
The Granth begins with the Mūl Mantra, an iconic verse created by Nanak:
- Punjabi: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ ॥
- ISO 15919 transliteration: Ika ōaṅkāra sati nāmu karatā purakhu nirabha'u niravairu akāla mūrati ajūnī saibhaṅ gura prasādi.
- Simplified transliteration: Ik ōaṅgkār sat nām kartā purkh nirbha'u nirvair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhaṅ gur prasād.
- Translation: One God Exists, Truth by Name, Creative Power, Without Fear, Without Enmity, Timeless Form, Unborn, Self-Existent, By the Guru's Grace.
The Tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the literal embodiment of the eternal, impersonal Guru, where the scripture's word serves as the spiritual guide for Sikhs.
- Punjabi: ਸੱਬ ਸਿੱਖਣ ਕੋ ਹੁਕਮ ਹੈ ਗੁਰੂ ਮਾਨਯੋ ਗ੍ਰੰਥ ।
- Transliteration: Sabb sikkhaṇ kō hukam hai gurū mānyō granth.
- English: All Sikhs are commanded to take the Granth as Guru.
The Guru Granth Sahib is installed in Sikh Gurdwara (temple); many Sikhs bow or prostrate before it on entering the temple, and just like Rama or Krishna symbols are cared for in some large Hindu temples, the Guru Granth Sahib is installed every morning and put to bed at night in many Gurdwaras. The Granth is revered as eternal gurbānī and the spiritual authority.
Myrvold notes that copies of the Guru Granth Sahib are not regarded as material objects, but as living subjects which are alive. Sikhs are well aware that the book itself "cannot come alive in a human sense," they treat it as a person, for which funerary services are performed when the copy is old and damaged:
[T]he fire sacrifice defines the moment when the eternal "spirit" of the Guru separates from the scriptural body and the Guru's temporal manifestation ceases to live.
In India the Guru Granth Sahib is even officially recognised by the Supreme Court of India as a judicial person which can receive donations and own land. Yet, some Sikhs also warn that, without true comprehension of the text, veneration for the text can lead to bibliolatry, with the concrete form of the teachings becoming the object of worship instead of the teachings themselves.
Relation to Hinduism and Islam
The Sikh scriptures use Hindu terminology extensively, with references to the Vedas, and the names of gods and goddesses in Hindu bhakti movement traditions, such as Vishnu, Shiva, Brahma, Parvati, Lakshmi, Saraswati, Rama, Krishna.[self-published source] It also refers to the spiritual concepts in Hinduism (Ishvara, Bhagavan, Brahman) and the concept of God in Islam (Allah) to assert that these are just "alternate names for the Almighty One".
While the Guru Granth Sahib acknowledges and respects the God in the Vedas, Puranas and Quran, it does not imply a syncretic bridge between Hinduism and Islam, but emphasises focusing on Japu (repeating mantra with the name of God), instead of Muslim practices such as circumcision or praying on a carpet, or Hindu rituals such as wearing thread or praying in a river.
The Dasam Granth is a scripture of Sikhs which contains texts attributed to the Guru Gobind Singh. The Dasam Granth is important to a great number of Sikhs, however it does not have the same authority as the Guru Granth Sahib. Some compositions of the Dasam Granth like Jaap Sahib, (Amrit Savaiye), and Benti Chaupai are part of the daily prayers (Nitnem) for Sikhs. The Dasam Granth is largely versions of Hindu mythology from the Puranas, secular stories from a variety of sources called Charitro Pakhyan – tales to protect careless men from perils of lust.
Five versions of Dasam Granth exist, and the authenticity of the Dasam Granth is amongst the most debated topics within Sikhism. The text played a significant role in Sikh history, but in modern times parts of the text have seen antipathy and discussion among Sikhs.
The Janamsākhīs (literally birth stories), are writings which profess to be biographies of Nanak. Although not scripture in the strictest sense, they provide a hagiographic look at Nanak's life and the early start of Sikhism. There are several—often contradictory and sometimes unreliable—Janamsākhīs and they are not held in the same regard as other sources of scriptural knowledge.
Observant Sikhs adhere to long-standing practices and traditions to strengthen and express their faith. The daily recitation from memory of specific passages from the Gurū Granth Sāhib, especially the Japu (or Japjī, literally chant) hymns is recommended immediately after rising and bathing. Family customs include both reading passages from the scripture and attending the gurdwara (also gurduārā, meaning the doorway to God; sometimes transliterated as gurudwara). There are many gurdwaras prominently constructed and maintained across India, as well as in almost every nation where Sikhs reside. Gurdwaras are open to all, regardless of religion, background, caste, or race.
Worship in a gurdwara consists chiefly of singing of passages from the scripture. Sikhs will commonly enter the gurdwara, touch the ground before the holy scripture with their foreheads. The recitation of the eighteenth century ardās is also customary for attending Sikhs. The ardās recalls past sufferings and glories of the community, invoking divine grace for all humanity.
The gurdwara is also the location for the historic Sikh practice of "Langar" or the community meal. All gurdwaras are open to anyone of any faith for a free meal, always vegetarian. People eat together, and the kitchen is maintained and serviced by Sikh community volunteers.
Guru Amar Das chose three Hindu festivals for celebration by Sikhs: Vaisakhi, Maha Shivaratri (Maghi) and Diwali, wherein he asked Sikhs to assemble and share the festivities as a community.
Vaisakhi is one of the most important festivals of Sikhs, while other significant festivals commemorate the birth, lives of the Gurus and Sikh martyrs. Historically, these festivals have been based on the Hindu Bikrami calendar. In 2003, the SGPC, the Sikh organisation in charge of upkeep of the historical gurdwaras of Punjab, adopted Nanakshahi calendar. The new calendar is highly controversial among Sikhs and is not universally accepted. Sikh festivals include the following:
- Vaisakhi which includes Parades and Nagar Kirtan occurs on 13 April. Sikhs celebrate it because on this day which fell on 30 March 1699, the tenth Guru, Gobind Singh, inaugurated the Khalsa, the 11th body of Guru Granth Sahib and leader of Sikhs till eternity.
- Nagar Kirtan involves the processional singing of holy hymns throughout a community. While practiced at any time, it is customary in the month of Visakhi (or Vaisakhi). Traditionally, the procession is led by the saffron-robed Panj Piare (the five beloved of the Guru), who are followed by the Guru Granth Sahib, the holy Sikh scripture, which is placed on a float.
- Diwali has been another important Sikh festival in its history. In recent years, instead of Diwali, the post-2003 calendar released by SGPC has named it the Bandi Chhor divas. Sikhs celebrate Guru Hargobind's release from the Gwalior Fort, with several innocent Hindu kings who were also imprisoned by Mughal Emperor Jahangir in 1619. This day continues to be commemorated on the same day of Hindu festival of Diwali, with lights, fireworks and festivities.
- Hola Mohalla is a tradition started by Guru Gobind Singh. It starts the day after Sikhs celebrate Holi, sometimes referred to as Hola. Guru Gobind Singh modified Holi with a three-day Hola Mohalla extension festival of martial arts. The extension started the day after the Holi festival in Anandpur Sahib, where Sikh soldiers would train in mock battles, compete in horsemanship, athletics, archery and military exercises.
- Gurpurbs are celebrations or commemorations based on the lives of the Sikh gurus. They tend to be either birthdays or celebrations of Sikh martyrdom. All ten Gurus have Gurpurbs on the Nanakshahi calendar, but it is Guru Nanak and Guru Gobind Singh who have a gurpurb that is widely celebrated in Gurdwaras and Sikh homes. The martyrdoms are also known as a shaheedi Gurpurbs, which mark the martyrdom anniversary of Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur.
Ceremonies and customs
The Khalsa Sikhs believe that Sikhism is against the concept of pilgrimage, and has since early 20th century emphasized that the Sikh scripture teaches against any pilgrimage tradition. However, the Khalsa Sikhs have also supported and helped develop major pilgrimage traditions to sacred sites such as Harmandir Sahib, Anandpur Sahib, Fatehgarh Sahib, Patna Sahib, Hazur Nanded Sahib, Hemkund Sahib and others. Sikh pilgrims and Sikhs of other sects customarily consider these as holy and a part of their Tirath. The Hola Mohalla around the festival of Holi, for example, is a ceremonial and customary gathering every year in Anandpur Sahib attracting over 100,000 Sikhs. Major Sikh temples feature a sarovar where some Sikhs take a customary dip. Some take home the sacred water of the tank particularly for sick friends and relatives, believing that the waters of such sacred sites have restorative powers and the ability to purify one's karma.[note 1]
Upon a child's birth, the Guru Granth Sahib is opened at a random point and the child is named using the first letter on the top left hand corner of the left page. All boys are given the last name Singh, and all girls are given the last name Kaur (this was once a title which was conferred on an individual upon joining the Khalsa).
The Sikh marriage ritual includes the anand kāraj ceremony. The marriage ceremony is performed in front of the Guru Granth Sahib by Khalsa, or havan fire by other Sikh sects such as Namdhari, around which the couple circle several times and lavan are sung. The tradition of circling the Guru Granth Sahib and Anand Karaj among Khalsa is relatively new and uncommon before mid 19th-century. Its official recognition and adoption came in 1909, during the Singh Sabha Movement.
Upon death, the body of a Sikh is usually cremated. If this is not possible, any respectful means of disposing the body may be employed. The kīrtan sōhilā and ardās prayers are performed during the funeral ceremony (known as antim sanskār).
Baptism and the Khalsa
Khalsa (meaning "Sovereign") is the collective name given by Guru Gobind Singh to those Sikhs who have been initiated by taking part in a ceremony called ammrit sañcār (nectar ceremony). During this ceremony, sweetened water is stirred with a double-edged sword while liturgical prayers are sung; it is offered to the initiating Sikh, who ritually drinks it. Many adherents of Sikhism do not undergo this ceremony, but still adhere to some components of the faith and identify as Sikhs. The initiated Sikh, considered reborn, is referred to as Khalsa Sikh, while those who do not get baptised are referred to as Sahajdhari Sikhs.
The first time that this ceremony took place was on Vaisakhi, which fell on 30 March 1699 at Anandpur Sahib in Punjab. It was on that occasion that Gobind Singh baptised the Pañj Piārē—the five beloved ones, who in turn baptised Guru Gobind Singh himself. To males who initiated, the last name Singh, meaning "lion", was given, while the last name Kaur, meaning "princess", was given to baptised Sikh females.
Baptised Sikhs ritually wear five items, called the Five Ks (in Punjabi known as pañj kakkē or pañj kakār), at all times. The five items are: kēs (uncut hair), kaṅghā (small wooden comb), kaṛā (circular steel or iron bracelet), kirpān (sword/dagger), and kacchera (special undergarment). The Five Ks have both practical and symbolic purposes.
Guru Nanak (1469–1539), the founder of Sikhism, was born in the village of Rāi Bhōi dī Talwandī, now called Nankana Sahib (in present-day Pakistan). His parents were Khatri Hindus. According to the hagiography Puratan Janamsakhi composed more than two centuries after his death and probably based on oral tradition, Nanak as a boy was fascinated by religion and spiritual matters, spending time with wandering ascetics and holy men. His friend was Mardana, a Muslim. Together they would sing devotional songs all night in front of public, and bathe in the river in the morning. One day, at the usual bath, Nanak went missing and his family feared he had drowned. Three days later he returned home, and declared: "There is no Hindu, there is no Muslim" ("nā kōi hindū nā kōi musalmān"). Thereafter, Nanak started preaching his ideas that form the tenets of Sikhism. In 1526, Guru Nanak at age 50, started a small commune in Kartarpur and his disciples came to be known as Sikhs. Although the exact account of his itinerary is disputed, hagiographic accounts state he made five major journeys, spanning thousands of miles, the first tour being east towards Bengal and Assam, the second south towards Andhra and Tamil Nadu, the third north to Kashmir, Ladakh, and Mount Sumeru in Tibet, and the fourth to Baghdad and Mecca. In his last and final tour, he returned to the banks of the Ravi River to end his days.
There are two competing theories on Guru Nanak's teachings. One, according to Cole and Sambhi, is based on hagiographical Janamsakhis, and states that Nanak's teachings and Sikhism were a revelation from God, and not a social protest movement nor any attempt to reconcile Hinduism and Islam in the 15th century. The other states, Nanak was a Guru. According to Singha, "Sikhism does not subscribe to the theory of incarnation or the concept of prophethood. But it has a pivotal concept of Guru. He is not an incarnation of God, not even a prophet. He is an illumined soul." The hagiographical Janamsakhis were not written by Nanak, but by later followers without regard for historical accuracy, and contain numerous legends and myths created to show respect for Nanak. The term revelation, clarify Cole and Sambhi, in Sikhism is not limited to the teachings of Nanak, they include all Sikh Gurus, as well as the words of past, present and future men and women, who possess divine knowledge intuitively through meditation. The Sikh revelations include the words of non-Sikh bhagats, some who lived and died before the birth of Nanak, and whose teachings are part of the Sikh scriptures. The Adi Granth and successive Sikh Gurus repeatedly emphasised, states Mandair, that Sikhism is "not about hearing voices from God, but it is about changing the nature of the human mind, and anyone can achieve direct experience and spiritual perfection at any time".
Scholars state that in its origins, Sikhism was influenced by the nirguni (formless God) tradition of Bhakti movement in medieval India. Nanak was raised in a Hindu family and belonged to the Bhakti Sant tradition. The roots of the Sikh tradition are, states Louis Fenech, perhaps in the Sant-tradition of India whose ideology grew to become the Bhakti tradition. Furthermore, adds Fenech, "Indic mythology permeates the Sikh sacred canon, the Guru Granth Sahib and the secondary canon, the Dasam Granth and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs of today and of their past ancestors".
The development of Sikhism was influenced by the Bhakti movement, however, Sikhism was not simply an extension of the Bhakti movement. Sikhism developed while the region was being ruled by the Mughal Empire. Two of the Sikh gurus – Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur, after they refused to convert to Islam, were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers. The Islamic era persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa, as an order for freedom of conscience and religion. A Sikh is expected to embody the qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier.
Growth of Sikhism
In 1539, Guru Nanak chose his disciple Lahiṇā as a successor to the guruship rather than either of his sons. Lahiṇā was named Guru Angad and became the second guru of the Sikhs. Nanak conferred his choice at the town of Kartarpur on the banks of the river Ravi. Sri Chand, Guru Nanak's son was also a religious man, and continued his own commune of Sikhs. His followers came to be known as the Udasi Sikhs - the first parallel sect of Sikhism that formed in Sikh history. The Udasis believe that the Guruship should have gone to Sri Chand, since he was a man of pious habits in addition to being Nanak's son.
Guru Angad, before joining Guru Nanak's commune, worked as a pujari (priest) and religious teacher centered around Hindu goddess Durga. On Nanak's advice, Guru Angad moved from Kartarpur to Khadur, where his wife Khivi and children were living, until he was able to bridge the divide between his followers and the Udasis. Guru Angad continued the work started by Guru Nanak and is widely credited for standardising the Gurmukhī script as used in the sacred scripture of the Sikhs.
Guru Amar Das became the third Sikh guru in 1552 at the age of 73. He adhered to the Vaishnavism tradition of Hinduism for much of his life, before joining the commune of Guru Angad. Goindval became an important centre for Sikhism during the guruship of Guru Amar Das. He was a reformer, and discouraged veiling of women's faces (a Muslim custom) as well as sati (a Hindu custom). He encouraged the Kshatriya people to fight in order to protect people and for the sake of justice, stating this is Dharma. Guru Amar Das started the tradition of appointing manji (zones of religious administration with an appointed chief called sangatias), introduced the dasvandh ("the tenth" of income) system of revenue collection in the name of Guru and as pooled community religious resource, and the famed langar tradition of Sikhism where anyone, without discrimination of any kind, could get a free meal in a communal seating. The collection of revenue from Sikhs through regional appointees helped Sikhism grow.
Guru Amar Das named his disciple and son-in-law Jēṭhā as the next Guru, who came to be known as Guru Ram Das. The new Guru faced hostilities from the sons of Guru Amar Das and therefore shifted his official base to lands identified by Guru Amar Das as Guru-ka-Chak. He moved his commune of Sikhs there and the place then was called Ramdaspur, after him. This city grew and later became Amritsar – the holiest city of Sikhism. Guru Ram Das expanded the manji organization for clerical appointments in Sikh temples, and for revenue collections to theologically and economically support the Sikh movement.
In 1581, Guru Arjan — youngest son of Guru Ram Das, became the fifth guru of the Sikhs. The choice of successor, as throughout most of the history of Sikh Guru successions, led to disputes and internal divisions among the Sikhs. The elder son of Guru Ram Das named Prithi Chand is remembered in the Sikh tradition as vehemently opposing Guru Arjan, creating a faction Sikh community which the Sikhs following Guru Arjan called as Minas (literally, "scoundrels").
Guru Arjan is remembered in the Sikh for many things. He built the first Harimandir Sahib (later to become the Golden Temple). He was a poet and created the first edition of Sikh sacred text known as the Ādi Granth (literally the first book) and included the writings of the first five gurus and other enlightened 13 Hindu and 2 Muslim Sufi saints. In 1606, he was tortured and killed by the Mughal emperor Jahangir, for refusing to convert to Islam. His martyrdom is considered a watershed event in the history of Sikhism.
After the martyrdom of Guru Arjan, his son Guru Hargobind at age eleven became the sixth guru of the Sikhs and Sikhism dramatically evolved to become a political movement in addition to being religious. Guru Hargobind carried two swords, calling one spiritual and the other for temporal purpose (known as mīrī and pīrī in Sikhism).[self-published source] According to the Sikh tradition, Guru Arjan asked his son Hargobind to start a military tradition to protect the Sikh people and always keep himself surrounded by armed Sikhs. The building of an armed Sikh militia began with Guru Hargobind. Guru Hargobind was soon arrested by the Mughals and kept in jail in Gwalior. It is unclear how many years he served in prison, with different texts stating it to be between 2 and 12 years. He married three women, built a fort to defend Ramdaspur and created a formal court called Akal Takht, now the highest Khalsa Sikh religious authority.
In 1644, Guru Hargobind named his grandson Har Rai as the guru. The Mughal Emperor Shah Jahan attempted political means to undermine the Sikh tradition, by dividing and influencing the succession. The Mughal ruler gave land grants to Dhir Mal, a grandson of Guru Hargobind living in Kartarpur, and attempted to encourage Sikhs to recognise Dhir Mal as the rightful successor to Guru Hargobind. Dhir Mal issued statements in favour of the Mughal state, and critical of his grandfather Guru Arjan. Guru Hargobind rejected Dhir Mal, the later refused to give up the original version of the Adi Granth he had, and the Sikh community was divided.
Guru Har Rai is famed to have met Dara Shikoh during a time Dara Shikoh and his younger brother Aurangzeb were in a bitter succession fight. Aurangzeb summoned Guru Har Rai, who refused to go and sent his elder son Ram Rai instead. The emperor found a verse in the Sikh scripture insulting to Muslims, and Ram Rai agreed it was a mistake then changed it. Ram Rai thus pleased Aurangzeb, but displeased Guru Har Rai who excommunicated his elder son. He nominated his younger son Guru Har Krishan to succeed him in 1661. Aurangzeb responded by granting Ram Rai a jagir (land grant). Ram Rai founded a town there and enjoyed Aurangzeb's patronage, the town came to be known as Dehradun, after Dehra referring to Ram Rai's shrine. Sikhs who followed Ram Rai came to be known as Ramraiya Sikhs. Guru Har Krishan became the eighth Guru at the age of five, and died of smallpox before reaching the age of eight. No hymns composed by these three gurus are included in the Guru Granth Sahib.
Guru Tegh Bahadur, the uncle of Guru Har Krishan, became Guru in 1665. Tegh Bahadur resisted the forced conversions of Kashmiri Pandits and non-Muslims to Islam, and was publicly beheaded in 1675 on the orders of Mughal emperor Aurangzeb in Delhi for refusing to convert to Islam. His beheading traumatized the Sikhs. His body was cremated in Delhi, the head was carried secretively by Sikhs and cremated in Anandpur. He was succeeded by his son, Gobind Rai who militarised his followers by creating the Khalsa in 1699, and baptising the Pañj Piārē. From then on, he was known as Guru Gobind Singh, and Sikh identity was redefined into a political force resisting religious persecution.
Sikh confederacy and the rise of the Khalsa
Guru Gobind Singh inaugurated the Khalsa (the collective body of all initiated Sikhs) as the Sikh temporal authority in the year 1699. It created a community that combines its spiritual purpose and goals with political and military duties. Shortly before his death, Guru Gobind Singh proclaimed the Gurū Granth Sāhib (the Sikh Holy Scripture) to be the ultimate spiritual authority for the Sikhs.
The Sikh Khalsa's rise to power began in the 17th century during a time of growing militancy against Mughal rule. The creation of a Sikh Empire began when Guru Gobind Singh sent a Sikh general, Banda Singh Bahadur, to fight the Mughal rulers of India[self-published source] and those who had committed atrocities against Pir Buddhu Shah. Banda Singh advanced his army towards the main Muslim Mughal city of Sirhind and, following the instructions of the guru, punished all the culprits. Soon after the invasion of Sirhind, while resting in his chamber after the Rehras prayer Guru Gobind Singh was stabbed by a Pathan assassin hired by Mughals. Gobind Singh killed the attacker with his sword. Though a European surgeon stitched the Guru's wound, the wound re-opened as the Guru tugged at a hard strong bow after a few days, causing profuse bleeding that led to Gobind Singh's death.
After the Guru's death, Baba Banda Singh Bahadur became the commander-in-chief of the Khalsa. He organised the civilian rebellion and abolished or halted the Zamindari system in time he was active and gave the farmers proprietorship of their own land. Banda Singh was executed by the emperor Farrukh Siyar after refusing the offer of a pardon if he converted to Islam. The confederacy of Sikh warrior bands known as misls emerged, but these fought between themselves. Ranjit Singh achieved a series of military victories and created a Sikh Empire in 1799.
The Sikh empire had its capital in Lahore, spread over almost 200,000 square miles (520,000 square kilometres) comprising what is now northwestern Indian subcontinent. The Sikh Empire entered into a treaty with the colonial British powers, with each side recognizing Sutlej River as the line of control and agreeing not to invade the other side. Ranjit Singh's most lasting legacy was the restoration and expansion of the Harmandir Sahib, most revered Gurudwara of the Sikhs, with marble and gold, from which the popular name of the "Golden Temple" is derived. After the death of Ranjit Singh in 1839, the Sikh Empire fell into disorder. Ranjit Singh had failed to establish a lasting structure for Sikh government or stable succession, and the Sikh Empire rapidly declined after his death. Factions divided the Sikhs, and led to Anglo Sikh wars. The British easily defeated the confused and demoralised Khalsa forces, then disbanded them into destitution. The youngest son of Ranjit Singh named Duleep Singh ultimately succeeded, but he was arrested and exiled after the defeat of Sikh Khalsa.
Singh Sabha movement
The last Maharaja of the Sikh Empire Duleep Singh converted to Christianity in 1853, a controversial but influential event in Sikh history. Along with his conversion, and after Sikh Empire had been dissolved and the region made a part of the colonial British Empire, proselytising activities of Christians, Brahmo Samajis, Arya Samaj, Muslim Anjuman-i-Islamia and Ahmadiyah sought to convert the Sikhs in northwestern Indian subcontinent into their respective faiths. These developments launched the Singh Sabha Movement.
Sikhs sought to revive Sikhism in late 19th century. Its first meeting was in the Golden Temple, Amritsar in 1873, and it was largely launched by the Sanatan Sikhs, Gianis, priests, and granthis. Shortly thereafter, Nihang Sikhs began influencing the movement, followed by a sustained campaign by Tat Khalsa. The movement became a struggle between Sanatan Sikhs and Tat Khalsa in defining and interpreting Sikhism.
Sanatan Sikhs led by Khem Singh Bedi – a direct descendant of Guru Nanak, Avtar Singh Vahiria and others supported a more inclusive approach which considered Sikhism as a reformed tradition of Hinduism, while Tat Khalsa campaigned for an exclusive approach to the Sikh identity, disagreeing with Sanatan Sikhs and seeking to modernize Sikhism. The Sikh Sabha movement expanded in north and northwest Indian subcontinent, leading to about a 100 Singh Sabhas. By the early decades of the 20th century, the influence of Tat Khalsa increased in interpreting the nature of Sikhism and their control over the Sikh Gurdwaras. Tat Khalsa introduced new practices such as the wedding ceremony that centered around the Sikh Scripture rather than the earlier yagna fire in 1909, after removing the historic idols and the images of Sikh gurus from the Golden Temple in 1905. They undertook a sustained campaign to redefine how Sikh Gurdwaras looked and ran, as well as reinterpreted the Sikh scriptures to purify the Sikh identity. According to Oberoi, the Singh Sabha movement had a lasting impact on Sikhism by "eradicating all forms of religious diversity within Sikhism" and "establishing uniform norms of religious orthodoxy and orthopraxy".
Sikhs participated and contributed to the decades-long Indian independence movement from the colonial rule in the first half of the 20th century. Ultimately when the British Empire recognized independent India, the land was partitioned into Hindu majority India and Muslim majority Pakistan (East and West) in 1947. This event, states Banga, was a watershed event in Sikh history. The Sikhs had historically lived in northwestern region of Indian subcontinent on both sides of the partition line ("Radcliffe line"). According to Banga and other scholars, the Sikhs had strongly opposed the Muslim League demands and saw it as "perpetuation of Muslim domination" and anti-Sikh policies in what just a 100 years before was a part of the Sikh Empire. During the discussions with the colonial authorities, Tara Singh emerged as an important leader who campaigned to prevent the partition and for the recognition of Sikhs as the third community. In 1940, a few Sikhs such as the victims of Komagata Maru in Canada proposed the idea of Khalistan as a buffer state between Pakistan and India. These leaders, however, were largely ignored. Many other Sikh leaders supported the partition along religious and demographic lines.
When partition was announced, the newly created line divided the Sikh population into two halves. The Sikhs suffered organized violence and riots against them in West Pakistan, and Sikhs moved en masse to the Indian side leaving behind their property and the sacred places of Sikhism. This reprisals on Sikhs were not one sided, because as Sikhs entered the Indian side, the Muslims in East Punjab experienced reprisals and they moved to West Pakistan. Before the partition, Sikhs constituted about 15% of the population in West Punjab that became a part of Pakistan, the majority being Muslims (55%). The Sikhs were the economic elite and wealthiest in West Punjab, with them having the largest representation in West Punjab's aristocracy, nearly 700 Gurdwaras and 400 educational institutions that served the interests of the Sikhs. Prior to the partition, there were a series of disputes between the majority Muslims and minority Sikhs, such as on the matters of jhatka versus halal meat, the disputed ownership of Gurdwara Sahidganj in Lahore which Muslims sought as a mosque and Sikhs as a Gurdwara, and the insistence of the provincial Muslim government in switching from Indian Gurmukhi script to Arabic-Persian Nastaliq script in schools. During and after the Simla Conference in June 1945, headed by Lord Wavell, the Sikh leaders initially expressed their desire to be recognized as the third party, but ultimately relegated their demands and sought a United India where Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims would live together, under a Swiss style constitution. The Muslim League rejected this approach, demanding that entire Punjab should be granted to Pakistan. The Sikh leaders then sought the partition instead, and Congress Working Committee passed a resolution in support of partitioning Punjab and Bengal.
Between March and August 1947, a series of riots, arson, plunder of Sikh property, assassination of Sikh leaders, and killings in Jhelum districts, Rawalpindi, Attock and other places made Tara Singh call the situation in Punjab as "civil war", while Lord Mountbatten stated "civil war preparations were going on". The riots had triggered the early waves of migration in April, with some 20,000 people leaving northwest Punjab and moving to Patiala. In Rawalpindi, 40,000 people became homeless. The Sikh leaders made desperate petitions, but all religious communities were suffering in the political turmoil. Sikhs, states Banga, were "only 4 million out of a total of 28 million in Punjab, and 6 million out of nearly 400 million in India; they did not constitute the majority, not even in a single district".
When the partition line was formally announced in August, the violence was unprecedented, with Sikhs being one of the most affected religious community both in terms of deaths, as well as property loss, injury, trauma and disruption. Sikhs and Muslims were both victims and perpetrators of retaliatory violence against each other. Estimates range between 200,000 and 2 million deaths of Sikhs, Hindus and Muslims. There were numerous rapes of and mass suicides by Sikh women, they being taken captives, their rescues and above all a mass exodus of Sikhs from newly created Pakistan into newly created India. The partition created the "largest foot convoy of refugees recorded in [human] history, stretching over 100 kilometer long", states Banga, with nearly 300,000 people consisting of mostly "distraught, suffering, injured and angry Sikhs". Sikh and Hindu refugees from Pakistan flooded into India, Muslim refugees from India flooded into Pakistan, each into their new homeland.
The early 1980s witnessed some Sikh groups seeking an independent nation named Khalistan carved out from India and Pakistan. The Golden Temple and Akal Takht were occupied by various militant groups in early 1980s. These included the Dharam Yudh Morcha led by Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale, the Babbar Khalsa, the AISSF and the National Council of Khalistan. Between 1982 and 1983, there were Khalistan demand-related terrorist attacks against civilians in parts of India. By late 1983, the Bhindranwale led group had begun to build bunkers and observations posts in and around the Golden Temple, with militants involved in weapons training. In June 1984, the then Prime Minister of India Indira Gandhi ordered Indian Army to begin Operation Blue Star against the militants. The operation caused severe damaged and destroyed Akal Takht. Numerous soldiers, civilians and militants died in the cross fire. Within days of the Operation Bluestar, some 2,000 Sikh soldiers in India mutinied and attempted to reach Amritsar to liberate the Golden Temple. Within six months, on 31 October 1984, Indira Gandhi's Sikh bodyguards assassinated her. The assassination triggered the 1984 anti-Sikh riots. According to Donald Horowitz, while anti-Sikh riots led to much damage and deaths, many serious provocations by militants also failed to trigger ethnic violence in many cases throughout the 1980s. The Sikhs and their neighbors, for most part, ignored attempts to provoke riots and communal strife.
|State/UT||% Sikh||% Hindu||% Muslim||% Others|
|Jammu and Kashmir||1.9%||28.4%||68.3%||Rest|
Estimates state that Sikhism has some 25 million followers worldwide. According to Pew Research, a religion demographics and research group in Washington DC, "more than nine-in-ten Sikhs are in India, but there are also sizable Sikh communities in the United Kingdom, the United States and Canada." Within India, the Sikh population is founded in every state and union territory, but it is predominantly found the northwestern and northern states. In only one state of Punjab, Sikhs constitute a majority (58% of the total, per 2011 census). The states and union territories of India where Sikhs constitute more than 1.5% of its population are Punjab, Chandigarh, Haryana, Delhi, Uttarakhand and Jammu & Kashmir.
Sikhism was founded in northwestern region of the Indian subcontinent in what is now Pakistan. Some of the Gurus were born near Lahore and in other parts of Pakistan. Prior to 1947, in British India, millions of Sikhs lived in what later became Pakistan. During the partition, Sikhs and Hindus left the newly created Muslim-majority Pakistan and moved to Hindu-majority India, while Muslims in the newly created India left and moved to Pakistan. According to 2017 news reports, only about 20,000 Sikhs remain in Pakistan and their population is dwindling (0.01% of its estimated 200 million population). The Sikhs in Pakistan, like others in the region, have been "rocked by an Islamist insurgency for more than a decade".
Sikh sects are sub-traditions within Sikhism that believe in an alternate lineage of Gurus, or have a different interpretation of the Sikh scriptures, or believe in following a living guru, or other concepts that differ from the orthodox Khalsa Sikhs. The major historic sects of Sikhism, states Harjot Oberoi, have included Udasi, Nirmala, Nanakpanthi, Khalsa, Sahajdhari, Namdhari Kuka, Nirankari and Sarvaria.
The early Sikh sects were Udasis and Minas founded by Sri Chand – the elder son of Guru Nanak, and Prithi Chand – the elder son of Guru Ram Das respectively, in parallel to the official succession of the Sikh Gurus. Later on Ramraiya sect grew in Dehradun with the patronage of Aurangzeb. Many splintered Sikh communities formed during the Mughal Empire era. Some of these sects were financially and administratively supported by the Mughal rulers in the hopes of gaining a more favorable and compliant citizenry.
After the collapse of Mughal Empire, and particularly during the rule of Ranjit Singh, Udasi Sikhs protected Sikh Shrines, preserved the Sikh scripture and rebuilt those that were desecrated or destroyed during the Muslim-Sikh wars. However, Udasi Sikhs kepts idols and images inside these Sikh temples. In the 19th century, Sanatan Sikhs, Namdharis and Nirankaris sects were formed in Sikhism, seeking to reform and return to what each believed was the pure form of Sikhism.
All these sects differ from Khalsa orthodox Sikhs in their beliefs and practices, such as continuing to solemnize their weddings around fire and being strictly vegetarian. Many accept the concept of living Gurus such as Guru Baba Dyal Singh. The Nirankari sect though unorthodox was influential in shaping the views of Tat Khalsa and the contemporary era Sikh beliefs and practices. Another significant Sikh sect of the 19th century was the Radhasoami movement in Punjab led by Baba Shiv Dyal. Other contemporary era Sikhs sects include the 3HO Sikhism, also referred to as Sikh Dharma Brotherhood formed in 1971, which grew rapidly outside India, particularly in North America and Europe. The Sikh Dharma movement is now found in many countries.
According to Surinder Jodhka, the state of Punjab with a Sikh majority has the "largest proportion of scheduled caste population in India". The practice of caste system, states Jodhka, is decried by Sikhism, but like Hindus, Christians and Muslims, Sikhs have practiced a caste system. The system, along with untouchability, has been more common in rural parts of Punjab. The landowning dominant Sikh castes, states Jodhka, "have not shed all their prejudices against the lower castes or dalits; while dalits would be allowed entry into the village gurdwaras they would not be permitted to cook or serve langar." The Sikh dalits of Punjab have tried to build their own gurdwara, other local level institutions and sought better material circumstances and dignity. According to Jodhka, due to economic mobility in contemporary Punjab, castes no longer mean an inherited occupation nor are work relations tied to a single location. In 1953, the government of India acceded to the demands of the Sikh leader, Master Tara Singh, to include Sikh dalit castes in the list of scheduled castes. In the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, 20 of the 140 seats are reserved for low-caste Sikhs.
Over 60% of Sikhs belong to the Jat caste, which is an agrarian caste. Despite being very small in numbers, the mercantile Khatri and Arora castes wield considerable influence within the Sikh community. Other common Sikh castes include Sainis, Rajputs, Ramgarhias (artisans), Ahluwalias (formerly brewers), Kambojs (rural caste), Labanas, Kumhars and the two Dalit castes, known in Sikh terminology as the Mazhabis (the Chuhras) and the Ramdasias (the Chamars).
Sikhism is the ninth-largest amongst the major world religions, and one of the youngest. Worldwide, there are 25.8 million Sikhs, which makes up 0.39% of the world's population. Approximately 75% of Sikhs live in the Punjab, where they constitute about 60% of the state's population. Large communities of Sikhs live in the neighboring states such as Indian State of Haryana which is home to the second largest Sikh population in India with 1.1 million Sikhs as per 2001 census, and large communities of Sikhs can be found across India. However, Sikhs only comprise about 2% of the Indian population.
Sikh migration to Canada began in the 19th century and led to the creation of significant Sikh communities, predominantly in South Vancouver, British Columbia, Surrey, British Columbia, and Brampton, Ontario. Today temples, newspapers, radio stations, and markets cater to these large, multi-generational Indo-Canadian groups. Sikh festivals such as Vaisakhi and Bandi Chhor are celebrated in those Canadian cities by the largest groups of followers in the world outside the Punjab.
Sikhs also migrated to East Africa, West Africa, the Middle East, Southeast Asia, the United Kingdom as well as United States and Australia. These communities developed as Sikhs migrated out of Punjab to fill in gaps in imperial labour markets. In the early twentieth century a significant community began to take shape on the west coast of the United States. Smaller populations of Sikhs are found within many countries in Western Europe, Mauritius, Malaysia, Philippines, Fiji, Nepal, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Iraq, Singapore, the United States, and many other countries.
Prohibitions in Sikhism
Some prohibitions include:
- Cutting hair: Cutting hair is forbidden in Sikhism for those who have taken the Amrit initiation ceremony. These Amritdhari or Khalsa Sikhs are required to keep unshorn hair.
- Intoxication: Consumption of alcohol, non-medicinal drugs, tobacco, and other intoxicants is forbidden in Sikhism according to the "Sikh Rahit Maryada". A Khalsa Amritdhari Sikh who consumes any intoxicant is considered patit lapsed, and may be readmitted into Khalsa only if re-baptised. In contrast, Nihangs of Sikh tradition who protect Sikh shrines wearing visible and ready weaponry along with their notable blue turbans, practice meditation with the aid of cannabis. Sehajdari Sikhs, in practice however, socially consume some alcohol, while smoking has been historically infrequent among Sikhs.
- Priestly class: Sikhism does not have priests, but does have liturgical service which employs people for a salary to sing hymns (Kirtan), officiate an Ardās Puja or marriage, and perform services at a Gurdwara. Any Sikh can become a Granthi to look after the Guru Granth Sahib, and any Sikh is free to read from the Guru Granth Sahib.
- Eating meat : Both initiated and uninitiated Sikhs are strictly prohibited from eating meat from animals slaughtered by halal method, known as Kutha meat, where the animal is killed by exsanguination (via throat-cutting). According to Eleanor Nesbitt, on the general issue of vegetarianism versus non-vegetarianism, there is no definitive instruction in the Sikh code. In an Adi Granth verse, Guru Nanak responds to Hindu Brahmins who teach that it is polluting to eat meat by saying that that as human beings, we are part of the chain of life, and even plants are living organisms. In other verses, Guru Nanak says that "Fools wrangle about eating meat", and calls out the Pandits by saying that "The eating of meat is considered sinful, but gratifying of greed is held good", in essence teaching that quelling the cruelty of the human mind is supreme rather than mere abstaining from eating meat. The ban on kutha meat (taken along with ban on sexual relations with Muslims and a ban on smoking -- a habit common among 18th-century Indian Muslims), hypothesizes Nesbitt, may have been meant for Sikhs to have a social separation from the Muslims due to the 17th and 18th century resistance of the Sikhs to the oppression of the Mughal and Afghan armies (both formed of Muslims). Amritdhari Sikhs, or those baptised with the Amrit, have been strict vegetarians, abstaining from all meat and eggs. Sikhs who eat meat seek the Jhatka method of producing meat believing it to cause less suffering to the animal. The uninitiated Sikhs too are not habitual meat-eaters by choice, and beef (cow meat) has been a traditional taboo. Typically meat is not served in community free meals such as langar.
- Adultery is forbidden.
- Singh, Khushwant (2006). The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. India: Oxford University Press. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8.
- (in Punjabi) Nabha, Kahan. Sahib Singh (1930). Gur Shabad Ratnakar Mahan Kosh (in Punjabi). p. 720. Archived from the original on 18 March 2005. Retrieved 29 May 2006.
- Sikhism (indigenously known as Sikhī) originated from the word Sikh, which comes from the Sanskrit root śiṣya meaning "disciple", or śikṣa meaning. "instruction".
- W.Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1993). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study (Themes in Comparative Religion). Wallingford, United Kingdom: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 117. ISBN 0333541073.
- Luis Moreno; César Colino (2010). Diversity and Unity in Federal Countries. McGill Queen University Press. p. 207. ISBN 978-0-7735-9087-8., Quote: "Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism and Sikhism originated on the Indian subcontinent".
- Arvind-pal Singh Mandair (2014). Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech, eds. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 302–314. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
- William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 130–133, 200.
- Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 26–27. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
- "Sikhism". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved 7 August 2017.
- Singh, Patwant; (2000). The Sikhs. Alfred A Knopf Publishing. Pages 17. ISBN 0-375-40728-6.
- Louis Fenech and WH McLeod (2014), Historical Dictionary of Sikhism, 3rd Edition, Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-1442236004, pages 17, 84-85
- William James (2011), God's Plenty: Religious Diversity in Kingston, McGill Queens University Press, ISBN 978-0773538894, pages 241–242
- Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). The Making of Sikh Scripture. United States: Oxford University Press. pp. 21–25, 123–124. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9.
- Singh Kalsi, Sewa (2008). Sikhism. London: Kuperard. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4.
Sikhism rejects the view that any particular religious tradition has a monopoly regarding Absolute Truth. Sikhism rejects the practice of converting people to other religious traditions.
- Gregory M. Reichberg; Henrik Syse (2014). Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. pp. 672–674. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0.
- Pashaura Singh (2003). The Guru Granth Sahib: Canon, Meaning and Authority. Oxford University Press. pp. 101–102. ISBN 978-0-19-908773-0.
- H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt. pp. 20–21, 103. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
- Nayar, Kamala Elizabeth; Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh (2012). Socially Involved Renunciate, The: Guru Nanak's Discourse to the Nath Yogis. SUNY Press. ISBN 978-0-7914-7950-6., page=106
- Marwaha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth: Religion, Self and Emotions : Perspectives of Hinduism, Buddism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, Islam, Sikhism and Contemporary Psychology. Concept Publishing Company. ISBN 978-81-8069-268-0., pages 205–6
- Marty, Martin E. (1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. ISBN 978-0-226-50884-9., page 278
- Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pages 29–62
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.;
Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726.;
Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445.;
McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379.
- Singh Gandhi, Surjit (1 Feb 2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606 -1708. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. pp. 676–677. ISBN 8126908572.
- Chanchreek, Jain (2007). Encyclopaedia of Great Festivals. Shree Publishers & Distributors. p. 142. ISBN 9788183291910.
- Dugga, Kartar (2001). Maharaja Ranjit Singh: The Last to Lay Arms. Abhinav Publications. p. 33. ISBN 9788170174103.
- Bahri, Hardev. "GURMUKHI". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala. Retrieved 9 April 2016.
- Christopher Shackle; Arvind Mandair (2013). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. Routledge. pp. xxi–xxiii. ISBN 978-1-136-45101-0.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 3, 12–13. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
- Chahal, Devinder (July–December 2006). "Understanding Sikhism in the Science Age" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism, The Research Journal (2): 3. Retrieved 10 November 2013.
- Rehat Maryada Archived 1 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine.
- Rose, Tudor; UNESCO (2015). Agree to Differ. UNESCO Publishing. p. 97. ISBN 9789231000904.
- Sikhism at a glance: Sikhism, BBC
- Nirbhai Singh (1990). Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 1–3.
- Opinderjit Kaur Takhar (2016). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs. Taylor & Francis. p. 147. ISBN 978-1-351-90010-2.
- Nesbitt, Eleanor M. (2005). Sikhism: a very short introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 21–23. ISBN 978-0-19-280601-7.
- Pashaura Singh (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 227
- Doniger, Wendy (1999). Merriam-Webster's encyclopedia of world religions. Merriam-Webster. p. 500. ISBN 978-0-87779-044-0.
- Torkel Brekke (2014). Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse, ed. Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions. Cambridge University Press. p. 672. ISBN 978-1-139-95204-0.; Quote: "As an Indian religion, Sikhism affirms transmigration, the continued rebirth after death..."
- Sikhism, Encylopaedia Britannica; Quote: "Sikhism, Indian religion founded in the Punjab in the late 15th century."; See also Classification of Religions, Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. p. 234. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Mayled, John (2002). Sikhism. Heinemann. p. 16. ISBN 0-435-33627-4.
- Dev, Nanak. Gurū Granth Sāhib. p. 15. Retrieved 15 June 2006.
You are the One True Lord and Master of all the other beings, of so many worlds.
- Singh, Nirmal (2008). Searches In Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 68. ISBN 9788170103677.
- Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
- Pruthi, Raj (2004). Sikhism and Indian Civilization. Discovery Publishing House. p. 204. ISBN 9788171418794.
- McLean, George (2008). Paths to The Divine: Ancient and Indian: 12. 1565182480: Council for Research in Values &. p. 599.
- Note: some disagree with this viewpoint, and state that guru in Sikhism is "not a teacher or a guide", but "God's own manifestation"; see: Bhagat Singh & G.P. Singh, Japji, 2002, Hemkunt Press, page 9; Quote: "(...) In Sikh religion the word 'Guru' does not denote a teacher, or an expert or a guide in human body. When God manifested his attributes in person, that person was called 'Guru Nanak'"
- Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. pp. 254–256. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
- Singh, R.K. Janmeja (Meji) (August 2013). "Gurbani's Guidance and the Sikh's 'Destination'" (PDF). The Sikh Review. 8. 61 (716): 27–35. Archived from the original (PDF) on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Dhillon, Bikram Singh (January–June 1999). "Who is a Sikh? Definitions of Sikhism" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism – The Research Journal. 1 (1): 33–36, 27. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Dhillon, Sukhraj Singh (May 2004). "Universality of the Sikh Philosophy: An Analysis" (PDF). The Sikh Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2013-12-04. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Takhar, Opinderjit (2005). Sikh Identity: An Exploration Of Groups Among Sikhs. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. p. 143. ISBN 9780754652021.
- Grewal, JS (1998). The Sikhs of the Punjab. United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. pp. 25–36. ISBN 0521637643.
- Chahal, Amarjit Singh (December 2011). "Concept of Reincarnation in Guru Nanak's Philosophy" (PDF). Understanding Sikhism – The Research Journal. 13 (1–2): 52–59. Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Wilkinson, Philip (2008). Religions. Dorling Kindersley. pp. 209, 214–215. ISBN 978-0-7566-3348-6.
- House, H. Wayne (April 1991). "Resurrection, Reincarnation, and Humanness" (PDF). Bibliotheca Sacra. 148 (590). Retrieved 29 November 2013.
- Singh, H. S. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism. Hemkunt Press. p. 80. ISBN 9788170103011.
- Kapoor, Sukhbir (2005). Guru Granth Sahib – An Advance Study Volume-I. Hemkunt Press. p. 188. ISBN 9788170103172.
- David Lorenzen (1995), Bhakti Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791420256, pages 1–2, Quote: "Historically, Sikh religion derives from this nirguni current of bhakti religion"
- Louis Fenech (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 35, Quote: "Technically this would place the Sikh community's origins at a much further remove than 1469, perhaps to the dawning of the Sant movement, which possesses clear affinities to Guru Nanak's thought sometime in the tenth century. The predominant ideology of the Sant parampara in turn corresponds in many respects to the much wider devotional Bhakti tradition in northern India."
- Sikhism, Encyclopædia Britannica (2014), Quote: "In its earliest stage Sikhism was clearly a movement within the Hindu tradition; Nanak was raised a Hindu and eventually belonged to the Sant tradition of northern India,"
- Sikh Studies, Book 7. New Delhi, India: Hemkunt Press. 2009. p. 8. ISBN 8170102456.
- Pruthi, R K (2004). Sikhism and Indian Civilization. New Delhi: Discovery Publishing House. pp. 202–203. ISBN 9788171418794.
- HL Richard (2007), Religious Movements in Hindu Social Contexts: A Study of Paradigms for Contextual "Church" Development International Journal of Frontier Missiology, Vol. 24, Issue 3, page 144
- Jon Mayled (2002). Sikhism. Heinemann. pp. 30–31. ISBN 978-0-435-33627-1.
- Surinder S. Kohli (1993). The Sikh and Sikhism. Atlantic Publishers. pp. 74–76. ISBN 81-7156-336-8.
- Singh, Nirmal (2008). Searches In Sikhism (First ed.). New Delhi: Hemkunt Press. p. 122. ISBN 978-81-7010-367-7.
- Sant Singh Khalsa (Translator) (2006). Sri Guru Granth Sahib. srigranth.org. pp. 305–306 (see verses 305–16 to 306–2).
- Jagbir Jhutti-Johal (2011). Sikhism Today. Bloomsbury Publishing. p. 92. ISBN 978-1-4411-8140-4.
- W. Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1997), A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy, Routledge, ISBN 978-0700710485, page 22
- David Lorenzen (1995), Bhakti Religion in North India: Community Identity and Political Action, State University of New York Press, ISBN 978-0791420256, pages 1–3
- Hardip Syan (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 178
- A Mandair (2011), Time and religion-making in modern Sikhism, in Time, History and the Religious Imaginary in South Asia (Editor: Anne Murphy), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415595971, page 188-190
- Mahinder Gulati (2008), Comparative Religious And Philosophies : Anthropomorphism And Divinity, Atlantic, ISBN 978-8126909025, page 305
- Constance Elsberg (2003), Graceful Women, University of Tennessee Press, ISBN 978-1-57233-214-0, pages 27–28
- William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 3, 42–43. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.
- Karen Pechilis; Selva J. Raj (2012). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today. Routledge. p. 243. ISBN 978-1-136-16323-4.
- Pashaura Singh; Michael Hawley (2012). Re-imagining South Asian Religions. BRILL Academic. pp. 42–43. ISBN 90-04-24236-8.
- William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. p. 201. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.
- Nayar, Kamal Elizabeth & Sandhu, Jaswinder Singh (2007). The Socially Involved Renunciate – Guru Nanaks Discourse to Nath Yogi's. United States of America: State University of New York Press. p. 106.
- Kaur Singh; Nikky Guninder (30 Jan 2004). Hindu spirituality: Postclassical and modern (Editors: K. R. Sundararajan, Bithika Mukerji). English: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 530. ISBN 8120819373.
- Marwha, Sonali Bhatt (2006). Colors of Truth, Religion Self and Emotions. New Delhi: Concept Publishing Company. p. 205. ISBN 818069268X.
- E. Marty, Martin & Appleby R. Scott (1996). Fundamentalisms and the State: Remaking Polities, Economies, and Militance. University of Chicago Press. pp. 277–278. ISBN 0226508846.
- Singh Gandhi, Surjit (2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606 -1708. English: Atlantic Publishers. pp. 435, 676–677. ISBN 8126908572.
- Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2009). Religion and the Specter of the West – Sikhism, India, Postcoloniality and the Politics of Translation. Columbia University Press. pp. 372–373. ISBN 0231147244.
- Singh, Joginder (2004). Celestial Gems. Hemkunt Press. p. 67. ISBN 9788170103455.
- Singh Bakhshi, Surinder (1 Sep 2008). "Chapter 22 – Nitnem". Sikhs in the Diaspora: A Modern Guide to the Practice of Sikh Faith. Sikh Publishing House; First edition. p. 133. ISBN 0956072801.
- Doel, Sarah (2008). Sikh Music: History, Text, and Praxis. ProQuest. p. 46. ISBN 9780549833697.
- Dalbir Singh Dhillon (1988). Sikhism, Origin and Development. Atlantic Publishers. p. 229.
- Cave, David; Norris, Rebecca (2012). Religion and the Body: Modern Science and the Construction of Religious Meaning. BRILL Academic. p. 239. ISBN 978-9004221116.
- Anna S. King; J. L. Brockington (2005). The Intimate Other: Love Divine in Indic Religions. Orient Blackswan. pp. 322–323. ISBN 978-81-250-2801-7.
- W. Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2005). A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 9–10. ISBN 978-1-135-79760-7.
- Michael L. Hadley (2001). The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice. State University of New York Press. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-0-7914-4851-9.
- Wood, Angela (1997). Movement and Change. Nelson Thornes. p. 46. ISBN 9780174370673.
- W. Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2005). A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 31, 59. ISBN 978-1-135-79760-7.
- Pashaura Singh (2001). "Sikhism and Restorative Justice:Theory and Practice – Pashaura Singh". In L. Hadley, Michael. The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice (S U N Y Series in Religious Studies). State University of New York Press. pp. 199–202. ISBN 0791448525.
- Mcleod, W H (1991). The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society (ACLS Lectures on the History of Religions). Columbia University Press; Reprint edition. p. 56. ISBN 0231068158.
- Marianne Fleming & David Worden (2 July 2004). "Sikhism". Religious Studies for AQA: Thinking About God and Morality (GCSE Religious Studies for AQA). Heinemann; 1 edition. p. 123. ISBN 0435307134.
- Pashaura Singh (2001). "Sikhism and Restorative Justice:Theory and Practice – Pashaura Singh". In L. Hadley, Michael. The Spiritual Roots of Restorative Justice (S U N Y Series in Religious Studies). State University of New York Press. pp. 202–207. ISBN 0791448525.
- W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow. pp. 70–71. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 121–122. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Singh, Darshan (1968). Indian Bhakti Tradition and Sikh Gurus (First ed.). Chandigarh: Panjab Publishers. p. 158.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (22 September 2005). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. OUP Oxford. pp. 22–. ISBN 978-0-19-157806-9.
- Singh Gandhi, Surjit (1 Feb 2008). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469–1606 C.E. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. p. 265. ISBN 9788126908578.
- Khushwant Singh (1969). Hymns of Guru Nanak. Orient Blackswan. p. 116. ISBN 978-81-250-1161-3.
- Singh Gandhi, Surjit (2007). History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1469–1606 C.E. Atlantic Publishers & Distributors Pvt Ltd. p. 265. ISBN 978-8126908592.
- Singh, Darshan (1968). Indian Bhakti Tradition and Sikh Gurus (First ed.). Chandigarh: Panjab Publishers. p. 148.
- Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. p. 255. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
- "Sikh Reht Maryada — Method of Adopting Gurmatta". Archived from the original on 6 June 2002. Retrieved 9 June 2006.
- Raj, Selva (2013). South Asian Religions: Tradition and Today (First ed.). Abingdon: Routledge. p. 232. ISBN 9780415448512.
- HS Singha (2009), The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-8170103011, page 104
- Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, pages xvii–xx
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, pages 45–46
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, pages 49–50
- Trumpp, Ernest (2004) . The Ādi Granth or the Holy Scriptures of the Sikhs. India: Munshiram Manoharlal Publishers. p. 1xxxi. ISBN 978-81-215-0244-3.
- Grierson, George Abraham (1967) . The Linguistic Survey of India. India: Motilal Banarsidass. p. 624. ISBN 978-81-85395-27-2.
- E Nesbitt (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, pages 360–369
- Shapiro, Michael (2002). Songs of the Saints from the Adi Granth. Journal of the American Oriental Society. pp. 924, 925.
- Mahinder Gulati (2008), Comparative Religious And Philosophies : Anthropomorphism And Divinity, Atlantic, ISBN 978-8126909025, page 302;
HS Singha (2009), The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-8170103011, page 8
- Mann, Gurinder Singh (2001). The Making of Sikh Scripture. United States: Oxford University Press. p. 19. ISBN 978-0-19-513024-9.
- Anna S. King and JL Brockington (2005), The Intimate Other: Love Divine in Indic Religions, Orient Blackswan, ISBN 978-8125028017, pages 359–361
- Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. p. 259. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
- Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, pages xxi–xxxii
- Torkel Brekke (2014), Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions (Editors: Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521450386, pages 673, 675, 672–686
- Arvind Mandair (2008), Shared Idioms, Sacred Symbols, and the Articulation of Identities in South Asia (Editor: Kelly Pemberton), Routledge, ISBN 978-0415958288, page 61
- Jane Bingham (2007), Sikhism, Atlas of World Faiths, ISBN 978-1599200590, pages 19–20
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, page 44
- Torkel Brekke (2014), Religion, War, and Ethics: A Sourcebook of Textual Traditions (Editors: Gregory M. Reichberg and Henrik Syse), Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0521450386, page 675
- Kristina Myrvold (2016), Making the Scripture a Person: Reinventing Death Rituals of Guru Granth Sahib in Sikhism, p.142-143. In: Kristina Myrvold (2016), The Death of Sacred Texts: Ritual Disposal and Renovation of Texts in World Religions, Routledge
- AK Sinha (2013), Glimpse of Scriptures of Religions of Indian Origin, Xlibris, ISBN 978-1483663081, pages 204–216
- Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, pages xxxiv–xli
- Nirbhai Singh (1990), Philosophy of Sikhism: Reality and Its Manifestations, Atlantic Publishers, pages 115–122
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, page 157
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, page 40
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, pages 155–156
- J Deol (2000), Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity (Editors: AS Mandair, C Shackle, G Singh), Routledge, ISBN 978-0700713899, pages 31–33
- Robert Zaehner (1988), The Hutchinson Encyclopedia of Living Faiths, Hutchinson, ISBN 978-0091735760, pages 426–427
- Christopher Shackle and Arvind Mandair (2005), Teachings of the Sikh Gurus, Routledge, ISBN 978-0415266048, page xx
- William McLeod (2009), The A to Z of Sikhism, Toronto: Rowman & Littlefield, ISBN 978-0810868281, page 151
- Parrinder, Geoffrey (1971). World Religions: From Ancient History to the Present. United States: Hamlyn Publishing Group Limited. p. 260. ISBN 978-0-87196-129-7.
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, page 148
- Mark McWilliams (2014). Food & Material Culture: Proceedings of the Oxford Symposium on Food and Cookery 2013. Oxford Symposium. p. 265. ISBN 978-1-909248-40-3.
- William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 135–136. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4., Quote: "Since the time of Guru Amar Das it has been customary for Sikhs to assemble before their Guru on three of the most important Hindu festival occasions – Vaisakhi, Divali and Maha Shivaratri".
- Kathleen Kuiper (2010). The Culture of India. The Rosen Publishing Group. p. 127. ISBN 978-1-61530-149-2.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: a Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 122–123. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 128–130. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 6, 124. ISBN 978-0-19-106276-6.
- W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 95. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
- Christian Roy (2005). Traditional Festivals: A Multicultural Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. pp. 192–193. ISBN 978-1-57607-089-5.
- James K. Wellman, Jr.; Clark Lombardi (2012). Religion and Human Security: A Global Perspective. Oxford University Press. pp. 112 note 18. ISBN 978-0-19-982775-6.
- Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (2011). Sikhism: An Introduction. I.B.Tauris. pp. 93–94. ISBN 978-1-84885-321-8.
- Ron Geaves (2011). Fabrizio Ferrari, ed. Health and Religious Rituals in South Asia: Disease, Possession and Healing. Taylor & Francis. pp. 48–51. ISBN 978-1-136-84629-8.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 43–49, 68, 327–328. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.
- Gene R. Thursby (1992). The Sikhs. BRILL Academic. pp. 17–18. ISBN 90-04-09554-3.
- W.O. Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2016). Sikhism and Christianity: A Comparative Study. Springer. pp. 134–135, 168. ISBN 978-1-349-23049-5.
- H. S. Singha (2000). The Encyclopedia of Sikhism (over 1000 Entries). Hemkunt Press. pp. 7, 16, 27. ISBN 978-81-7010-301-1.
- Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (2004). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 100–101. ISBN 978-1-4381-1779-9.
- Gene R. Thursby (1992). The Sikhs. BRILL Academic. pp. 14–15. ISBN 90-04-09554-3.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 5–6, 29, 60–61. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Loehlin, Clinton Herbert (1964) . The Sikhs and Their Scriptures (Second ed.). Lucknow Publishing House. p. 42.
- Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (2005). The Birth of the Khalsa: A Feminist Re-Memory of Sikh Identity. State University of New York Press. p. 189. ISBN 978-0-7914-6583-7., Quote: "The name of the wedding ceremony, anand karaj (anand = bliss, karaj = event), is derived from Guru Amar Das's rapturous hymn Anand (bliss)."
- Rosemary Skinner Keller; Rosemary Radford Ruether; Marie Cantlon (2006). Encyclopedia of Women and Religion in North America. Indiana University Press. p. 700. ISBN 0-253-34687-8.
- Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 33–34, 220. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- "Sikh Reht Maryada — Funeral Ceremonies (Antam Sanskar)". Archived from the original on 6 April 2002. Retrieved 8 June 2006.
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 23–24. ISBN 978-0-19-100411-7.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 84–85. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Simmonds, David (1992). Believers All: A Book of Six World Religions. Nelson Thornes. pp. 120–121. ISBN 978-0-17-437057-4.
- Singh, Khushwant (2006). The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. India: Oxford University Press. pp. 12–13. ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 182. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Pritam Singh (2008). Federalism, Nationalism and Development: India and the Punjab Economy. Routledge. pp. 20–21. ISBN 978-1-134-04946-2.
- Puratan Janam Sakhi, Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor: Harbans Singh, WH McLeod (2008)
- Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. xiii–xiv. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
- WH McLeod, Essays in Sikh History, Tradition and Society, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195682748, page 40-44
- Harjinder Singh Dilgeer (2008). Sikh Twareekh. Belgium & India: The Sikh University Press.
- Finegan, Jack (1952). The Archeology of World Religions; the Background of Primitivism, Zoroastrianism, Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, Confucianism, Taoism, Shinto, Islam, and Sikhism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013), Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed, Bloomsbury Academic, ISBN 978-1441102317, pages 131–134
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, pages 9–12
- W. Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1997). A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy. Taylor & Francis. p. 71. ISBN 0203986091.
- Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (2011), Sikhism: An Introduction, IB Tauris, ISBN 978-1848853218, pages 2–8
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, pages 52–53, 46, 95–96, 159
- Louis Fenech (2014), in The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies (Editors: Pashaura Singh, Louis E. Fenech), Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0199699308, page 36, Quote: "Few Sikhs would mention these Indic texts and ideologies in the same breadth as the Sikh tradition, let alone trace elements of their tradition to this chronological and ideological point, despite the fact that the Indic mythology permeates the Sikh sacred canon, the Guru Granth Sahib and the secondary canon, the Dasam Granth (Rinehart 2011), and adds delicate nuance and substance to the sacred symbolic universe of the Sikhs of today and of their past ancestors."
- Surjit Gandhi (2008), History of Sikh Gurus Retold: 1606 -1708, Atlantic Publishers, ISBN 978-8126908585, pages 689–690
- Johar, Surinder (1999). Guru Gobind Singh: A Multi-faceted Personality. M.D. Publications Pvt. Ltd. p. 89. ISBN 9788175330931.
- Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. p. xv. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 36. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 78–80. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.
- William Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (1995). The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices. Sussex Academic Press. pp. 18–20. ISBN 978-1-898723-13-4.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Eileen Osborne (2005). Founders and Leaders. Dublin: Folens Limited. p. 24. ISBN 978-1-84303-622-7.
- Kushwant Singh. "Amar Das, Guru (1479-1574)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjab University Patiala.
- Nikky-Guninder Kaur Singh (2004). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. p. 120. ISBN 978-1-4381-1779-9.
- W. Owen Cole; Piara Singh Sambhi (2005). A Popular Dictionary of Sikhism: Sikh Religion and Philosophy. Routledge. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-1-135-79760-7.
- Charles E. Farhadian (2015). Introducing World Religions. Baker Academic. pp. 342–342. ISBN 978-1-4412-4650-9.
- Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Publishing. pp. 38–40. ISBN 978-1-4411-5366-1.
- W.H. McLeod (1990). Textual Sources for the Study of Sikhism. University of Chicago Press. pp. 28–29. ISBN 978-0-226-56085-4.
- Christopher Shackle; Arvind Mandair (2013). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. Routledge. pp. xv–xvi. ISBN 978-1-136-45101-0.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism. Scarecrow Press. p. 20. ISBN 978-0-8108-6344-6.
- Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-Pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. pp. xv–xvi. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
- Pashaura Singh (2006). Life and Work of Guru Arjan: History, Memory, and Biography in the Sikh Tradition. Oxford University Press. pp. 23, 217–218. ISBN 978-0-19-567921-2.
- Louis E. Fenech (2006), Martyrdom in the Sikh Tradition, Oxford University Press, ISBN 978-0195679014, pages 118–121
- WH McLeod (1989), The Sikhs: History, Religion, and Society, Columbia University Press, ISBN 978-0231068154, pages=26–51
- Pashaura Singh (2005), Understanding the Martyrdom of Guru Arjan, Journal of Punjab Studies, 12(1), pages 29-62
- Mahmood, Cynthia (2002). A Sea of Orange. United States: Xlibris. p. 16. ISBN 978-1-4010-2856-5.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. A & C Black. p. 48. ISBN 9781441117083.
- Phyllis G. Jestice (2004). Holy People of the World: A Cross-cultural Encyclopedia, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. pp. 345, 346. ISBN 9781576073551.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. A & C Black. pp. 48–49. ISBN 9781441117083.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Rām Rāiyā, Encyclopedia Britannica
- Ram Rai, Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Editor in Chief: Harbans Singh, Punjab University
- Shackle, Christopher; Mandair, Arvind-pal Singh (2005). Teachings of the Sikh Gurus: Selections from the Sikh Scriptures. United Kingdom: Routledge. xvi. ISBN 978-0-415-26604-8.
- Pashaura Singh and Louis Fenech (2014). The Oxford handbook of Sikh studies. Oxford, UK: Oxford University Press. pp. 236–445. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8., Quote:"This is the reputed place where several Kashmiri pandits came seeking protection from Auranzeb's army.", Quote:"this second martyrdom helped to make 'human rights and freedom of conscience' central to its identity."
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 53–54. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7., Quote: "The Guru's stance was a clear and unambiguous challenge, not to the sovereignty of the Mughal state, but to the state's policy of not recognizing the sovereign existence of non-Muslims, their traditions and ways of life".
- Seiple, Chris (2013). The Routledge handbook of religion and security. New York: Routledge. p. 96. ISBN 978-0-415-66744-9.
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 236–238. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.;
Fenech, Louis E. (2001). "Martyrdom and the Execution of Guru Arjan in Early Sikh Sources". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 121 (1): 20–31. doi:10.2307/606726. JSTOR 606726.;
Fenech, Louis E. (1997). "Martyrdom and the Sikh Tradition". Journal of the American Oriental Society. American Oriental Society. 117 (4): 623–642. doi:10.2307/606445. JSTOR 606445.;
McLeod, Hew (1999). "Sikhs and Muslims in the Punjab". South Asia: Journal of South Asian Studies. Taylor & Francis. 22 (sup001): 155–165. doi:10.1080/00856408708723379. ISSN 0085-6401.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair; Christopher Shackle; Gurharpal Singh (2013). Sikh Religion, Culture and Ethnicity. Routledge. pp. 25–28. ISBN 978-1-136-84627-4.
- Wilfred Smith (1981). On Understanding Islam: Selected Studies. Walter De Gruyter. p. 191. ISBN 978-9027934482.
- Shani, Giorgio (2008). Sikh Nationalism and Identity in a Global Age. Routledge. p. 24. ISBN 978-0-415-42190-4.
- Wolfe, Alvin (1996). Anthropological Contributions to Conflict Resolution. University of Georgia Press. p. 14. ISBN 978-0-8203-1765-6.
- Hansra, Harkirat (2007). Liberty at Stake. iUniverse. p. 67. ISBN 978-0-595-87563-4.
- Indian Armed Forces Year Book. the University of California. 1959. p. 419.
- Jawandha, Nahar (2010). Glimpses of Sikhism. New Delhi: Sanbun Publishers. p. 81. ISBN 978-93-80213-25-5.
- Singh, Khushwant (2006). The Illustrated History of the Sikhs. India: Oxford University Press. pp. 47–53. ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 64–65. ISBN 978-0-19-874557-0.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 207–208. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.
- Hasrat, B. J. "Jind Kaur, Maharani (1817–1863)". Encyclopaedia of Sikhism. Punjabi University Patiala.
- NG Barrier and Nazar Singh (2015), Singh Sabha Movement, Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Harbans Singh (Editor in Chief), Punjab University
- Editors of Encyclopedia Britannica (2010). "Singh Sabha (Sikhism)". Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Dr Harjinder Singh Dilgeer, SIKH HISTORY IN 10 VOLUMES, Sikh University Press, Belgium, published in 2012; vol 4, pp 49-69
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 28–29, 73–76. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsburg Academic. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield. pp. 151, 273. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 382–383. ISBN 978-0-226-61593-6.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsbury Academic. pp. 82–90. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
- Gurnam Singh Sidhu Brard (2007). East of Indus: My Memories of Old Punjab. Hemkunt Press. pp. 291–292. ISBN 978-81-7010-360-8.
- Pashaura Singh; Michael Hawley (2012). Re-imagining South Asian Religions. BRILL Academic. pp. 30–31. ISBN 90-04-24236-8.
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 329–330, 351–353. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 29–30. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Banga 2017, pp. 99-100.
- Giorgio Shani (2007). Sikh Nationalism and Identity in a Global Age. Routledge. pp. 86–93. ISBN 978-1-134-10189-4.
- Banga 2017, pp. 99-103.
- Michael Mann (2014). South Asia’s Modern History: Thematic Perspectives. Routledge. pp. 81–83. ISBN 978-1-317-62446-2.
- Banga 2017, pp. 99-104.
- Banga 2017, pp. 104-105.
- Stanley Wolpert (2010). India and Pakistan: Continued Conflict or Cooperation?. University of California Press. pp. 9–12, 16–23. ISBN 978-0-520-94800-6.
- Banga 2017, pp. 108-111.
- Jugdep S Chima (2008). The Sikh Separatist Insurgency in India: Political Leadership and Ethnonationalist Movements. SAGE Publications. pp. 85–95. ISBN 978-81-321-0538-1.
- Horowitz, Donald L. (2003). The Deadly Ethnic Riot. University of California Press. pp. 482–485. ISBN 978-0-520-23642-4.
- Religion demographics: 2011 Census, Office of the Registrar General & Census Commissioner, Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India
- THE GLOBAL RELIGIOUS LANDSCAPE: Other Religions, Pew Research Center, Washington DC
- L.A. Kosinski; K.M. Elahi (2012). Population Redistribution and Development in South Asia. Springer. pp. 186–203. ISBN 978-94-009-5309-3.
- Nigel Eltringham; Pam Maclean (2014). Remembering Genocide. Taylor & Francis. pp. 30–32. ISBN 978-1-317-75421-3.
- Pakistan's dwindling Sikh community wants improved security, The Dawn, Pakistan (April 17, 2017)
- Pakistan's Sikh community disappointed at being 'left out' of national census, Ali Akbar, The Dawn (March 2017)
- Hardip Singh Syan (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 170–180. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Opinderjit Kaur Takhar (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 350–359. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Harjot Oberoi (1994). The Construction of Religious Boundaries: Culture, Identity, and Diversity in the Sikh Tradition. University of Chicago Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN 978-0-226-61592-9.
- Sects and other groups: Sikhism, Encyclopaedia Britannica
- Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 10–11. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
- Louis E. Fenech; W. H. McLeod (2014). Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield Publishers. pp. 260–261. ISBN 978-1-4422-3601-1.
- Pashaura Singh; Louis E. Fenech (2014). The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 375–377. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Arvind-Pal Singh Mandair (2013). Sikhism: A Guide for the Perplexed. Bloomsburg Academic. pp. 85–86. ISBN 978-1-4411-0231-7.
- Sects in Sikhism, Encyclopedia Britannica
- Page 141, The Culture of India, Kathleen Kuiper, The Rosen Publishing Group
- Kristen Haar; Sewa Singh Kalsi (2009). Sikhism. Infobase Publishing. pp. 9–14. ISBN 978-1-4381-0647-2.
- Verne Dusenbery (2014). Pashaura Singh and Louis E. Fenech, ed. The Oxford Handbook of Sikh Studies. Oxford University Press. pp. 560–570. ISBN 978-0-19-969930-8.
- Mooney, Nicola (2012). "READING WEBER AMONG THE SIKHS: ASCETICISM AND CAPITALISM IN THE 3HO/SIKH DHARMA". Sikh Formations. Taylor & Francis. 8 (3): 417–436. doi:10.1080/17448727.2012.745305. ISSN 1744-8727.
- Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur (2005). Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups among Sikhs. Aldershot, Hants, England: Ashgate Publishing. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-7546-5202-1. Retrieved 19 October 2012.
- Jodhka, Surinder S (11–17 May 2002). "Caste and Untouchability in Rural Punjab". Economic and Political Weekly. 37 (19): 1822. JSTOR 4412102.
- Harish K. Puri (2004). Dalits in Regional Context. ISBN 978-81-7033-871-0.
- Encyclopedia, Britannica. "Sikhism (religion)". britannica.com. Retrieved 25 November 2014.
- Christopher Partridge (1 November 2013). Introduction to World Religions. Fortress Press. pp. 429–. ISBN 978-0-8006-9970-3.
- Michael McDowell; Nathan Robert Brown (2009). World Religions at Your Fingertips. Alpha Books. pp. 232–. ISBN 978-1-59257-846-7.
- Geoff Teece (2005). Sikhism. Black Rabbit Books. pp. 4–. ISBN 978-1-58340-469-0.
- Singh Kalsi, Sewa (2007). Sikhism. London: Bravo Ltd. p. 12. ISBN 978-1-85733-436-4.
- Ballantyne, Tony (2006). Between Colonialism and Diaspora: Sikh Cultural Formations in an Imperial World. Duke University Press. pp. 69–74. ISBN 978-0-8223-3824-6.
- Peggy Morgan (2007). Ethical Issues in Six Religious Traditions. Edinburgh University Press. pp. 138–139. ISBN 978-0-7486-3002-8.
- HS Singha (2009), The Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Hemkunt Press, ISBN 978-8170103011, page 63
- William Owen Cole and Piara Singh Sambhi (1995), The Sikhs: Their Religious Beliefs and Practices, Sussex Academic Press, ISBN 978-1898723134, page 18, 65
- Sikhs and Sikhism, Dr. I.J.Singh, Manohar Publishers.ISBN 978-8173040580
- Sir Jogendra Singh & Sir Daljit Singh. The Great Humanist Guru Nanak.
- Eleanor Nesbitt (2016). Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press. pp. 63–64. ISBN 978-0-19-106276-6.
- [a] Nesbitt, Eleanor (1997). "Splashed with goodness: The many meanings of Amrit for young British Sikhs". Journal of Contemporary Religion. 12 (1): 27. doi:10.1080/13537909708580787.
[b] Nesbitt, Eleanor (2000). Coakley, Sarah, ed. Religion and the Body. p. 299.
But for many Sikhs it is as unthinkable as it would be for many Hindus that a holy person as the Guru could have eaten flesh. Although Guru Gobind Singh is said to have prohibited only halal meat (animals slaughtered in accordance with Muslim requirement), amritdhari (initiated) Sikhs commonly feel committed to a diet free of eggs, fish, and meat of any kind. Contemporary movements within the panth, no less than earlier ones, are characterised by their ruling on non-vegetarian food.
- Siambhi, Piara Singh (2004). Mann, J. S.; Sodhi, S. S., eds. Concepts in Sikhism. p. 234.
Not many Sikhs are habitually meat-eaters. Their staple diet mainly consists of cereals, pulses, vegetables and milk products.
- Guru Granth Sahib, pages 1103, 1350, 1374, etc
- "Sikhism, A Complete Introduction" by Dr. H.S. Singha & Satwant Kaur Hemkunt, Hemkunt Press, New Delhi, 1994, ISBN 81-7010-245-6
- Doris R. Jakobsh. Relocating Gender In Sikh History: Transformation, Meaning and Identity. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 2003, pp. 39–40
- Mahajan PT, Pimple P, Palsetia D, Dave N, De Sousa A (January 2013). "Indian religious concepts on sexuality and marriage". Indian J Psychiatry. 55 (Suppl 2): S256–62. doi:10.4103/0019-5545.105547. PMC . PMID 23858264.
- Duggal, Kartar Singh (1988), Philosophy and Faith of Sikhism, Himalayan Institute Press, ISBN 978-0-89389-109-1
- Kaur, Surjit, Amongst the Sikhs: Reaching for the Stars, New Delhi, Roli Books, 2003 ISBN 81-7436-267-3
- Banga, Indu (2017), Knut A Jacobsen; et al., eds., Brill's Encyclopedia of Sikhism, Brill Academic, ISBN 978-90-04-29745-6
- Khalsa, Guru Fatha Singh, Five Paragons of Peace: Magic and Magnificence in the Guru's Way, Toronto, Monkey Minds Press, 2010, ISBN 0-9682658-2-0, gurufathasingh.com
- Khalsa, Shanti Kaur, The History of Sikh Dharma of the Western Hemisphere, Sikh Dharma, Espanola, NM, 1995 ISBN 0-9639847-4-8
- Singh, Khushwant (2006), The Illustrated History of the Sikhs, Oxford University Press, India, ISBN 978-0-19-567747-8
- Singh, Patwant (1999), The Sikhs, Random House, India, ISBN 978-0-385-50206-1
- Takhar, Opinderjit Kaur, Sikh Identity: An Exploration of Groups Among Sikhs, Ashgate Publishing Company, Burlington, VT, 2005 ISBN 0-7546-5202-5
- Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh (2008), Sikh Twareekh, publisher Sikh University Press & Singh Brothers Amritsar, 2008.
- Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh (2012), Sikh History (in 10 volumes), publisher Sikh University Press & Singh Brothers Amritsar, 2010–12.
- Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh (1997), The Sikh Reference Book, publisher Sikh University Press & Singh Brothers Amritsar, 1997.
- Dilgeer, Dr Harjinder Singh (2005), Dictionary of Sikh Philosophy, publisher Sikh University Press & Singh Brothers Amritsar, 2005.