Sikhism, or Sikhi, is an Indian monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 15th century. Sikhism is one of the youngest of the major world religions and is the world's fifth largest organized religion, as well as being the world's ninth-largest overall religion; the fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. As of the early 21st century, there are about 25 million Sikhs. Sikhism is based on the spiritual teachings of Guru Nanak, the first Guru, the nine Sikh gurus that succeeded him; the tenth Guru, Guru Gobind Singh, named the Sikh scripture Guru Granth Sahib as his successor, terminating the line of human Gurus and making the scripture the eternal, religious spiritual guide for Sikhs.

Sikhism rejects claims. The Sikh scripture opens with Ik Onkar, its Mul Mantar and fundamental prayer about One Supreme Being. Sikhism emphasizes simran, that can be expressed musically through kirtan or internally through Nam Japo as a means to feel God's presence, it teaches followers to transform the "Five Thieves". Guru Nanak taught that living an "active and practical life" of "truthfulness, self-control and purity" is above the metaphysical truth, that the ideal man is one who "establishes union with God, knows His Will, carries out that Will". Guru Hargobind, the sixth Sikh Guru, established the political/temporal and spiritual realms to be mutually coexistent. Sikhism evolved in times of religious persecution. Two of the Sikh gurus – Guru Arjan and Guru Tegh Bahadur – were tortured and executed by the Mughal rulers after they refused to convert to Islam; the persecution of Sikhs triggered the founding of the Khalsa as an order to protect the freedom of conscience and religion, with qualities of a "Sant-Sipāhī" – a saint-soldier.

The Khalsa was founded by Guru Gobind Singh. The majority of Sikh scriptures were written in the Gurmukhī alphabet, a script standardised by Guru Angad out of Laṇḍā scripts used in North India. Adherents of Sikhism are known as Sikhs, which means disciples of the Guru; the anglicised word'Sikhism' is derived from the Punjabi verb Sikhi, with roots in Sikhana, Sikhi connotes the "temporal path of learning". The basis of Sikhism lies in the teachings of his successors. Many sources call Sikhism a monotheistic religion, while others call it a monistic and panentheistic religion. According to Eleanor Nesbitt, English renderings of Sikhism as a monotheistic religion "tend misleadingly to reinforce a Semitic understanding of monotheism, rather than Guru Nanak's mystical awareness of the one, expressed through the many. However, what is not in doubt is the emphasis on'one'". In Sikhism, the concept of "God" is Waheguru considered Nirankar, Karta Purakh and Agam Agochar; the Sikh scripture begins with Ik Onkar, which refers to the "formless one", understood in the Sikh tradition as monotheistic unity of God.

Sikhism is classified as an Indian religion along with Buddhism and Jainism. Sikh ethics emphasize the congruence between everyday moral conduct, its founder Guru Nanak summarized this perspective with "Truth is the highest virtue, but higher still is truthful living". Sikhism lays emphasis on Ėk nūr te sab jag upjiā meaning "From the One Light, the entire universe welled up." Similar to The Big Bang Theory. God in Sikhism is known as Ik Onkar, the One Supreme Reality, the One Creator or the all-pervading spirit; this spirit has no gender in Sikhism. It is Akaal Purkh and Nirankar. In addition, Nanak wrote; the traditional Mul Mantar goes from Ik Oankar until Nanak Hosee Bhee Sach. The opening line of the Guru Granth Sahib and each subsequent raga, mentions Ik Oankar: ੴ ਸਤਿ ਨਾਮੁ ਕਰਤਾ ਪੁਰਖੁ ਨਿਰਭਉ ਨਿਰਵੈਰੁ ਅਕਾਲ ਮੂਰਤਿ ਅਜੂਨੀ ਸੈਭੰ ਗੁਰ ਪ੍ਰਸਾਦਿ॥Transliteration: ikk ōankār sat-nām karatā purakh nirabha'u niravair akāl mūrat ajūnī saibhan gur prasād. "There is one supreme being, the eternal reality, the creator, without fear and devoid of enmity, never incarnated, self-existent, known by grace through the true Guru."

Māyā, defined as a temporary illusion or "unreality", is one of the core deviations from the pursuit of God and salvation: where worldly attractions which give only illusory temporary satisfaction and pain which distract the process of the devotion of God. However, Nanak emphasised māyā as not a reference of its values. In Sikhism, the influences of ego, greed and lust, known as the Five Thieves, are believed to be distracting and hurtful. Sikhs believe the world is in a state of Kali Yuga because the world is led astray by the love of and attachment to Maya; the fate of people vulnerable to the Five Thieves, is separation from God, the situation may be remedied only after intensive and

John Horsford

Major-General Sir John Horsford KCB was a British soldier who rose through the ranks to become a General in the East India Company's Bengal Army. He was born at St George in the East, the son of John Horsford, he was educated at the Merchant Taylors' School, matriculated at St. John's College, Oxford, 30 June 1768, was a fellow from 1768 to 1771, but never took a degree. In 1772, to avoid entering the church, without the knowledge of his father, he enlisted for service with the East India Company under the assumed name of John Rover, he travelled to India on the Duke of Grafton. He spent his first six years in India in the ranks of the Bengal Artillery, until he caught the attention of its commander Colonel Pearse, it is recorded that one day Horsford pointed out an error in a Greek quotation in some papers he was copying for Pearse. It is said that Pearse called him by his right name as he was leaving the room and subsequently an order, dated Fort William, 9 March 1778, addressed to ‘Captain Watkin Thelwall, commanding No. 1 company, notifies that Sergeant John Rover, of the company under your command, is this day appointed a cadet of artillery in the Bengal Army under the name of "John Horsford."’ He was made a lieutenant-fireworker on 31 March 1778, a first lieutenant in October that same year.

In 1786 he was promoted to captain. During the Third Anglo-Mysore War he commanded a company of Bengal artillery detached to Madras, he served at the Siege of Bangalore, Battle of Arakere, Siege of Seringapatam. In March 1801, at Cawnpore, Horsford addressed a paper to Lord Lake setting forth the defects in organisation of the artillery branch and that same year was advanced to Major, he commanded the artillery under Lord Lake during the Second Anglo-Maratha War in 1803–5, including the battles of Siege of Aligarh and Delhi, siege of Agra, seiges Deeg and Bhurtpore. In 1804 he was made Lieutenant-Colonel, he commanded a brigade and directed the artillery at the siege of Komanur, August-November 1807. On the resignation of Colonel Nicholas Carnegie in 1808 Horsford succeeded to the command of the Bengal artillery, of which he remained the head until his death. Horsford became a full Colonel in July 1810. In June 1811 he was promoted to Major-General, he was not engaged in the Anglo-Nepalese War but the artillery arrangements for those operations and for the grand army during the Third Anglo-Maratha War were directed by him.

He was appointed Knight Commander of the Order of the Bath on 7 April 1815, 28 June 1816 was appointed an extra major-general on the staff of the grand army. In June 1816 he addressed a memorial to the Marquis of Hastings, which showed that the lessons taught by the great continental wars in Europe had not escaped him, his high reputation secured attention to his representations, although he did not live to see the results, the reorganisation of the Bengal artillery that followed in 1817–18 added to the efficiency of that famous corps. His last military operation was the direction of the artillery at the siege of Hathras in March 1817, he died on 20 April, just ten days after his return from Hathras. He was sixty six at the time of his death and had served in the military for forty five years, during which it is said he never had a day's leave from his duties, he was buried at the Christian cemetery in Cawnpore. Whilst in India, Horsford entered into a long term relationship with an Indian women called Sahib Juan, with whom he had several children.

His anxiety towards his daughters led him to condemn discrimination against "Eurasians" or "East Indians" as mixed race individuals were referred to at the time. He published a number of poems defending such inter-racial relationships, he lent support to James Kirkpatrick's Bengal Orphan Institute, in a poem called the "Art of Living in India" he praised the biracial "auburn beauties" in the Howrah orphanage and encouraged young British men in India to marry them. A historian of the Bengal artillery wrote of him: "A sound constitution and strict temperance enabled him to endure what our modern nervous temperaments would shrink from. Intellectually, in scientific attainments and habits of order and system he stood confessedly unrivalled" Along with Litellus Burrell, Horsford was a rare example of a man rising from the ranks to a high military position in the East India Company's army. Attribution This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: Lee, Sidney, ed.. "Horsford, John".

Dictionary of National Biography. 27. London: Smith, Elder & Co

Alpine, Utah

Alpine is a city on the northeastern edge of Utah County, United States. The population was 9,555 at the 2010 census. Alpine has been one of the many quickly-growing cities of Utah since the 1970s, the 1990s, it is located on the slopes of the Wasatch Range north of American Fork. The west side of the city runs above the Wasatch Fault; the area which would one day become Alpine was settled by William Wordsworth and several other homesteading families in the fall of 1850. The town was called Mountainville, under the latter name settlement was first made in 1851; the city was renamed. Alpine is located on State Route 74, just north of the city of Highland. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 7.4 square miles. None of that area is covered with water, although a number of small mountain streams run through the city on years with sufficient rainfall. There are a number of mountain biking trails around the city that attract bikers from all over the state. There are many trails and paths well suited for back-trail hiking along the mountains.

The nearby American Fork Canyon offers camping and access to mountaineering regions around Mt. Timpanogos; the hills surrounding Alpine have been affected by a number of brush fires in recent years, the most devastating of, the Quail Fire, which consumed over 2200 acres on the north-east side of town in July of 2012. The area is serviced by Lone Peak Police Force. Alpine is part of the Provo -- Utah Metropolitan Statistical Area; as of the census of 2010, there were 9,555 people, 1,662 households, 1,545 families residing in the city. The population density was 992.1 people per square mile. There were 1,734 housing units at an average density of 240.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.40% White, 0.18% African American, 0.20% Native American, 0.29% Asian, 0.17% Pacific Islander, 0.35% from other races, 1.41% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.60% of the population. There were 1,662 households out of which 63.7% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 86.5% were married couples living together, 4.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 7.0% were non-families.

6.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 3.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 4.30 and the average family size was 4.51. In the city, the population was spread out with 44.9% under the age of 18, 9.4% from 18 to 24, 23.3% from 25 to 44, 17.0% from 45 to 64, 5.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 21 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 99.7 males. The median income for a household in the city was $72,880, the median income for a family was $74,891. Males had a median income of $57,250 versus $33,571 for females; the per capita income for the city was $21,716. About 3.5% of families and 3.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.1% of those under age 18 and 9.1% of those age 65 or over. The mayor of Alpine is Troy Stout; the members of the City Council are Lon Lott, Carla Merrill, Greg Gordon, Judi Pickell, Jason Thelin. Alpine City Hall, located at the intersection of Main St. and Center St, celebrated the 80th anniversary of its construction in 2016.

Alpine is part of Utah US Congressional District 3 represented by Republican John Curtis. Overall, the city itself is considered moderately conservative, with $15,266 in donations to Democratic campaigns and $424,005 in campaign contribution to Republicans since 2015. Despite being a small town geographically, Alpine is home to five schools. Three of the schools are a part of the Alpine School District, while the fourth, Mountainville Academy, is a charter school for grades K-9. Alpine Elementary and Westfield Elementary are Alpine District Schools for grades K-6. Both of the Alpine District elementary schools feed into Timberline Middle School, a 7-9 grade school; the Montessori Canyon Academy was founded by Michelle Kerr in 2014, offers private preschool education. Burgess Park Creekside Park Historic Moyle Park Horsetail Falls Petersen Arboretum Sliding Rock American Fork Canyon Tibble Fork Reservoir and Silver Lake Flat List of cities and towns in Utah Media related to Alpine, Utah at Wikimedia Commons Official website