Sikhs are people associated with Sikhism, a monotheistic religion that originated in the 15th century, in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent, based on the revelation of Guru Nanak. The term Sikh has its origin in the words शिष्य, meaning a student. A Sikh, according to Article I of the Sikh Rehat Maryada, is "any human being who faithfully believes in One Immortal Being. Sikhs are considered as a separate ethnic group in the United States; the Punjab region of the Indian subcontinent has been the historic homeland of the Sikhs and was ruled by the Sikhs for significant parts of the 18th and 19th centuries. Today, the Punjab state in northwest India has a majority Sikh population, sizeable communities of Sikhs exist around the world. Many countries, such as the United Kingdom, recognize Sikhs as a designated religion on their censuses. Male Sikhs have "Singh" as their middle or last name, female Sikhs have "Kaur" as their middle or last name. Sikhs who have undergone the Khanḍe-kī-Pahul may be recognized by the five Ks: Kesh, uncut hair, kept covered by a turban.

Guru Nanak, founder of Sikhism, was born to Mehta Kalu and Mata Tripta, in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana Sahib, near Lahore. Guru Nanak was social reformer. However, Sikh political history may be said to begin with the death of the fifth Sikh guru, Guru Arjan Dev, in 1606. Religious practices were formalised by Guru Gobind Singh on 30 March 1699. Gobind Singh initiated five people from a variety of social backgrounds, known as the Panj Piare to form the Khalsa, or collective body of initiated Sikhs. During the period of Mughal rule in India several Sikh gurus were killed by the Mughals for opposing their persecution of minority religious communities including Sikhs; the Sikhs subsequently militarized to oppose Mughal rule. After defeating the Afghan and Mughal, sovereign states called Misls were formed under Jassa Singh Ahluwalia; the Confederacy was unified and transformed into the Sikh Empire under Maharaja Ranjit Singh Bahadur, characterised by religious tolerance and pluralism, with Christians and Hindus in positions of power.

The empire is considered the zenith of political Sikhism, encompassing Kashmir and Peshawar. Hari Singh Nalwa, the commander-in-chief of the Sikh Khalsa Army in the North West Frontier, expanded the confederacy to the Khyber Pass, its secular administration implemented military and governmental reforms. After the annexation of the Sikh kingdom by the British, the latter recognized the martial qualities of the Sikhs and Punjabis in general and started recruiting from that area. During the 1857 Indian mutiny, the Sikhs stayed loyal to the British; this resulted in heavy recruiting from Punjab to the colonial army for the next 90 years of the British Raj. The distinct turban that differentiates a Sikh from other turban wearers is a relic of the rules of the British Indian Army; the British colonial rule saw the emergence of many reform movements in India including Punjab. This included 1879 of the First and Second Singh Sabha respectively; the Sikh leaders of the Singh Sabha worked to offer a clear definition of Sikh identity and tried to purify Sikh belief and practice.

The part of British colonial rule saw the emergence of the Akali movement to bring reform in the gurdwaras during the early 1920s. The movement led to the introduction of Sikh Gurdwara Bill in 1925, which placed all the historical Sikh shrines in India under the control of the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee; the months leading up to the partition of India in 1947 were marked by conflict in the Punjab between Sikhs and Muslims. This caused the religious migration of Punjabi Sikhs and Hindus from West Punjab, mirroring a similar religious migration of Punjabi Muslims from East Punjab; the 1960s saw growing animosity between Sikhs and Hindus in India, with the Sikhs demanding the creation of a Punjab state on a linguistic basis similar to other states in India. This was promised to Sikh leader Master Tara Singh by Jawaharlal Nehru, in return for Sikh political support during negotiations for Indian independence. Although the Sikhs obtained the Punjab, they lost Hindi-speaking areas to Himachal Pradesh and Rajasthan.

Chandigarh was made a union territory and the capital of Haryana and Punjab on 1 November 1966. Sikh leader Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale triggered violence in the Punjab; the prime minister Indira Gandhi ordered an operation to remove Bhindranwale from the Golden Temple in Operation Blue Star. This led to her assassination by her Sikh bodyguards. Gandhi's assassination resulted in an explosion of violence against Sikh communities and the killing of thousands of Sikhs throughout India. Since 1984, relations between Sikhs and Hindus have moved toward a rapprochement aided by economic prosperity. However, a 2002 claim by the Hindu right-wing Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh that "Sikhs are Hindus" disturbed Sikh sensibilities. During the 1999 Vaisakhi, Sikhs worldwide celebrated the 300th anniversary of the creation of the Khalsa. Canada Post honoured Sikh Canadians with a commemorative stamp in conjunction with the 300th anniversary of Vaisakhi. On 9 April 1999 Indian president K. R. Narayanan issued a stamp commemorating the 300th anniversa

Changde Apartment

Changde Apartment known as Eddington House, is located at 195 Changde Road, Jing'an District, close to Nanjing West Road and Yuyuan Road. The apartment was built on Hede Road, Jing'an Temple Road in 1936, it is decorated in an Art Deco style. It was the property of the Italian Raoul Faith and the majority of its occupants were middle to upper class people. In 1994, Changde Apartment was designated among the second batch of outstanding historical buildings in Shanghai; the Jing’an Temple District has been a bustling commercial and cultural centre in Shanghai for decades. In contrast with many of the high-rise buildings which surround it, Changde Apartment is a perfectly-sealed time capsule of its era; this building’s fame is due to the fact that in 1939, a 20-year-old Eileen Chang lived with her mother and aunt in Unit 51. At that time, Changde Apartment had only been built in an Art Deco style for three years; the apartment contains eight floors. The Bund can be seen from the balcony. In 1942, Eileen Chang moved back into the apartment complex, this time in Unit 65, where she lived for the following six years.

She studied in Changde Apartment. She would visit the market and the cinema during her stay there and could only fall asleep to the sound of local trams clinking at night, she got together with the elevator attendant of the apartment complex. The sixth floor was the place. After knocking on the door and receiving no answer, Hu stuffed a slip of paper in the narrow slit between the door and the ground, which proved to be the starting point for an ill-fated romantic relationship; the six years during which Eileen Chang lived here became the golden age of her literary creations. A few of her most important works including Sealed Off, Red Rose White Rose, The Golden Cangue, Love in a Fallen City made their way out from the Changde Apartment and into the public's vision, it was in Changde Apartment where Eileen Chang and Hu Lancheng met, as well as where they separated from each other. After this period, she moved out of the apartment in 1947. Eileen Chang would observe the city from the balcony of Changde Apartment.

In the prose My View on Su Qing, she wrote: ‘The frontiers of Shanghai undulate shrouded in the mist of the late dusk. Although there are no hills, the frontiers create the feeling of range upon range of mountains. I think of the fate of many people. People who are more poetic than me lie on their pillows, listening to the soughing of the wind in the pines from the forest, or the roaring of the crashing waves of the sea. For me myself, I have to hear the tram ringing to fall sleep … The apartment is the most ideal place to escape. People who are tired of the metropolis long to retreat to the tranquil and peaceful countryside, they are eager to see that one day they can return to the crop land, raise bees and grow vegetables, enjoy the blessings of living in ease and comfort. What they don’t realise though, is that in the countryside, buying half a catty of smoked bacon more than needed will cause much gossip. While at the top loft of the apartment house, there's nothing the least bit serious if you just have to stand in front of the window and get your clothes changed.'

The writer, Chen Danyan described in the book Candyfloss Romances in Shanghai that Changde Apartment was'painted in the light flesh tone of a woman's makeup setting powder, standing tall and upright under the blue sky in the downtown area of Shanghai.' When Changde Apartment was still known as Eddington Apartment, there was a cafe on its lower floor. Every afternoon, Eileen Chang went to the cafe downstairs to relax; the current Changde Apartment is said to have been bought by a fan of Eileen Chang, so it cannot be entered without permission. However, the downstairs floor opened an Eileen Chang-themed bookstore, named Eddington Literary House, built according to the style of the period, this attracts crowds of Eileen Chang fans who come to make a ‘pilgrimage’ for their idol. Changde Apartment has been referred to as a feminine-looking building; the salmon pink wall is painted with coffee brown lines. Due to its age, the building has a slight dull-grey hue, as if the rouge contaminated by the dust, used by women of old days.

A row of phoenix trees in front of the building are still lively. Changde Apartment is designed according to the surrounding terrain, containing eight floors, with reinforced concrete structure, it covers a floor area of 580 square metres, a construction area of 2,663 square metres and is equipped with an elevator in an Art Deco style. The entire building is decorated with delicate partial ornamentations in a concave shape, the wings turn backward; the east facade of the building features stretches of long ribbon-shaped balconies, with vertical lines in the middle forming a horizontal and vertical contrast. The top two floors are retracted towards the middle of the building, two thirds of the width of the others; the building uses the strong shadow effect formed by the balconies, curving out and the houses, caving in to form rich colour changes. In the old Changde Apartment, there were three households on each floor, with two or three bedroom units; each home was fitted with a fireplace. There is a long promenade to the west, which serves as a balcony.

There is a small staircase inside each house. The eighth floor is the elevator machine room and h

Carl Marci

Carl D. Marci, is a physician and entrepreneur, he is the Chief Medical Officer for CompanionMx, Inc.™, a part-time psychiatrist within the Department of Psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital, Assistant Professor of Psychiatry at Harvard Medical School. He serves as Chairman of the Board for Beyond Conflict, a non-profit that uses brain and behavioral sciences to tackle challenging social issues, including dehumanization and racism. Marci received his B. A. in psychology at Columbia University, M. A. in psychology and philosophy at Oxford University as a Rhodes Scholar, completed his M. D. at Harvard Medical School. He had further training in biometrics and the neuroscience of emotion through two National Institute of Health fellowships, his early work focused on physiologic concordance or synchrony between patients and doctors as an indicator of empathy. One study, published in the Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease found a relationship between high levels of physiologic concordance and empathy in a clinical population.

Dr. Carl Marci is the Chief Medical Officer for CompanionMx, Inc.™, a digital health technology company with a clinically-proven platform for proactive mobile mental health monitoring, dedicated to preventing mental health episodes. Dr. Marci, a founding member and previous Senior Scientific Advisor to the company and manages on-going clinical research to deliver objective measures that improve clinical support and patient outcomes. Prior to joining CompanionMx, Inc.™, Marci co-founded Innerscope Research in 2006. From 2008 to 2013, he served as CEO. In 2015, Innerscope Research was acquired by Nielsen. After that, he became Chief Neuroscientist for Nielsen Consumer Neuroscience; the firm is a provider of consumer based neuroscience using using electroencephalography and other technologies for measuring non-conscious processes related to media and marketing. His work there on researching the emotions of Super Bowl advertising have been featured nationally on Good Morning America, CNN, MSNBC. Marci is the Chairperson of the Board of Advisors and a member of the Executive Committee for the Endowment for the Advancement of Psychotherapy in the Department of Psychiatry at Massachusetts General Hospital.

Marci has presented at conferences sponsored by the Advertising Research Foundation, Association of National Advertisers, the Cable & Telecommunications Association for Marketing, the World Advertising Research Conference, ESOMAR, the Festival of Media Global Event. He has published articles in peer-reviewed science journals, was a guest editor of Media Magazine and the International Journal of Advertising Special Issue on Advertising and the Brain. Marci is a member of the Aspen Global Leadership Network and a 2014 Henry Crown Fellow and was awarded the 2016 Marketing Technology Trailblazer by AdAge