Semiconductor device fabrication
Semiconductor device fabrication is the process used to create the integrated circuits that are present in everyday electrical and electronic devices. It is a multiple-step sequence of photolithographic and chemical processing steps during which electronic circuits are created on a wafer made of pure semiconducting material. Silicon is always used, but various compound semiconductors are used for specialized applications; the entire manufacturing process, from start to packaged chips ready for shipment, takes six to eight weeks and is performed in specialized facilities referred to as foundries or fabs. In more advanced semiconductor devices, such as modern 14/10/7 nm nodes, fabrication can take up to 15 weeks with 11–13 weeks being the industry average. Production in advanced fabrication facilities is automated, carried out in a hermetically sealed, nitrogen environment to improve yield with FOUPs and automated material handling systems taking care of the transport of wafers from machine to machine.
By industry standard, each generation of the semiconductor manufacturing process known as "technology node", is designated by the process’s minimum feature size. Technology nodes known as "process technologies" or "nodes", are indicated by the size in nanometers of the process's gate length; as of 2019, 14 nanometer and 10 nanometer process chips are in mass production, with 7 nanometer process chips in mass production by TSMC and Samsung, although their node definition is similar to Intel's 10 nanometer process. Semiconductor device manufacturing has spread from Texas and California in the 1960s to the rest of the world, including Europe, the Middle East, Asia, it is a global business today. The leading semiconductor manufacturers have facilities all over the world. Intel, the second largest manufacturer, has facilities in Europe and Asia as well as the U. S. Samsung, the world's largest manufacturer of semiconductors has facilities in South Korea and the US, TSMC, the world's largest pure play foundry, has facilities in Taiwan, China and the US.
Qualcomm, Broadcom are among the biggest fabless semiconductor companies, outsourcing their production to companies like TSMC. have facilities spread in different countries. When feature widths were far greater than about 10 micrometres, semiconductor purity was not as big an issue as it is today in device manufacturing; as devices became more integrated, cleanrooms became cleaner. Today, fabrication plants are pressurized with filtered air to remove the smallest particles, which could come to rest on the wafers and contribute to defects; the workers in a semiconductor fabrication facility are required to wear cleanroom suits to protect the devices from human contamination. A typical wafer is made out of pure silicon, grown into mono-crystalline cylindrical ingots up to 300 mm in diameter using the Czochralski process; these ingots are sliced into wafers about 0.75 mm thick and polished to obtain a regular and flat surface. In semiconductor device fabrication, the various processing steps fall into four general categories: deposition, removal and modification of electrical properties.
Deposition is any process that coats, or otherwise transfers a material onto the wafer. Available technologies include physical vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, electrochemical deposition, molecular beam epitaxy and more atomic layer deposition among others. Removal is any process. Patterning is the shaping or altering of deposited materials, is referred to as lithography. For example, in conventional lithography, the wafer is coated with a chemical called a photoresist. After etching or other processing, the remaining photoresist is removed by plasma ashing. Modification of electrical properties has entailed doping transistor sources and drains; these doping processes are followed by furnace annealing or, in advanced devices, by rapid thermal annealing. Modification of electrical properties now extends to the reduction of a material's dielectric constant in low-k insulators via exposure to ultraviolet light in UV processing. Modification is achieved by oxidation, which can be carried out to create semiconductor-insulator junctions, such as in the local oxidation of silicon to fabricate metal oxide field effect transistors.
Modern chips have up to eleven metal levels produced in over 300 sequenced processing steps. FEOL processing refers to the formation of the transistors directly in the silicon; the raw wafer is engineered by the growth of an ultrapure defect-free silicon layer through epitaxy. In the most advanced logic devices, prior to the silicon epitaxy step, tricks are performed to improve the performance of the transistors to be built. One method involves introducing a straining step wherein a silicon variant such as silicon-germanium is deposited. Once the epitaxial silicon is deposited, the crystal lattice becomes stretched somewhat, resulting in improved electronic mobility. Another method, called silicon on insulator technology involve
Beaverton is a city in Washington County, in the U. S. state of Oregon. The city center is 7 miles west of downtown Portland in the Tualatin River Valley; as of the 2010 census, the population is 89,803. This makes it the second-largest city in Oregon's sixth-largest city. Fire protection are provided through Tualatin Valley Fire and Rescue, EMS services are provided by Metro West AmbulanceIn 2010, Beaverton was named by Money magazine as one of the 100 "best places to live", among smaller cities in the country. Along with Hillsboro, Beaverton is one of the economic centers for Washington County, home to numerous corporations in a variety of industries such as Nike. According to Oregon Geographic Names, Beaverton's name is derived from the settlement's proximity to a large body of water resulting from beaver dams; the area of Tualatin Valley that became Beaverton was the home of a Native American tribe known as the Atfalati, which settlers mispronounced as Tualatin. The Atfalati population dwindled in the latter part of the 18th century, the prosperous tribe was no longer dominant in the area by the 19th century when settlers arrived.
The natives had a village called Chakeipi, meaning Place of the Beaver, early settlers referred to it as "Beaverdam". Early settlers include the Hall Family from Kentucky, the Denneys who lived on their claim near present-day Scholls Ferry Road and Hall Blvd, Orin S. Allen, from western New York. Lawrence Hall purchased 640 acres in Beaverdam in 1847 and built a grist mill with his brother near present-day Walker Road, his was the first land claim in the area. He was soon followed by Thomas Denney in 1848, who built its first sawmill. In 1860, a toll plank road from Portland to Beaverton was completed over a trail called Canyon Road. After the American Civil War, numerous other settlers, including Joshua Welch, George Betts, Charles Angel, W. P. Watson, John Henry, laid out what is now known as Beaverton hoping they could bring a railroad to an area once described as, "mostly swamps & marshes connected by beaver dams to create what looked like a huge lake." In 1872, Beaverton's first post office opened in a general store operated by Betts, who served as the first postmaster of the community.
Betts Street, where the current post office now stands, is named in honor of him. In 1893, which by that time had a population of 400, was incorporated. Alonzo Cady, a local businessman, served as the first mayor. Many major roads in Beaverton are named for these early settlers. Beaverton was an early home to automobile dealerships. A Ford Motor Company dealership was established there in 1915. There are still several dealerships near the intersection of Canyon Roads. In the early 1920s, Beaverton was home to Premium Picture Productions, a movie studio which produced about fifteen films; the studio site was converted into Watt's Field and associated aircraft manufacturing facilities. A second Beaverton airport, Bernard's Airport, was developed farther north, at the present location of the Cedar Hills Crossing mall; the town's first library opened in 1925. On the second floor of the Cady building, it has moved repeatedly. A branch location was opened for the first time in June 2010, when the Murray-Scholls location opened near the Murrayhill neighborhood.
The Beaverton libraries and 15 other local libraries participate in the Washington County Cooperative Library Services. In the 1940s, Tualatin Valley Stages, a division of Portland Stages, Inc. provided limited bus transit service connecting the city with downtown Portland, operating as a separate company, Tualatin Valley Buses, Inc. through the 1960s. This was one of four owned bus companies serving the Portland metropolitan area which became collectively known as the "Blue Bus" lines. All four companies were replaced in 1970 by TriMet, a then-new regional transit authority, which expanded bus service to cover more areas of Beaverton. In the late 1970s, a light rail system was proposed to connect Beaverton to downtown Portland, as part of Metro's plans for the region's transportation. In 1990, voters approved funding for Westside MAX. Construction of the line began in 1993 and was completed in 1998. Six stations are located within the city of Beaverton: Elmonica/SW 170th Avenue, Merlo Road/SW 158th, Beaverton Creek, Millikan Way, Beaverton Central, the Beaverton Transit Center.
All but the last of these are located along right-of-way owned by Burlington Northern Railroad and by the Oregon Electric Railway, which provided interurban service through Beaverton until 1933. The present-day light rail service is operated by TriMet, which continues to operate several bus routes serving Beaverton and the surrounding communities. Since early 2009, Beaverton has been served by commuter rail service, TriMet's Westside Express Service, running south to Wilsonville via Tigard and Tualatin. In December 2004, the city and Washington County announced an "interim plan" which would lead to Beaverton becoming the second-largest city in Oregon, second only to Portland; the "interim" plan covered a period of more than ten years. The city of Beaverton attempted to annex certain businesses, including Nike, which responded with a legal and lobbying effort to resist the annexation; the lobbying effort succeeded with the Oregon Legislative Assembly enacting Sena
EBay Inc. is an American multinational e-commerce corporation based in San Jose, California that facilitates consumer-to-consumer and business-to-consumer sales through its website. EBay was founded by Pierre Omidyar in the autumn of 1995, became a notable success story of the dot-com bubble. EBay is a multibillion-dollar business with operations in about 30 countries, as of 2011; the company manages the eBay website, an online auction and shopping website in which people and businesses buy and sell a wide variety of goods and services worldwide. The website is free to use for buyers, but sellers are charged fees for listing items after a limited number of free listings, again when those items are sold. In addition to eBay's original auction-style sales, the website has evolved and expanded to include: instant "Buy It Now" shopping. EBay offered online money transfers as part of its services; the AuctionWeb was founded in California on September 3, 1995, by French-born Iranian-American computer programmer Pierre Omidyar as part of a larger personal site.
One of the first items sold on AuctionWeb was a broken laser pointer for $14.83. Astonished, Omidyar contacted the winning bidder to ask if he understood that the laser pointer was broken. In his responding email, the buyer explained: "I'm a collector of broken laser pointers."Reportedly, eBay was a side hobby for Omidyar until his Internet service provider informed him he would need to upgrade to a business account due to the high volume of traffic to his website. The resulting price increase forced him to start charging those who used eBay, was not met with any animosity, it resulted in the hiring of Chris Agarpao as eBay's first additional employee to process mailed checks coming in for fees. Jeffrey Skoll was hired as the first new president of the company in early 1996. In November 1996, eBay entered into its first third-party licensing deal, with a company called Electronic Travel Auction, to use SmartMarket Technology to sell plane tickets and other travel products. Growth was phenomenal.
The company changed the name of its service from AuctionWeb to eBay in September 1997. The site belonged to Echo Bay Technology Group, Omidyar's consulting firm. Omidyar had tried to register the domain name echobay.com, but found it taken by the Echo Bay Mines, a gold mining company, so he shortened it to his second choice, eBay.com. In 1997 the company received $6.7 million in funding from the venture capital firm Benchmark Capital. Meg Whitman was hired by the board as eBay president and CEO in March 1998. At the time, the company had 30 employees, half a million users and revenues of $4.7 million in the United States. The repeated story that eBay was founded to help Omidyar's fiancée trade Pez candy dispensers was fabricated by a public relations manager, Mary Lou Song, in 1997 to interest the media, which were not interested in the company's previous explanation about wanting to create a "perfect market"; this was revealed in Adam Cohen's book, The Perfect Store, confirmed by eBay. After eBay went public, both Omidyar and Skoll became instant billionaires.
EBay's target share price of $18 was all but ignored as the price went to $53.50 on the first day of trading. The Pez dispenser myth generated enormous amounts of publicity and led to some of eBay's most explosive early growth among toy collectors; however at the time, Beanie Babies were the leader in the toy category and was the most difficult brand to find in retail stores. Beanie Babies became the dominant product on eBay accounting for 10% of all eBay listings in 1997. While still a held company, eBay's growing market share was contributed by two major factors: The growing collectibility of Beanie Babies in the mid-1990s – collectors internationally were trying to complete their collection of Beanie Babies Ty producing the first business-to-consumer Web site - the original Ty Web site contained an online trading post where people could trade their Beanie Babies, however the trading post was overwhelmed with unsortable listings creating a legitimate demand for a more efficient online system to buy and trade Beanie Babies in the secondary marketAs a result, eBay provided a user-friendly interface to search for specific Beanie Babies that collectors were searching for.
On September 21, 1998, eBay went public. In the risk factors section of the annual report filed with the US Securities and Exchange Commission in 1998, Omidyar notes eBay's dependence on the continued strength of the Beanie Babies market; as the company expanded product categories beyond collectibles into any saleable item, business grew quickly. In 2000, eBay had 12 million registered users and a cyberinventory of more than 4.5 million items on sale on any given day. In February 2002 the company purchased iBazar, a similar European auction web site founded in 1998, bought PayPal on October 3, 2002. By early 2008 the company had expanded worldwide, counting hundreds of millions of registered users as well as 15,000 employees and revenues of $7.7 billion. After nearly ten years at eBay, Whitman decided to enter politics. On January 23, 2008, the company announced that Whitman would step down on March 31, 2008, John Donahoe was selected to become president and CEO. Whitman remained on the board of directors and continued to advise
CD Baby, Inc. is a record label and online music store specializing in the sale of CDs, vinyl records, music downloads from independent musicians to consumers. The company is a digital aggregator of independent music recordings, distributing content to several online music retailers. CD Baby is one of the few sources of information on physical CD sales in the independent music industry, it was the trading name of Hit Media, Inc. a Nevada Corporation founded by Derek Sivers in 1997. Sivers sold CD Baby to Disc Makers in 2008 for; the firm operates out of Portland, Oregon. CD Baby allows artists to set their price point for selling physical compact discs: CD Baby retains $4 of every CD sale, the remainder gets paid out to the artist on a weekly basis, they charge a one-time $49 setup fee per album and $9.99 per single song. CD Baby was founded in 1998 in New York, by Derek Sivers. Sivers was a musician; as a hobby, he began to sell the CDs of local bands and friends. Sivers listened to every CD he sold.
Sivers hired John Steup as his vice president and first employee. There are one hundred or so employees of CD Baby whose work ranges from warehouse work to programming to business development to customer service. Sivers partnered with Oasis Disc Manufacturing to distribute the complete Oasis artist roster. Although the majority of artists who use CD Baby are North American, about thirty percent of orders for CD Baby are overseas. In 2004, CD Baby began offering an online distribution service. By opting into their online distribution service, artists can authorize CD Baby to act on their behalf to submit music for sale to online retailers such as iTunes, Rhapsody, Spotify, Amazon MP3, Google Play, Pandora Music, 8tracks, Apple Music, TIDAL, YouTube Music, Groove Music, Napster, iHeartRadio, eMusic, Medianet, Slacker, 24-7, 7digital, Guvera, GreatIndieMusic, Yandex, InProdicon, Saavn, Claro música, Amazon Music, MusicMatch and MusicNet, among others. In August 2008 it was announced that Disc Makers, a CD and DVD manufacturer, bought CD Baby for 22 million dollars following a 7-year partnership between the two companies, according to Sivers.
In March 2019, Disc Makers sold CD Baby to Downtown for $200 million. AVL’s physical product divisions, Disc Makers, BookBaby, Merchly, were acquired in a separate transaction by the Disc Makers executive team as part of the newly-formed DIY Media Group; until 2009, CD Baby ran on PHP and MySQL. Sivers announced in 2005 that he was rewriting all the systems in Ruby on Rails and PostgreSQL. After about two years of work, he felt that the rewrite was still less than half done, he threw the new code away and rewrote it again in his original programming language, PHP, database, MySQL. Sivers noted that "Rails was an amazing teacher" but he concluded that PHP was up to the task once he had learned the lessons Ruby on Rails taught him. CD Baby relaunched the website with major infrastructure changes to support future growth, including redundancy that protects the original material on the site in a way, not available to the artists; the website is no longer being run with the original or revised PHP.
The new site experienced significant glitches but this did not prevent the company from continuing to pay its artists as sales were reported to CD Baby by partners and others, monies received, artist-chosen payment points reached. CD Baby has a catalogue of over two million downloadable song tracks. Music created by these acts, ranging from part-time hobbyists, to full-time musicians with successful careers, spans all genres, from avant-garde to world music. Dave Matthews has an album for sale on CD Baby, recorded with Mark Roebuck before the inception of Dave Matthews Band, released under the name Tribe of Heaven. Other notable artists releasing their music via CD Baby include Ingrid Michaelson who has used CD Baby for digital distribution for every release, American country acts Mary Gauthier, Gretchen Peters, Tom Russell. American singer-songwriter Grayson Hugh sells his music on CD Baby, as well as on his website. Grammy Award-winning artist Janis Ian, a pioneer among independent musicians marketing online, sells her CDs on the website as well as through her own website.
American alternative rock band Lazlo Bane stayed as an independent band after their initial success with theme song for TV series Scrubs and went on to sell their music through CDBaby. The midwest punk rock bands Degenerates and Spite sell their music on CD Baby. Hong Kong based singer Wing, best known for guest starring on an episode of South Park sells her music on CD Baby. Fabien Biancalani sells his music on CD Baby. Norwegian singer/songwriter Stig Gustu Larsen, have released two top charting EP's through CD Baby; the latest EP "Lifelines + Echoes" debuted at number one at the Norwegian iTunes charts. World music artists who sold their albums on CD Baby include Kaysha and Julio D. "Independent Musicians Find Unexpected Rewards in Str
Intel Corporation is an American multinational corporation and technology company headquartered in Santa Clara, California, in the Silicon Valley. It is the world's second largest and second highest valued semiconductor chip manufacturer based on revenue after being overtaken by Samsung, is the inventor of the x86 series of microprocessors, the processors found in most personal computers. Intel ranked No. 46 in the 2018 Fortune 500 list of the largest United States corporations by total revenue. Intel supplies processors for computer system manufacturers such as Apple, Lenovo, HP, Dell. Intel manufactures motherboard chipsets, network interface controllers and integrated circuits, flash memory, graphics chips, embedded processors and other devices related to communications and computing. Intel Corporation was founded on July 18, 1968, by semiconductor pioneers Robert Noyce and Gordon Moore, associated with the executive leadership and vision of Andrew Grove; the company's name was conceived as portmanteau of the words integrated and electronics, with co-founder Noyce having been a key inventor of the integrated circuit.
The fact that "intel" is the term for intelligence information made the name appropriate. Intel was an early developer of SRAM and DRAM memory chips, which represented the majority of its business until 1981. Although Intel created the world's first commercial microprocessor chip in 1971, it was not until the success of the personal computer that this became its primary business. During the 1990s, Intel invested in new microprocessor designs fostering the rapid growth of the computer industry. During this period Intel became the dominant supplier of microprocessors for PCs and was known for aggressive and anti-competitive tactics in defense of its market position against Advanced Micro Devices, as well as a struggle with Microsoft for control over the direction of the PC industry; the Open Source Technology Center at Intel hosts PowerTOP and LatencyTOP, supports other open-source projects such as Wayland, Mesa3D, Intel Array Building Blocks, Threading Building Blocks, Xen. Client Computing Group – 55% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in desktop and notebook computers.
Data Center Group – 29% of 2016 revenues – produces hardware components used in server and storage platforms. Internet of Things Group – 5% of 2016 revenues – offers platforms designed for retail, industrial and home use. Non-Volatile Memory Solutions Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – manufactures NAND flash memory and 3D XPoint, branded as Optane, products used in solid-state drives. Intel Security Group – 4% of 2016 revenues – produces software security, antivirus software. Programmable Solutions Group – 3% of 2016 revenues – manufactures programmable semiconductors. In 2017, Dell accounted for about 16% of Intel's total revenues, Lenovo accounted for 13% of total revenues, HP Inc. accounted for 11% of total revenues. According to IDC, while Intel enjoyed the biggest market share in both the overall worldwide PC microprocessor market and the mobile PC microprocessor in the second quarter of 2011, the numbers decreased by 1.5% and 1.9% compared to the first quarter of 2011. In the 1980s, Intel was among the top ten sellers of semiconductors in the world.
In 1992, Intel became the biggest chip maker by revenue and has held the position since. Other top semiconductor companies include TSMC, Advanced Micro Devices, Texas Instruments, Toshiba and STMicroelectronics. Competitors in PC chipsets include Advanced Micro Devices, VIA Technologies, Silicon Integrated Systems, Nvidia. Intel's competitors in networking include NXP Semiconductors, Broadcom Limited, Marvell Technology Group and Applied Micro Circuits Corporation, competitors in flash memory include Spansion, Qimonda, Toshiba, STMicroelectronics, SK Hynix; the only major competitor in the x86 processor market is Advanced Micro Devices, with which Intel has had full cross-licensing agreements since 1976: each partner can use the other's patented technological innovations without charge after a certain time. However, the cross-licensing agreement is canceled in the event of takeover; some smaller competitors such as VIA Technologies produce low-power x86 processors for small factor computers and portable equipment.
However, the advent of such mobile computing devices, in particular, has in recent years led to a decline in PC sales. Since over 95% of the world's smartphones use processors designed by ARM Holdings, ARM has become a major competitor for Intel's processor market. ARM is planning to make inroads into the PC and server market. Intel has been involved in several disputes regarding violation of antitrust laws, which are noted below. Intel was founded in Mountain View, California, in 1968 by Gordon E. Moore, a chemist, Robert Noyce, a physicist and co-inventor of the integrated circuit. Arthur Rock helped. Moore and Noyce had left Fairchild Semiconductor to found Intel. Rock was not an employee; the total initial investment in Intel was $10,000 from Rock. Just 2 years Intel became a public company via an initial public offering, raising $6.8 million. Intel's third employee was Andy Grove, a chemical engineer, who ran the company through much of the 1980s and the high-growth 1990s. In dec
Airbnb, Inc., headquartered in San Francisco, operates a global online marketplace and hospitality service accessible via its websites and mobile apps. Members can use the service to arrange or offer lodging homestays, or tourism experiences; the company does not own any of the real estate listings, nor does it host events. The company's name is a shortened version of AirBedandBreakfast.com. Guests can search for lodging using filters such as lodging type, dates and price. Before booking, users must provide personal and payment information; some hosts require guests to go through the "Verified ID" identity verification system, which requires three layers of customer identification: telephone, photo of ID, verification of Facebook, LinkedIn or Google+ account. The company provides travel guides, entitled "Neighborhoods", which provide details about staying in specific neighborhoods in various major cities. Hosts provide other details for their rental or event listings. Pricing is determined with recommendations from Airbnb.
Hosts may be required to pay income taxes on income received via Airbnb. In the United States, homeowners who refinance their mortgages with some agencies are able to count income they earn from Airbnb rentals on their refinance loan applications. Despite having no explicit ban on hosts filming guests, Airbnb requires that hosts disclose the use of surveillance equipment and security cameras to guests; some jurisdictions have restrictions on subletting for a short period of time and regulate lodging rental companies such as Airbnb. Airbnb has published a list of requirements for cities in the United States. For examples of such regulations by jurisdiction, see Lodging#Regulation of commercial lodging; the hotel industry the American Hotel and Lodging Association, has lobbied governments asserting that the hotel industry is subject to unfair competition from Airbnb. These lobbying efforts have resulted in additional regulations being imposed on the company and its hosts. In some cities, collection of a transient occupancy tax by Airbnb is required.
In many cities, hosts must obtain a permit or license. Landlords or community associations may have restrictions on short-term sublets. In some jurisdictions, landlord–tenant law limits the rights of tenants who sublet in violation of their leases. To entice landlords and homeowners associations to be more accommodating in allowing their tenants and residents to sublet via Airbnb, Airbnb has a program in which landlords and homeowners associations can receive a portion of the profit generated from Airbnb. In January 2018, a federal court in the United States ruled that Airbnb is not responsible for illegal sublets by tenants; the court defended Airbnb under Section 230 of the Communications Decency Act which does not hold Internet based services liable for the actions of their users. Founder Joe Gebbia has said that Airbnb is "designed for trust" and provides a variety of safety mechanisms, including US$1,000,000 of secondary insurance, which covers property damage by guests due to vandalism and/or theft, connection to multiple social media channels such as Facebook, which allows hosts and guests to see if they have common friends.
Shortly after moving to San Francisco in October 2007, roommates and former schoolmates Brian Chesky and Joe Gebbia could not afford the rent for their loft apartment. Chesky and Gebbia came up with the idea of putting an air mattress in their living room and turning it into a bed and breakfast; the goal at first was just "to make a few bucks". In February 2008, Nathan Blecharczyk, Chesky's former roommate, joined as the Chief Technology Officer and the third co-founder of the new venture, which they named AirBed & Breakfast, they put together a website which offered short-term living quarters, a unique business networking opportunity for those who were unable to book a hotel in the saturated market. The site Airbedandbreakfast.com launched on August 11, 2008. The founders had their first customers in town in the summer of 2008, during the Industrial Design Conference held by Industrial Designers Society of America, where travelers had a hard time finding lodging in the city. To help fund the site, the founders created special edition breakfast cereals, with presidential candidates Barack Obama and John McCain as the inspiration for "Obama O's" and "Cap'n McCains".
In two months, 800 boxes of cereal were sold at $40 each, which generated more than $30,000 for the company's incubation. It got the company noticed by computer programmer Paul Graham, who invited the founders to the January 2009 winter training session of his startup incubator, Y Combinator, which provided them with training and $20,000 in funding in exchange for a small interest in the company. With the website built, they used the $20,000 Y-Combinator investment to fly to New York City to meet users and promote the site, they returned to San Francisco with a profitable business model to present to West Coast investors. By March 2009, the site had 2,500 listings. In March 2009, the name of the company was shortened to Airbnb.com, the site's content had expanded from air beds and shared spaces to a variety of properties including entire homes and apartments, private rooms, boats, tree houses, igloos, private islands and other properties. One year there were 15 people working from Chesky and Gebbia's loft apartment on Rausch Street i
InFocus Corporation is an American owned company based in the state of Oregon. Founded in 1986, the company develops and distributes DLP and LCD projectors and accessories as well as large-format touch displays, software, LED televisions and smartphones. InFocus offers video calling services. A NASDAQ listed public company, InFocus was purchased by Image Holdings Corp. owned by John Hui, in 2009 and is now a wholly owned subsidiary headquartered in Tigard, Oregon. InFocus was formed by Steve Hix and Paul Gulick in 1986. With Planar Systems and Clarity Visual Systems, it is one of three companies in the computer display industry started by people who worked for Tektronix; the company moved into a new headquarters building in Wilsonville, Oregon, in 2002. At that time the company employed 1,200 people. In mid-2005 InFocus acquired the company TUN, which provided digital media and thin screen television advertising to colleges, sold it in late 2006 to Submedia LLC; the company became a publicly traded company on the NASDAQ exchange as INFS.
On May 28, 2009, InFocus was taken private by Image Holdings Corporation and John Hui in a transaction valued at $39 million. In October 2009, they announced plans to move to Tigard, Oregon in December 2009 as their old headquarters were too big for the much smaller new company; the company was down to 110 employees at the time of the move, with just over half at the headquarters. As of 2012, the company had further shrunk to 90 revenues of about $150 million; as of 2014, the company employed 120 people and is one of Oregon's 25 largest homegrown technology companies. In September 2015 InFocus named long-time board member, Mark Housely CEO. In October 2015 InFocus acquired Hayward, California-based video wall and collaboration solutions provider Jupiter Systems. In April 2019, the company announced they are existing both the projector and display business, resulting a layoff of the majority employees. InFocus produces DLP and LCD projectors and LCD flat panel touchscreens for business users, government entities, ProAV customers, mobile professionals and home theater enthusiasts.
One touchscreen product is the Mondopad, targeted at business and education customers. The Mondopad is a large-format high definition touchscreen PC with software for presenting and videoconferencing. Other products include: BigTouch large-format touch PC, JTouch large-format touch display, MVP100 Video Phone, Q Tablet, numerous accessories and peripherals; the company produces software for digital annotation and video calling. The company provides point-to-point and multi-endpoint video calling services as well called 121 Video Calling and ConX Video Meeting, respectively. InFocus owns and operates the ASK Proxima brand, in the past sold products under the names ASK, InFocus ScreenPlay. In 2013, InFocus began offering budget high-specification smartphones, tablets and LED televisions in China, Taiwan and other East Asian markets in partnership with FIH Mobile Ltd. and Hon Hai Precision Industry Co.. The company announced its official entry into the Indian market in July 2015 at a press conference in New Delhi, followed by an expansion into key Middle Eastern, North African and South Asian emerging markets.
The current range of InFocus smartphones includes the metallic unibody M812 and M808 models, the InFocus M550-3D with 3D image capture & naked eye 3D display technology, the entry-level M370. In 2016, Infocus launched several budget end smartphones and low-end to high-end LED televisions in India. In June 2017, InFocus Snap 4 Smartphones in India. Over the years, the company has built 409 service/e-waste-management centers across India. In 2018, InFocus launched the Vision 3 series with 5.7" full screen display and AL/proximity sensors. InFocus Epic 1, a mobile product of InFocus List of companies based in Oregon Motif InFocus Website Germany InFocus User Manuals - user manuals for InFocus devices InFocus Phones