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Silicon Valley

Silicon Valley is a region in the southern part of the San Francisco Bay Area in Northern California that serves as a global center for high technology and social media. It corresponds to the geographical Santa Clara Valley, although its boundaries have increased in recent decades. San Jose is the Valley's largest city, the third-largest in California, the tenth-largest in the United States. Other major Silicon Valley cities include Palo Alto, Menlo Park, Redwood City, Santa Clara, Mountain View, Sunnyvale; the San Jose Metropolitan Area has the third-highest GDP per capita in the world, according to the Brookings Institution. The word "silicon" in the name referred to the large number of innovators and manufacturers in the region specializing in silicon-based MOS transistors and integrated circuit chips; the area is now home to many of the world's largest high-tech corporations, including the headquarters of more than 30 businesses in the Fortune 1000, thousands of startup companies. Silicon Valley accounts for one-third of all of the venture capital investment in the United States, which has helped it to become a leading hub and startup ecosystem for high-tech innovation and scientific development.

It was in Silicon Valley that the silicon-based integrated circuit, the microprocessor, the microcomputer, among other technologies, were developed. As of 2013, the region employed about a quarter of a million information technology workers; as more high-tech companies were established across San Jose and the Santa Clara Valley, north towards the Bay Area's two other major cities, San Francisco and Oakland, the term "Silicon Valley" has come to have two definitions: a geographic one, referring to Santa Clara County, a metonymical one, referring to all high-tech businesses in the Bay Area. The term is used as a synecdoche for the American high-technology economic sector; the name became a global synonym for leading high-tech research and enterprises, thus inspired similar named locations, as well as research parks and technology centers with a comparable structure all around the world. Due to the personal connection between people and technology, many headquarters of companies in Silicon Valley are a hotspot for tourism.

The popularization of the name is credited to Don Hoefler, who first used it in the article "Silicon Valley USA", appearing in the January 11, 1971 issue of the weekly trade newspaper Electronic News. The term gained widespread use in the early 1980s, at the time of the introduction of the IBM PC and numerous related hardware and software products to the consumer market. Silicon Valley was born through several contributing factors intersecting, including a skilled STEM research base housed in area universities, plentiful venture capital, steady U. S. Department of Defense spending. Stanford University leadership was important in the valley's early development. Together these elements formed the basis of its success. On August 23, 1899, the first ship-to-shore wireless telegraph message to be received in the US was from the San Francisco lightship outside the Golden Gate, signaling the return of the American fleet from the Philippines after their victory in the Spanish–American War; the ship had been outfitted with a wireless telegraph transmitter by a local newspaper, so that they could prepare a celebration on the return of the American sailors.

Local historian Clyde Arbuckle states in Clyde Arbuckle's History of San Jose that "California first heard the click of a telegraph key on September 11, 1853. It marked completion of an enterprise begun by a couple of San Francisco Merchants' Exchange members named George Sweeney and Theodore E. Baugh…" He says, "In 1849, the gentleman established a wigwag telegraph station a top a high hill overlooking Portsmouth Squares for signaling arriving ships… The operator at the first station caught these signals by telescope and relayed them to the Merchant's Exchange for the waiting business community." Arbuckle points to the historic significance the Merchants Exchange Building and Telegraph Hill, San Francisco when he goes on to say "The first station gave the name Telegraph to the hill on which it was located. It was known as the Inner Station. Both used their primitive mode of communication until Messrs. Sweeney and Baugh connected the Outer Station directly with the Merchants's Exchange by electric telegraph Wire."

According to Arbuckle Sweeney and Baugh's line was an intra-city, San Francisco-based service. E. Allen and C. Burnham led the way to "build a line from San Francisco to Marysville via San Jose and Sacramento". Delays to construction occurred until September 1853; the line was completed when Gamble's northbound crew met a similar crew working southward from Marysville on October 24." The Bay Area had long been a major site of United States Navy research and technology. In 1909, Charles Herrold started the first radio station in the United States with scheduled programming in San Jose; that year, Stanford University graduate Cyril Elwell purchased the U. S. patents for Poulsen arc radio transmission technology and founded the Federal Telegraph Corporation in Palo Alto. Over the next decade, the FTC created the world's first global radio communication system, signed a contract with the Navy in 1912. In 1933, Air Base Sunnyvale, was commissioned by the United States Government for use as a Naval Air Station to house the airship USS Macon in Hangar One

Kasa (hat)

A kasa is a term used for any one of several traditional Japanese hats. These include jingasa. Kasa is the correct way to pronounce the word. Note that rendaku causes kasa to change to gasa when it is preceded by another word specifying the type of hat: thus, jingasa. Kasa shares its etymology with the Japanese word for "umbrella". There are several different styles of kasa. All hats were painted; this color was black. It was used for low ranking samurai. Jingasa always had mon marks on them. An amigasa is a straw hat of the type traditionally worn in some Japanese folk dances. Another kind of kasa, the woven rice-straw takuhatsugasa worn by mendicant Buddhist monks, is made overlarge and in a bowl or mushroom shape. Unlike a rice farmer's hat, it does not come to a point, nor does it ride high on the head like a samurai's traveling hat, it is a big hat that covers the upper half to two thirds of the face, thereby helping to mask the identity of the monk and allowing him to travel undistracted by sights around him on his journey.

The samurai class in feudal Japan, as well as their retainers and footsoldiers, used several types of jingasa made from iron, wood, bamboo, or leather. Some types of kasa include: Ajirogasa Amigasa Fukaamigasa Jingasa Roningasa Sandogasa Sugegasa Takuhatsugasa Tengai Torioigasa Yagyūgasa Yatarō gasa, a 1957 film by Kazuo Mori Haiku Topics.....: Hat at Haiku Topics

1835 Wolverhampton riot

The 1835 Wolverhampton riot was an outbreak of violence upon the occasion of a hotly contested county by-election to the House of Commons of the United Kingdom during Wednesday and Thursday, 26–27 May 1835. The magistrates, asserting that a dangerous mob has formed, assaulting electors and damaging property, called in the dragoons; the soldiers, under the command of one Captain Manning, fired on the mob who had retreated to the cemetery and wounded four of them, including three boys. One of the wounded, who had received a shot in the knee, had his leg amputated; the riot received great attention in the time and was the subject of a discussion in the House of Commons and of a special inquiry, which cleared the soldiers and magistrates of blame. It is not clear to this day whether their actions were indeed warranted by the situation on the ground. At any rate, the riot illustrates the high level of social tension in the English towns of that period. In fact, it was compared at the time to analogous earlier riots in Manchester.

The Wolverhampton by-election was held after the passage Reform Act of 1832. One candidate was the Whig politician Colonel George Anson, an experienced MP and the brother of the Earl of Lichfield who had a large following in the area; the other candidate was a Tory. While the non-electors of the town were predominantly of Radical persuasion, the electors were more evenly divided between Whig and Tory supporters; the tense campaign grew violent on the first day of polling, with the mob assaulting those electors who voted or intended to vote for the Tory candidate. In some cases, electors claimed that they were bodily assaulted. In other cases, they were beaten after casting their votes; this sort of carrying on was not uncommon in English elections of this time, but the actual extent of the disturbances was hotly disputed in the House of Commons. After the polling was completed for the first day, a mass of Anson's supporters surrounded Goodricke's campaign headquarters in the Swan Inn and threw some stones at the windows.

The town magistrates, who considered the situation to be getting out of hand, in part owing to the lack of sufficient police, called in a troop of the 1st Dragoons, stationed nearby, per an earlier request by the magistrates. Once the soldiers had arrived, the Riot Act was read by one of the magistrates and the soldiers immediately fired at the mob which had by now moved to the cemetery. Four people were shot; the soldiers charged the crows, dealing out blows with the flat sides of their swords. A number of divergent accounts of the events were given and it seems impossible to reconcile them; the critics alleged that instead of the customary one hour, only five minutes were given to the crowd to disperse after the reading of the Riot Act. All sides agree that the proximate cause for the soldier's charge on firing and the crowd was the death of one of the soldiers' horses. However, the accounts differ on what happened to the horse. According to one version, the horse was killed by a stone thrown by the mob - showing that the soldiers were provoked.

According to another account, the soldiers first charged the crown and the horse fell during the charge. A third version, offered in Parliament by?? was that the horse was stabbed by a short knife, once again vindicating the soldiers' conduct. However, it is possible that the horse was accidentally stabbed by a sword drawn by one of the soldiers. Another source of contention was the subsequent dispersal of the soldiers into small group of twos and threes. According to one position, this was a irregular measure, as the soldiers were no longer under the control of the officers and could engage in wanton acts of cruelty. Others had alleged that this dispersal was necessary to patrol the town and to re-establish public order. Sir F. Goodricke won the election and sat for two years in Parliament. During that time he never rose to speak. Gash, Norman. Politics in the Age of Peel. Pp. 149–53. ISBN 0-393-00564-X. Cox, David J.. "The Wolves Let Loose at Wolverhampton - A Study of the South Staffordshire Election'Riots,' May 1835".

Law and History. 1. Archived from the original on 7 January 2013. UK Parliament. "Disturbance at Wolverhampton". Commons and Lords Hansard, the Official Report of debates in Parliament