Simon & Garfunkel were an American folk-rock duo consisting of singer-songwriter Paul Simon and singer Art Garfunkel. One of the best-selling music groups of the 1960s, their biggest hits—including "The Sound of Silence", "Mrs. Robinson", "The Boxer", "Bridge over Troubled Water" —reached number one on singles charts worldwide. Simon and Garfunkel met in elementary school in Queens, New York, in 1953, where they learned to harmonize together and began writing material. By 1957, under the name Tom & Jerry, the teenagers had their first minor success with "Hey Schoolgirl", a song imitating their idols the Everly Brothers. In 1963, aware of a growing public interest in folk music, they regrouped and were signed to Columbia Records as Simon & Garfunkel, their debut, Wednesday Morning, 3 A. M. sold poorly, they once again disbanded. In June 1965, a new version of "The Sound of Silence" overdubbed with electric guitar and drums became a major U. S. AM radio hit, reaching number one on the Billboard Hot 100.
The duo reunited to release a second studio album, Sounds of Silence, tour colleges nationwide. On their third release, Sage and Thyme, the duo assumed more creative control, their music was featured in the 1967 film The Graduate, giving them further exposure. Their next album Bookends topped the Billboard 200 chart and included the number-one single "Mrs. Robinson" from the film; the duo's rocky relationship led to artistic disagreements and their breakup in 1970. Their final studio album, Bridge over Troubled Water, was released that year and became their most successful, becoming one of the world's best-selling albums. After their breakup, Simon released a number of acclaimed albums, including 1986's Graceland. Garfunkel released solo hits such as "All I Know" and pursued an acting career, with leading roles in two Mike Nichols films, Catch-22 and Carnal Knowledge, in Nicolas Roeg's 1980 Bad Timing; the duo have reunited several times, most famously in 1981 for "The Concert in Central Park", which attracted more than 500,000 people, one of the largest concert attendances in history.
Simon & Garfunkel won 10 Grammy Awards and were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1990. Bridge over Troubled Water is ranked at number 51 on Rolling Stone's 500 Greatest Albums of All Time. Richie Unterberger described them as "the most successful folk-rock duo of the 1960s" and one of the most popular artists from the decade, they are among the best-selling music artists. Paul Simon and Art Garfunkel grew up in the 1940s and 1950s in their predominantly Jewish neighborhood of Kew Gardens Hills in Queens, New York, three blocks away from one another, they attended the same schools: Public School 164 in Kew Gardens Hills, Parsons Junior High School, Forest Hills High School. They were both fascinated by music. Simon first noticed Garfunkel when Garfunkel was singing in a fourth grade talent show, which Simon thought was a good way to attract girls, they formed a streetcorner doo-wop group called the Peptones with three friends and learned to harmonize. They began performing as a duo at school dances.
Simon and Garfunkel moved to Forest Hills High School, where in 1956 they wrote their first song, "The Girl for Me". While trying to remember the lyrics to the Everly Brothers song "Hey Doll Baby", they wrote "Hey Schoolgirl", which they recorded for $25 at Sanders Recording Studio in Manhattan. While recording they were overheard by promoter Sid Prosen, who signed them to his independent label Big Records after speaking to their parents, they were 15. Under Big Records and Garfunkel assumed the name Tom & Jerry, their first single, "Hey Schoolgirl", was released with the B-side "Dancin' Wild" in 1957. Prosen, using the payola system, bribed DJ Alan Freed $200 to play the single on his radio show, where it became a nightly staple. "Hey Schoolgirl" attracted regular rotation on nationwide AM pop stations, leading it to sell over 100,000 copies and to land on Billboard's charts at number 49. Prosen promoted the group getting them a headlining spot on Dick Clark's American Bandstand alongside Jerry Lee Lewis.
Simon and Garfunkel shared $4,000 from the song – earning two percent each from royalties, the rest staying with Prosen. They released three more singles on Big Records: "Our Song", "That's My Story", "Don't Say Goodbye", none of them successful. After graduating from Forest Hills High School in 1958, the pair continued their education should a music career not unfold. Simon studied English at Queens College, City University of New York, Garfunkel studied architecture before switching to art history at Columbia College, Columbia University. While still with Big Records as a duo, Simon released a solo single, "True or False", under the name "True Taylor"; this upset Garfunkel. Simon and Garfunkel continued recording as solo artists: Garfunkel composed and recorded "Private World" for Octavia Records, and—under the name Artie Garr—"Beat Love" for Warwick. Simon wrote and p
Richard "Dick" LaClede Stockton, is a former professional tennis player from the United States. In addition to his playing career, he was the head coach of the men's tennis team at the University of Virginia. For three years, from 1998-2001. Stockton is the Head Men's Tennis Coach at Piedmont College in Demorest, GA. Stockton's highest world ranking was World No. 8. He reached the semifinals of Wimbledon in 1974, the quarterfinals of the U. S. Open in 1976 and'77 and the semifinals in the 1978 French Open. Stockton played on the U. S. Davis Cup Team five times, including the U. S. Davis Cup Championship Team in 1979. Dick Stockton at the Association of Tennis Professionals Dick Stockton at the International Tennis Federation Dick Stockton at the Davis Cup
The Anglican Church of St Pancras in West Bagborough, England was built in the 15th century. It is a Grade II* listed building; the church was built in the 15th century with additions 1643 and a Victorian restoration in 1872. The north aisle was added in 1839; the organ and communion rails were brought from a church at Brompton Ralph in 1910. Further restoration was undertaken in 1923 by Ninian Comper; the church is away from the main village, close to Bagborough House. The location of the church away from the village is believed to be a result of an outbreak of Black Death, when may of the villagers died, they abandoned the area around the church and rebuilt houses further down the hill. The lychgate is dedicated to the memory of Robert Brooke-Popham; the parish is part of the benefice of Bishop's Lydeard with Lydeard Saint Lawrence, Combe Florey and Cothelstone within the Diocese of Bath and Wells. The red sandstone building has a tiled roof, it consists of a nave and aisle each with three bays with wagon roofs.
The south porch was added in 1643. The three-stage west tower is supported by diagonal buttresses; the tower has six bells. Inside the church is a tablet with the names of the men from the village who died in World War I. List of ecclesiastical parishes in the Diocese of Bath and Wells
Michael López-Alegría is an American astronaut. He is known for having performed ten spacewalks so far in his career, presently holding the second longest all-time EVA duration record and having the third longest spaceflight of any American at the length of 215 days, he is married to Daria Robinson of Switzerland. He was born in Madrid and raised in Mission Viejo, California. López-Alegría joined the United States Navy, where he earned a Bachelor of Science degree in Systems Engineering in 1980 from the United States Naval Academy, a Master of Science degree in Aeronautical Engineering in 1988 from the U. S. Naval Postgraduate School. Designated a Naval Aviator in 1981, his fleet experience in the Navy was at Fleet Air Reconnaissance Squadron 2 in Rota and the U. S. Naval Test Pilot School at Maryland. A natural leader, he was the top Lieutenant of 60 in the second largest aviation wardroom in the Navy, he made many connections with Spanish military and civilian personnel while in Spain during his first tour that have made him popular and well known in Spanish media.
He was one of the few EP-3E pilots in the squadron to get flying time in the EA-3B Skywarrior. He is a graduate of Harvard University's Kennedy School of Government Program for Senior Executives in National and International Security, he is fluent in English, Spanish and Russian. His son Nicolas starred alongside López-Alegría in 2006 in Mira La Luna. A second documentary, directed by Manuel Huerga, Son And Moon, was released in Spanish theaters in 2009 featuring astronauts Mikhail Tyurin, Sunita Williams, himself. López-Alegría's first space mission was STS-73 in 1995. During flight STS-92, he tested the SAFER jet backpack with fellow astronaut Jeff Wisoff, flying up to 50 feet from the spacecraft. López-Alegría served as an aquanaut on the first NEEMO crew aboard the Aquarius underwater laboratory in October 2001. On September 20, 2006 López-Alegría docked with the ISS as Commander of Expedition 14, having taken off from Baikonur, Kazakhstan on September 18, onboard Soyuz TMA-9. On Expedition 14, he performed five spacewalks.
On April 21, 2007 he returned to Earth. López-Alegría holds the all time American record for number of total EVA duration; the previous record holder, Jerry L. Ross had a total of 9 EVAs with a duration of 58 hours and 18 minutes. López-Alegría is the second most experienced spacewalker overall, behind Russia's Anatoly Solovyev. On April 2, 2007, López-Alegría set the record for the longest space mission of any American astronaut; when he landed on April 21, his time in space on a single mission was 215 days. 2000-10-16 7:07 hours STS-92, EVA 2 2000-10-18 6:56 hours STS-92, EVA 4 2002-11-26 6:45 hours STS-113, EVA 1 2002-11-28 6:10 hours STS-113, EVA 2 2002-11-30 7:00 hours STS-113, EVA 3 2006-11-22 7:39 hours ISS Expedition 14, EVA 1 2007-01-31 7:55 hours ISS Expedition 14, EVA 2 2007-02-04 7:11 hours ISS Expedition 14, EVA 3 2007-02-07 6:39 hours ISS Expedition 14, EVA 4 2007-02-22 6:18 hours ISS Expedition 14, EVA 5At the end of his mission, he commanded the longest flight by a Soyuz spacecraft, making Expedition 14 the longest expedition thus far.
López-Alegría broke the record for longest spaceflight by an American astronaut. López-Alegría retired from NASA on March 12, 2012 and served as the President of the Commercial Spaceflight Federation through the end of 2014. López-Alegría is an independent consultant to traditional and commercial space companies, serves on several advisory boards and committees to public and private organizations, is engaged in public speaking domestically and internationally, he is based in Washington, DC. In 2017 López-Alegría joined Axiom Space as director of Business Development. In December of 2019, López-Alegría officiated the wedding of Saúl Reza Arcelus and Jillianne Pierce. Hispanics in the United States Naval Academy List of Hispanic astronauts This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Spacefacts biography of Michael López-Alegría
An album cover is the front of the packaging of a commercially released audio recording product, or album. The term can refer to either the printed cardboard covers used to package sets of 10 in and 12 in 78-rpm records and sets of 12 in LPs, sets of 45 rpm records, or the front-facing panel of a CD package, the primary image accompanying a digital download of the album, or of its individual tracks. In the case of all types of tangible records, it serves as part of the protective sleeve. Around 1910, 78-rpm records replaced the phonograph cylinder as the medium for recorded sound; the 78-rpm records were issued in both 10- and 12-inch diameter sizes and were sold separately, in brown paper or cardboard sleeves that were sometimes plain and sometimes printed to show the producer or the retailer's name. These were invariably made out of acid paper; the sleeves had a circular cutout allowing the record label to be seen. Records could be laid on a shelf horizontally or stood upright on an edge, but because of their fragility, many broke in storage.
German record company Odeon pioneered the "album" in 1909 when it released the Nutcracker Suite by Tchaikovsky on four double-sided discs in a specially designed package. The practice of issuing albums does not seem to have been taken up by other record companies for many years. Beginning in the 1920s, bound collections of empty sleeves with a plain paperboard or leather cover were sold as "record albums" that customers could use to store their records; these empty albums were sold in both 10- and 12-inch sizes. The covers of these bound books were wider and taller than the records inside, allowing the record album to be placed on a shelf upright, like a book, suspending the fragile records above the shelf, protecting them. Starting in the 1930s, record companies began issuing collections of 78-rpm records by one performer or of one type of music in specially assembled collections; these albums of several 78-rpm records could include a collection of popular songs related by either performer or style, or extended-length classical music, including complete symphonies.
In 1938, Columbia Records hired Alex Steinweiss as its first art director. He is credited with inventing the concept of album covers and cover art, replacing the plain covers used before. After his initial efforts at Columbia, other record companies followed his lead. By the late 1940s, record albums for all the major companies featured their own colorful paper covers in both 10- and 12-inch sizes; some featured reproductions of classic art. When the 10- and 12-inch long-playing records came along in 1948, box sets of 45-rpm records soon followed, the name "album" was used for the new format of collections, the creation of artistic original album covers continued. From the 1950s through to the 1980s, the 12" LP record and the 45 rpm record became the major formats for the distribution of popular music; the LP format remains in use for occasional new releases, though other formats have supplanted it. The size of the typical cardboard LP sleeve cover is 12.375 in square. Starting in the mid-1990s, the compact disc was the most common form of physically-distributed music products.
Packaging formats vary, including the jewel case, the cardboard and plastic combination known as a Digipak. The album cover component of these packages is 4.75 in square. Album covers are one of the various ways in which first impressions affect an audience's perception of a given musician or band. Album covers' design cover may add to how an audience forms an opinion of them and their music. There are various ways; some examples include artists choosing to put a photo of themselves, such as Childish Gambino's "Because the Internet" album, one of the factors that add to the observation of the band, the musician, the music. The album cover became an important part of the culture of music. Under the influence of designers like Bob Cato, who at various stages in his long music career was vice president of creative services at both Columbia Records and United Artists, album covers became renowned for being a marketing tool and an expression of artistic intent. Album art has been discussed as an important postwar cultural expression.
During the early 1960s, the Beatles' With the Beatles, Bob Dylan's The Times They Are a-Changin' and the Rolling Stones' self-titled debut album each contained a cover photograph designed to further the musical artist's public image. Author Peter Doggett highlights the cover of Otis Redding's Otis Blue, containing a photo of a young white woman, as a design that "played a dual role: she represented the transcendent power of the music, obscured the race of its creator." The standard portrait-based LP cover was further challenged over 1965–66 by Dylan's Bringing It All Back Home, through the inclusion of symbolic artefacts around the singer. Gatefold covers and inserts with lyric sheets, made the album cover a desirable work in its own right. Notable example
Hershel of Ostropol is a prominent figure in Jewish humor. Hershele was a prankster from Ostropol, Crown Poland, who lived in poverty and targeted the rich and powerful, both Jew and Gentile. Common folks were not safe from his shenanigans, but got off lightly, he is remembered by Ukrainian gentiles as something of an ethnic folk hero, who could take on establishment forces much larger than himself with nothing but his humor. While his exploits have been mythologized over the years, the character of Hershele is based on a historic figure, who lived in what is today Ukraine during the late 18th or early 19th century, he may have used his wits to get by earning a permanent position as court jester of sorts to Rabbi Boruch of Medzhybizh. In the Hershele stories, he was chosen by members of Rabbi Boruch's court in order to counter the rebbe's notorious fits of temper and lift his chronic melancholy, it is believed that Hershele died of an accident, brought about by one of Rabbi Boruch's fits of anger.
Hershele lingered for several days and died in Rabbi Boruch's own bed surrounded by Rabbi Boruch and his followers. He is thought to be buried in the old Jewish cemetery in Medzhybizh. Hershele was the subject of several epic poems, a novel, a comedy performed in 1930 by the Vilna Troupe, a US TV program in the 1950s. Two illustrated children's books, The Adventures of Hershel of Ostropol, Hershel and the Hanukkah Goblins, have been published. Both books were illustrated by Trina Schart Hyman. A tale about him, When Hershel Eats- by Nathan Ausubel, was included in Joanna Cole's 1982 work, Best-Loved Folktales of the World. In 2002, a play entitled Hershele. In 1999, Shari Aronson of Z Puppets Rosenschnoz received permission from Eric Kimmel to adapt the book Hershel and the Hanukkah Goblins for the stage; this adaptation has since been produced four times by Minnesota Jewish Theatre Company, with puppets by Chris Griffith winning a 2009 MN Ivey Award, multiple times by Jewish Community Centers across the U.
S. When Hershele was a child, he had a number of sisters, of which he was the smallest. Thus, whenever they had a meal, he'd be the last to get anything; as a result, whenever they had goose, he never got to eat a foot, his favorite part. One evening, he snuck into the kitchen before dinner and cut a foot off of the goose, slipping it under his shirt to hide. During dinner, his father noticed that Hershele's shirt was grease-stained and that the goose's left foot was missing. - "Hershele," he said. "Did you take the goose's foot?" - "No, father," he said. "Maybe it was a one-footed goose." - "A one-footed goose? There's no such thing!" - "Sure there is. I'll take you to see one after dinner."That evening, Hershele took his father out to a lake near their village. A flock of geese were sleeping on the banks, each tucking one foot into its body so that only the other was visible. - "There's one," said Hershele, pointing. Thinking to outsmart his son, his father clapped, waking the goose and causing it to lower its other leg.
- "There. Now, will you admit that you stole-" - "Wow, father! You just clapped and the goose grew a foot! Why didn't you do that to the one at the table?" Hershele was traveling along the road. He went up to the door and politely asked if he could have a bite to eat and a pile of hay in the stables on which to rest for the night; the innkeeper and his wife refused. - "Oh you're going to say no to me?" Snapped Hershel. - "Y-yes," stammered the innkeeper. - "You know what happens if you refuse me? I do what my father did when someone said no to him! Do you want me to do what my father did? Do you? Do you?" - "Give him what he wants," hissed the innkeeper's wife into his ear. "He's insane. I don't know what his father did, but it must be something terrible!"Agreeing with his wife, the innkeeper allowed Hershele to stay for the night, going so far as to offer him a large meal and a place at their table. After dinner, he offered Hershele one of his finest rooms, to which the vagabond agreed. - "So," he said.
"Now that everything is settled, I'm curious: what did your father do?" - "Well, since you ask so nicely, I'll tell you," Hershele replied. "When my father was alone starving on the road, he was refused anything to eat, why he'd go to bed hungry!" Hershele once asked for two rolls. When these were brought to him he changed his mind, asked for two doughnuts instead, ate them walked out without paying; the owner demanded to be paid for the doughnuts. - “But I gave you the rolls for them,” Hershele said. - “You didn’t pay for the rolls, either,” the owner said. - “Well, I haven’t eaten the rolls, have I?” Hershele walked away. One time Hershele and a vagabond friend bought two loaves of bread. Hershele picked them up from the baker handed the smaller one to his friend and kept the larger one for himself. - “This is impolite,” his friend said. - “What would you have done if you were me?” Hershele asked. - “I’d give you the large loaf and keep the small one, of course!” The friend said. - “Well, you’ve got the small one.
Now what do you want?” On a dare to slap a hated man in his Jewish hometown, Hershele did. When the man asked him why he did this, Hershele replied. - “And if I’m Berel,” said the offended man, “does this give you the right to hit me?” - “Keep your nose out of my and Berel’s affairs,” Hershele replied. During the feast of Pas