Pastor bonus is an apostolic constitution promulgated by Pope John Paul II on 28 June 1988. It instituted a number of reforms in the process of running the central government of the Roman Catholic Church, as article 1 states "The Roman Curia is the complex of dicasteries and institutes which help the Roman Pontiff in the exercise of his supreme pastoral office for the good and service of the whole Church and of the particular Churches, it thus strengthens the unity of the faith and the communion of the people of God and promotes the mission proper to the Church in the world". Pastor bonus laid out in considerable detail the organization of the Roman Curia, specifying the names and composition of each dicastery, enumerating which competencies, or responsibilities, each dicastery was charged with overseeing, it replaced the previous governing document, Regimini Ecclesiæ universæ, released by Paul VI in 1967. It delineated the roles of the Secretariat of State, Tribunals, Pontifical Councils, Administrative Services and Pontifical Commissions of the Roman Curia.
It established the norms for the ad limina visits of bishops to Rome and the relationship between the Holy See and the particular Churches and episcopal conferences. Among the changes formulated in the constitution was the re-integration of the Council for Public Affairs of the Church into the Secretariat of State as the Section for Relations with States; the Council for Public Affairs of the Church had been a section of the Secretariat of State, but was made an independent dicastery by Pope Paul VI in 1967. The constitution opened membership in dicasteries to priests, deacons and lay persons. For centuries, only cardinals were eligible for membership in the organs of the Holy See, but Pope Paul VI allowed diocesan bishops to be members following calls for collegiality at the Second Vatican Council. Pastor bonus continued the opening of the central government of the church by allowing representatives of all the faithful to have a role in the Roman Curia; as of March 2016, Pastor bonus has been amended by Quaerit semper in 2011, Ministrorum institutio and Fides per doctrinam in 2013, Confermando una tradizione in 2014.
In the Apostolic Letter Ministrorum institutio of 16 January 2013, Pope Benedict XVI transferred the governance of seminaries from the Congregation for Catholic Education to the Congregation for the Clergy. On the same day the Apostolic Letter Fides per doctrinam transferred the competence of catechesis from the Congregation for Clergy to the Pontifical Council for Promoting New Evangelization. In October 2013, Pope Francis and his Council of Cardinals were reviewing Pastor bonus for possible further revisions. On 24 February 2014, Francis issued the Apostolic Letter Fidelis dispensator et prudens establishing the Council for the Economy to oversee the administrative and financial structures and activities of the dicasteries of the Roman Curia, the institutions linked to the Holy See, the Vatican City State, it established the Secretariat for the Economy as a dicastery of the Roman Curia. Original text Full text, translated to English by Francis C. C. F. Kelly, James H. Provost, Michel Thériault and revised by Canadian Conference of Catholic Bishops and the Secretariat of State, authorized by the Secretariat of State.
Wooden, Cindy. "Changing needs, changing names: Reform of Curia is Vatican tradition", Catholic New Service, 13 July 2014 at the Library of Congress Web Archives
The title canon Episcopi is conventionally given to a certain passage found in medieval canon law. The text originates in an early 10th-century penitential, recorded by Regino of Prüm, it is an important source on folk belief and surviving pagan customs in Francia on the eve of the formation of the Holy Roman Empire. The folk beliefs described in the text reflect the residue of pre-Christian beliefs at about one century after the Carolingian Empire had been Christianized, its condemnation of the belief in witchcraft was an important argument used by the opponents of the witch trials during the 16th century, such as Johann Weyer. The conventional title "canon Episcopi" is based on the text's incipit, was current from at least the 17th century, it is first attested in the Libri de synodalibus causis et disciplinis ecclesiasticis composed by Regino of Prüm around 906. It was included in Burchard of an early attempt at collecting all of Canon law; the text was adopted in the Decretum of Ivo of Chartres and in Gratian's authoritative Corpus juris canonici of c.
1140. Because it was included in Gratian's compilation the text was treated as canon law for the remaining part of the High Middle Ages, until Roman Catholic views on European witchcraft began to change in the late medieval period; the text of Gratian is not the same as the one used by Burchard, the distinctive features of the Corrector text were thus not transmitted to times. The text of Regino of Prüm was edited in Patrologia Latina, volume 132; the text of Burchard's Corrector has been separately edited by Wasserschleben, again by Schmitz. The incipit of Gratian's text, which gave rise to the title of "canon Episcopi" reads: Episcopi, eorumque ministri omnibus modis elaborare studeant, ut perniciosam et a diabolo inventam sortilegam et magicam artem ex parochiis suis penitus eradicent, et si aliquem virum aut mulierem hujuscemodi sceleris sectatorem invenerint, turpiter dehonestatum de parochiis suis ejiciant. "The bishops and their ministers should by all means make great effort so that they may eradicate the pernicious art of divination and magic, invented by the devil, from their parishes, if they find any man or woman adhering to such a crime, they should eject them, turpidly dishonoured, from their parishes."This condemnation the "pernicious art of divination and magic" is justified by a reference to Titus 3:10-11 on heresy.
Follows a description of the errors of "certain wicked women", who deceived by Satan believe themselves to join the train of the pagan goddess Diana during the hours of the night, to cover great distances within a multitude of women riding on beasts, during certain nights to be called to the service of their mistress. Those holding such beliefs are condemned by the text in no uncertain terms, deploring the great number of people who "relapse into pagan error" by holding such beliefs; because of this, the text instructs that all priests should teach at every possible instant that such beliefs are phantasms inspired by an evil spirit. The following paragraph presents an account of the means by which Satan takes possession of the minds of these women by appearing to them in numerous forms, how once he holds captive their minds, deludes them by means of dreams; the text emphasizes that the heretic belief is to hold that these transformations occur in the body, while they are in reality dream visions inspired in the mind.
The text proposes that it is normal to have nightly visions in which one sees things that are never seen while awake, but that it is a great stupidity to believe that the events experienced in the dream vision have taken place in the body. Examples are adduced, of Ezechiel having his prophetic visions in spirit, not in body, of the Apocalypse of John, seen in spirit, not in body, of Paul of Tarsus, who describes the events at Damascus as a vision, not as a bodily encounter; the text concludes by repeating that it should be publicly preached that all those holding such beliefs have lost their faith, believing not in God but in the devil, whosoever believes that it is possible to transform themselves into a different kind of creature, is far more wavering than an infidel. The Canon Episcopi has received a great deal of attention from historians of the witch craze period as early documentation of the Catholic church's theological position on the question of witchcraft; the position taken by the author is that these "rides of Diana" did not exist, that they are deceptions, dreams or phantasms.
It is the belief in the reality of such deceptions, considered a heresy worthy of excommunication. The position here is that the devil is real, creating delusions in the mind, but that the delusions do not have bodily reality; this s
Benedictus Deus (Pius IV)
Benedictus Deus is a papal bull written by Pius IV in 1564 which ratified all decrees and definitions of the Council of Trent. It maintains that the decrees of the Council of Trent can be interpreted by the Papal office itself; this was seen by Church contemporaries of Pius IV as an attempt to strengthen the influence of the Papacy against the rise of Conciliarism exemplified by the Council of Trent itself. There is a more minor bull of the same title written by Benedict XII in 1336. Bulla S. D. N. D. Pii Divina Providentia papae generalis concilii Tridentini. Mexicopoli: Ocharte, 1565 Text at archive.org The full text of Benedictus Deus at Wikisource
Decretales Gregorii IX
The Decretals of Gregory IX collectively called the Liber extra, are an important source of medieval Canon Law. In 1230, Pope Gregory IX ordered his chaplain and confessor, St. Raymond of Penyafort, a Dominican, to form a new canonical collection destined to replace all former collections, it has been said that the pope by this measure wished to emphasize his power over the Universal Church. The papacy had arrived at the zenith of its power. Moreover, a pope less favourably circumstanced would not have thought of so important a measure; the utility of a new collection was so evident that there may be no other motives than those the pope gives in the Bull "Rex pacificus" of 5 September 1234, viz. the inconvenience of recurring to several collections containing decisions most diverse and sometimes contradictory, exhibiting in some cases gaps and in others tedious length. The Quinque compilationes antiquæ was a series of five of these collections of pontifical legislation from the Decretum of Gratian to the pontificate of Honorius III.
Raymond executed the work in about four years, followed in it the method of the Quinque compilationes antiquæ. He borrowed from them the order of the subject-matter, the division into five books, of the books into titles and of the titles into chapters. Of the 1971 chapters the Decretals of Gregory IX contain, 1771 are from the Quinque compilationes antiquæ, 191 are from Gregory IX himself, seven from decretals of Innocent III not inserted in the former collections, two are of unknown origin, they are arranged according to the order of the ancient collections, i.e. each title opens with the chapters of the first collection, followed by those of the second, so on in regular order. Next come those of Innocent III, those of Gregory IX. All the rubrics, or headings of the titles, have been borrowed from these collections, but several have been modified as regards detail; this method lightened St. Raymond's task. However, he did more than compile the documents of former collections, he left out 383 decisions, modified several others, omitted parts when he considered it prudent to do so, filled up the gaps, to render his collection complete and concordant, cleared up doubtful points of the ancient ecclesiastical law by adding some new decretals.
He indicated by infra the passages excised by him in the former collections. They are called partes decisae; the new compilation bore no special title, but was called "Decretales Gregorii IX" or sometimes "Compilatio sexta", i. e. the sixth collection with reference to the "Quinque compilationes antiquæ". It was called "Collectio seu liber extra", i. e. the collection of the laws not contained in the "Decretum" of Gratian. Hence the custom of denoting this collection by the letter X. Quotations from this collection are made by indicating the number of the chapter, the name the work goes by, the number of the book, that of the title; the heading of the title and sometimes the first words of the chapter are quoted. 3, X, III, 23", or "c. Odoardus, X, De solutionibus, HI, 23", refers to the third chapter, commencing with the word Odoardus, in the Decretals of Gregory IX, book III, title 23, entitled "De solutionibus". If the number of the chapter or of the title is not indicated it will be learned on consulting the alphabetical indexes of the rubrics and of the introductory words of the chapters, which are to be found in all editions of the "Corpus Juris Canonici".
Gregory IX sent this new collection to the Universities of Bologna and Paris, declared, by the Bull "Rex pacificus" of 5 September 1234, that this compilation was the official code of the canon law. All its decisions had the force of canon law whether they were authentic or not, whatever the juridical value of the texts considered in themselves, whatsoever the original text, it is a unique collection. In this peculiar case it is not possible to overcome the difficulty by recourse to the principle that a law of date abrogates that of an earlier period, it is an exclusive collection, i.e. it abrogates all the collections the official ones, of a date than the "Decretum" of Gratian. Some authors maintain that Gregory IX abrogated those laws prior to Gratian's time that the latter had not included in his "Decretum", but others contest this opinion; the Decretals of Gregory IX differ from modern codes. Instead of containing in one concise statement a legislative decision, they start with an account of a controversy, the allegations of the parties in dispute, a demand or the solution of the question.
The enacting part of the chapter alone has the force of law. The rubrics of the titles have the force of law when their sense is complete, as for instance, Ne sede vacante aliquid innovetur, because the headings form an integral part of the official code of the laws. However, they ought always to be interpreted according to the decisions contained in the chapters; the historical indications concerning each chapter are far from being exact since they were corrected in the Roman edition of 1582. It may be regretted that St. Raymond did not ha
Jesus referred to as Jesus of Nazareth and Jesus Christ, was a first-century Jewish preacher and religious leader. He is the central figure of Christianity, is described as the most influential person in history. Most Christians believe he is the incarnation of God the Son and the awaited Messiah prophesied in the Old Testament. All modern scholars of antiquity agree that Jesus existed although the quest for the historical Jesus has produced little agreement on the historical reliability of the Gospels and on how the Jesus portrayed in the Bible reflects the historical Jesus. Jesus was a Galilean Jew, baptized by John the Baptist and began his own ministry, he preached orally and was referred to as "rabbi". Jesus debated with fellow Jews on how to best follow God, engaged in healings, taught in parables and gathered followers, he was arrested and tried by the Jewish authorities, turned over to the Roman government, crucified on the order of Pontius Pilate, the Roman prefect. After his death, his followers believed he rose from the dead, the community they formed became the early Church.
The birth of Jesus is celebrated annually on December 25th as Christmas. His crucifixion is honored on his resurrection on Easter; the used calendar era "AD", from the Latin anno Domini, the equivalent alternative "CE", are based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus. Christian doctrines include the beliefs that Jesus was conceived by the Holy Spirit, was born of a virgin named Mary, performed miracles, founded the Christian Church, died by crucifixion as a sacrifice to achieve atonement for sin, rose from the dead, ascended into Heaven, from where he will return. Most Christians believe; the Nicene Creed asserts that Jesus will judge the living and the dead either before or after their bodily resurrection, an event tied to the Second Coming of Jesus in Christian eschatology. The great majority of Christians worship Jesus as the incarnation of God the Son, the second of three persons of the Trinity. A minority of Christian denominations reject Trinitarianism, wholly or as non-scriptural. Jesus figures in non-Christian religions and new religious movements.
In Islam, Jesus is considered one of the Messiah. Muslims believe Jesus was a bringer of scripture and was born of a virgin, but was not the son of God; the Quran states. Most Muslims do not believe that he was crucified, but that he was physically raised into Heaven by God. In contrast, Judaism rejects the belief that Jesus was the awaited Messiah, arguing that he did not fulfill Messianic prophecies, was neither divine nor resurrected. A typical Jew in Jesus' time had only one name, sometimes followed by the phrase "son of <father's name>", or the individual's hometown. Thus, in the New Testament, Jesus is referred to as "Jesus of Nazareth". Jesus' neighbors in Nazareth refer to him as "the carpenter, the son of Mary and brother of James and Joses and Judas and Simon", "the carpenter's son", or "Joseph's son". In John, the disciple Philip refers to him as "Jesus son of Joseph from Nazareth"; the name Jesus is derived from the Latin Iesus, a transliteration of the Greek Ἰησοῦς. The Greek form is a rendering of the Hebrew ישוע, a variant of the earlier name יהושע, or in English, "Joshua", meaning "Yah saves".
This was the name of Moses' successor and of a Jewish high priest. The name Yeshua appears to have been in use in Judea at the time of the birth of Jesus; the 1st-century works of historian Flavius Josephus, who wrote in Koine Greek, the same language as that of the New Testament, refer to at least twenty different people with the name Jesus. The etymology of Jesus' name in the context of the New Testament is given as "Yahweh is salvation". Since early Christianity, Christians have referred to Jesus as "Jesus Christ"; the word Christ was a office, not a given name. It derives from the Greek Χριστός, a translation of the Hebrew mashiakh meaning "anointed", is transliterated into English as "Messiah". In biblical Judaism, sacred oil was used to anoint certain exceptionally holy people and objects as part of their religious investiture. Christians of the time designated Jesus as "the Christ" because they believed him to be the Messiah, whose arrival is prophesied in the Hebrew Bible and Old Testament.
In postbiblical usage, Christ became viewed as a name—one part of "Jesus Christ". The term "Christian" has been in use since the 1st century; the four canonical gospels are the foremost sources for the message of Jesus. However, other parts of the New Testament include references to key episodes in his life, such as the Last Supper in 1 Corinthians 11:23. Acts of the Apostles refers to the early ministry of its anticipation by John the Baptist. Acts 1:1 -- 11 says more about the Ascension of Jesus. In the undisputed Pauline letters, which were written earlier than the gospels, the words or instructions of Jesus are cited several times; some early Christian groups had separate descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus that are not included in the New Testament. These include the Gospel of Thomas, Gospel
The Didache known as The Teaching of the Twelve Apostles, is a brief anonymous early Christian treatise, dated by most modern scholars to the first century. The first line of this treatise is "The teaching of the Lord to the Gentiles by the twelve apostles"; the text, parts of which constitute the oldest extant written catechism, has three main sections dealing with Christian ethics, rituals such as baptism and Eucharist, Church organization. The opening chapters describe the wicked Way of Death; the Lord's Prayer is included in full. Baptism is by affusion if immersion is not practical. Fasting is ordered for Fridays. Two primitive Eucharistic prayers are given. Church organization was at an early stage of development. Itinerant apostles and prophets are important, serving as "chief priests" and celebrating the Eucharist. Meanwhile, local bishops and deacons have authority and seem to be taking the place of the itinerant ministry; the Didache is considered the first example of the genre of Church Orders.
The Didache reveals how Jewish Christians saw themselves and how they adapted their practice for Gentile Christians. The Didache is similar in several ways to the Gospel of Matthew because both texts originated in similar communities; the opening chapters, which appear in other early Christian texts, are derived from an earlier Jewish source. The Didache is considered part of the group of second-generation Christian writings known as the Apostolic Fathers; the work was considered by some Church Fathers to be a part of the New Testament, while being rejected by others as spurious or non-canonical, In the end, it was not accepted into the New Testament canon. However, the Ethiopian Orthodox Church "broader canon" includes the Didascalia, a work which draws on the Didache. Lost for centuries, a Greek manuscript of the Didache was rediscovered in 1873 by Philotheos Bryennios, Metropolitan of Nicomedia, in the Codex Hierosolymitanus. A Latin version of the first five chapters was discovered in 1900 by J. Schlecht.
Many English and American scholars once dated the text to the late 2nd century AD, a view still held today, but most scholars now assign the Didache to the first century. The document is a composite work, the discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls with its Manual of Discipline provided evidence of development over a considerable period of time, beginning as a Jewish catechetical work, developed into a church manual. Two uncial fragments containing Greek text of the Didache were found among the Oxyrhynchus Papyri and are now in the collection of the Sackler Library in Oxford. Apart from these fragments, the Greek text of the Didache has only survived in a single manuscript, the Codex Hierosolymitanus. Dating the document is thus made difficult both by the lack of hard evidence and its composite character; the Didache may have been compiled in its present form as late as 150, although a date closer to the end of the first century seems more probable to many. It is an anonymous work, a pastoral manual that Aaron Milavec states "reveals more about how Jewish-Christians saw themselves and how they adapted their Judaism for gentiles than any other book in the Christian Scriptures."
The Two Ways section is based on an earlier Jewish source. The community that produced the Didache could have been based in Syria, as it addressed the Gentiles but from a Judaic perspective, at some remove from Jerusalem, shows no evidence of Pauline influence. Alan Garrow claims that its earliest layer may have originated in the decree issued by the Apostolic council of AD 49-50, by the Jerusalem assembly under James the Just; the text was lost, but scholars knew of it through the writing of church fathers, some of whom had drawn on it. In 1873 in Istanbul, metropolitan Philotheos Bryennios found a Greek copy of the Didache, written in 1056, he published it in 1883. Hitchcock and Brown produced the first English translation in March 1884. Adolf von Harnack produced the first German translation in 1884, Paul Sabatier produced the first French translation and commentary in 1885; the Didache is mentioned by Eusebius as the Teachings of the Apostles along with the books recognized as non-canonical: "Let there be placed among the spurious works the Acts of Paul, the so-called Shepherd and the Apocalypse of Peter, besides these the Epistle of Barnabas, what are called the Teachings of the Apostles, the Apocalypse of John, if this be thought proper.
It is rejected by Nicephorus, Pseudo-Anastasius, Pseudo-Athanasius in Synopsis and the 60 Books canon. It is accepted by the Apostolic Constitutions Canon 85, John of Damascus and the Ethiopian Orthodox Church; the Adversus Aleatores by an imitator of Cyprian quotes it by name. Unacknowledged citations are common, if less certain; the section Two Ways shares the same language with the Epistle of Barnabas, chapters 18–20, sometimes word for word, sometimes added to, dislocated, or abridged, Barnabas iv, 9 either derives from Didache, 16, 2–3, or vice versa. There can be seen many similarities to the Epistles of both Polycarp and Ignatius of Antioch; the Shepherd of Hermas seems to reflect it, Irenaeus, Clement of Alexandria, Origen of Alexandria seem to use the work, so in the West do Optatus and the "Gesta apud Zenophilum." The Didascalia Apostolorum are founded upon the Didache. The Apostolic Churc
Sacrosanctum Concilium, the Constitution on the Sacred Liturgy, is one of the constitutions of the Second Vatican Council. It was approved by the assembled bishops by a vote of 2,147 to 4 and promulgated by Pope Paul VI on 4 December 1963; the main aim was to achieve greater lay participation in the Catholic Church's liturgy. The title is taken from the opening lines of the document and means "this Sacred Council"; the numbers given correspond to section numbers within the text. Introduction General Principles for the Restoration and Promotion of the Sacred Liturgy The Nature of the Sacred Liturgy and Its Importance in the Church's Life The Promotion of Liturgical Instruction and Active Participation The Reform of the Sacred Liturgy General Norms Norms Drawn from the Hierarchic and Communal Nature of the Liturgy Norms Based Upon the Didactic and Pastoral Nature of the Liturgy Norms for Adapting the Liturgy to the Culture and Traditions of Peoples Promotion of Liturgical Life in Diocese and Parish The Promotion of Pastoral-Liturgical Action The Most Sacred Mystery of the Eucharist The Other Sacraments and the Sacramentals The Divine Office The Liturgical Year Sacred Music Sacred Art and Sacred Furnishings Appendix: A Declaration of the Second Ecumenical Council of the Vatican on Revision of the Calendar As is customary with Catholic documents, the name of this constitution, "Sacred Council" in Latin, is taken from the first line of the document: 1.
This sacred Council has several aims in view: it desires to impart an increasing vigor to the Christian life of the faithful. The Council therefore sees cogent reasons for undertaking the reform and promotion of the liturgy. One of the first issues considered by the council, the matter that had the most immediate effect on the lives of individual Catholics, was the renewal of the liturgy; the central idea was. Mother Church earnestly desires that all the faithful should be led to that conscious and active participation in liturgical celebrations, demanded by the nature of the liturgy; such participation by the Christian people as a chosen race, a royal priesthood, a holy nation, a redeemed people, is their right and duty by reason of their baptism. Popes Pius X, Pius XI, Pius XII asked that the people be taught how to chant the responses at Mass and that they learn the prayers of the Mass in order to participate intelligently. Now the bishops decreed that: "To promote active participation, the people should be encouraged to take part by means of acclamations, psalmody and songs."
Composers should "produce compositions which... for the active participation of the entire assembly of the faithful."After centuries when, with the Mass in Latin, Catholic piety centred around popular devotions, the bishops decreed that "Popular devotions... should be so drawn up that they harmonize with the liturgical seasons, accord with the sacred liturgy, are in some fashion derived from it, lead the people to it, since, in fact, the liturgy by its nature far surpasses any of them."On 24 August 2017 Pope Francis emphasized that "the reform of the liturgy is irreversible" and called for continued efforts to implement the reforms, repeating what Pope Paul VI had said one year before he died: "The time has come, now, to leave aside the disruptive ferments pernicious in one sense or the other, to implement according to its right inspiring criteria, the reform approved by us in application of the decisions of the council." The council fathers established guidelines to govern the renewal of the liturgy, which included and encouraged greater use of the vernacular in addition to Latin for the biblical readings and other prayers.
Implementation of the council's directives on the liturgy was to be carried out under the authority of Pope Paul VI by a special papal commission incorporated in the Congregation for Divine Worship and the Discipline of the Sacraments, and, in the areas entrusted to them, by national conferences of bishops, which, if they had a shared language, were expected to collaborate in producing a common translation. Magnum principium Mass of Paul VI Musicam sacram