In a religious context, sin is an act of transgression against divine law. Each culture has its own interpretation of; the word derives from "Old English syn, for original *sunjō. The stem may be related to that of Latin ` sont-is' guilty. In Old English there are examples of the original general sense, ‘offence, wrong-doing, misdeed'". There are a few differing Buddhist views on sin. American Zen author Brad Warner states; the Buddha Dharma Education Association expressly states "The idea of sin or original sin has no place in Buddhism."Ethnologist Christoph von Fürer-Haimendorf explained, "In Buddhist thinking the whole universe, men as well as gods, are subject to a reign of law. Every action, good or bad, has an inevitable and automatic effect in a long chain of causes, an effect, independent of the will of any deity. Though this may leave no room for the concept of'sin' in the sense of an act of defiance against the authority of a personal god, Buddhists speak of'sin' when referring to transgressions against the universal moral code."However, Anantarika-kamma in Theravada Buddhism is a heinous crime, which through karmic process brings immediate disaster.
In Mahayana Buddhism these five crimes are referred to as pañcānantarya, are mentioned in The Sutra Preached by the Buddha on the Total Extinction of the Dharma, The five crimes or sins are: Injuring a Buddha Killing an Arhat Creating schism in the society of Sangha Matricide Patricide The doctrine of sin is central to Christianity, since its basic message is about redemption in Christ. Christian hamartiology describes sin as an act of offense against God by despising his persons and Christian biblical law, by injuring others. In Christian views it is an evil human act, which violates the rational nature of man as well as God's nature and his eternal law. According to the classical definition of St. Augustine of Hippo sin is "a word, deed, or desire in opposition to the eternal law of God."Among some scholars, sin is understood as legal infraction or contract violation of non-binding philosophical frameworks and perspectives of Christian ethics, so salvation tends to be viewed in legal terms.
Other Christian scholars understand sin to be fundamentally relational—a loss of love for the Christian God and an elevation of self-love, as was propounded by Augustine in his debate with the Pelagians. As with the legal definition of sin, this definition affects the understanding of Christian grace and salvation, which are thus viewed in relational terms. Original sin called ancestral sin, is a Christian belief in the state of sin in which humanity has existed since the fall of man, stemming from Adam and Eve's rebellion in Eden, namely the sin of disobedience in consuming the forbidden fruit from the tree of the knowledge of good and evil; this condition has been characterized in many ways, ranging from something as insignificant as a slight deficiency, or a tendency toward sin yet without collective guilt, referred to as a "sin nature", to something as drastic as total depravity or automatic guilt of all humans through collective guilt. The concept of original sin was first alluded to in the 2nd century by Irenaeus, Bishop of Lyon in his controversy with certain dualist Gnostics.
Other church fathers such as Augustine shaped and developed the doctrine, seeing it as based on the New Testament teaching of Paul the Apostle and the Old Testament verse of Psalms 51:5. Tertullian, Cyprian and Ambrosiaster considered that humanity shares in Adam's sin, transmitted by human generation. Augustine's formulation of original sin after 412 CE was popular among Protestant reformers, such as Martin Luther and John Calvin, who equated original sin with concupiscence, affirming that it persisted after baptism and destroyed freedom to do good. Before 412 CE, Augustine said that free will was not destroyed by original sin, but after 412 CE this changed to a loss of free will except to sin. Modern Augustinian Calvinism holds this view; the Jansenist movement, which the Catholic Church declared to be heretical maintained that original sin destroyed freedom of will. Instead the Catholic Church declares. In Hinduism, sin describes actions that create negative karma by violating moral and ethical codes, which automatically brings negative consequences.
This is somewhat similar to Abrahamic sin in the sense that pāpa is considered an act against the laws of God, known as dharma, or moral order, one's own self, but another term aparadha is used for grave offenses. However, the term papa cannot be taken in the literal sense as sin because there is no consensus regarding the nature of ultimate reality or God in Hinduism. Only, the Vedanta school being unambiguously theistic, whereas no anthropomorphic God exists in the rest of the five schools, Nyaya, Vaisheshika, Mīmāṃsā; the term papa however in the strictest sense refers to actions which bring about wrong/unfavorable consequences, not relating to a specific divine will in the absolute sense. Sin is an important concept in Islamic ethics. Muslims see sin as anything that goes against the commands of God, a breach of the laws and norms laid down by religion. Islam teaches, it is believed that God weighs an individual's good deeds against his or her sins on the Day of Judgement and punishes those individuals whose evil deeds outweigh their good deeds.
The Prince Regent River is a river in the Kimberley of Western Australia. The headwaters of the river rise in the Caroline Range near Mount Agnes flow in a north westerly direction; the river enters and flows through the Prince Regent National Park and past King Cascade and discharging into Saint George Basin and Hanover Bay to the Indian Ocean. The river runs a uniquely straight course following a fault line for the majority of its length; the river has six tributaries including. The river was named in 1820 by the first European to find the river, Philip Parker King and the crew of the Mermaid; the river is named after the Hanoverian prince, King George IV, shortly to succeed his father to the throne. The first European to settle in the area was Joseph Bradshaw who established Marigui homestead along the river with his cousin Aeneas Gunn in 1890. In 1891 he discovered the Bradshaw rock paintings on his land; the pastoral venture was unsuccessful but Gunn documented his memoirs of the time in the book Pioneering in Northern Australia.
The River was visited in 1901 by the surveyor Frederick Brockman while on expedition in the area. The traditional owners of the area are the Worora peoples. Eighteen freshwater fish species are known to inhabit the waters of the Prince Regent River. On March 29, 1987, an American 24-year-old model named Ginger Meadows was killed by a crocodile while standing under the waterfall of the near Broome. In 2015, a woman was attacked by a crocodile
Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary is situated in Panchkula district of Haryana state, India. It is spread over an area of 767.30 hectares. It houses Vulture Conservation and Breeding Centre, Pinjore, it is 8 kilometres away from Pinjore on Pinjor-Mallah Road. It is 10 kilometres from Kalka, 20 kilometres from Panchkula, 30 kilometres from Chandigarh, 20 kilometres from Morni Hill station. Forests Department, Haryana of Government of Haryana notified this as Wildlife Sanctuary 29 May 1987. In 2009, the Government of India declared it an Eco-sensitive Zone, as a result development will not be permitted within a 5 kilometres radius, it is spread over an area of 767.30 hectares. Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary and Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary are only 3 kilometres aerial distance from each other, both are only few km away from Kalesar National Park, all of which lie in the Shivalik hills of Haryana. All these three sanctuaries have similar species of wild animal that migrate from one sanctuary to another.
The wild species include Indian leopard, Asiatic elephant, Sambar deer, Wild boar, Rhesus macaque, Gray langur, Striped hyena, Indian jackal, Jungle cat, Indian gray mongoose, Indian fox and Indian jackal. Kalesar National Park - 15 kilometres from Yamunanagar on Chhachhrauli road, it has elephant, wild boar, sambar deer, red junglefowl, porcupine and chital. Khol Hi-Raitan Wildlife Sanctuary - It covers area of 4,883 hectares, it is 3 kilometres aerial from Bir Shikargah Wildlife Sanctuary near Panchkula on Morni road and 20 kilometres from Chandigarh. List of National Parks & Wildlife Sanctuaries of Haryana, India Haryana Tourism List of Monuments of National Importance in Haryana List of State Protected Monuments in Haryana List of Indus Valley Civilization sites in Haryana, Rajasthan, India & Pakistan Kalesar National Park, 15 kilometres from Yamunanagar Sultanpur National Park, 25 kilometres from Gurgaon on Chhachhrauli road Saraswati Wildlife Sanctuary, 10 kilometres from Pehowa