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Sinn Féin

Sinn Féin is a centre-left to left-wing Irish republican political party active in both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The original Sinn Féin organisation was founded in 1905 by Arthur Griffith, but has split on a number of occasions since then—notably giving rise to the two traditionally dominant parties of southern Irish politics—Fianna Fáil and Fine Gael—in the aftermath of the Irish Civil War; the party took its current form in 1970 after another split. It has been associated with the Provisional Irish Republican Army. Mary Lou McDonald became party president in February 2018. Sinn Féin is one of the two largest parties in the Northern Ireland Assembly, winning just one seat less than the Democratic Unionist Party at the 2017 Northern Ireland Assembly election. In that assembly it is the largest Irish nationalist party, it holds four ministerial posts in the power-sharing Northern Ireland Executive as of 2020. In the UK House of Commons, Sinn Féin holds seven of Northern Ireland's 18 seats, making it the second-largest bloc after the DUP.

In the Oireachtas, Sinn Féin won the largest share of first-preference votes at the 2020 Irish general election. The phrase "Sinn Féin" is Irish for "Ourselves" or "We Ourselves", although it is mistranslated as "ourselves alone"; the name is an assertion of self-determination. A split in January 1970, mirroring a split in the IRA, led to the emergence of two groups calling themselves Sinn Féin. One, under the continued leadership of Tomás Mac Giolla, became known as "Sinn Féin", or "Official Sinn Féin"; as the "Officials" dropped all mention of Sinn Féin from their name in 1982–instead calling themselves the Workers' Party of Ireland–the term "Provisional Sinn Féin" has fallen out of use, the party is now known as "Sinn Féin". Sinn Féin members have been referred to colloquially as "Shinners", a term intended as a pejorative. Sinn Féin was founded on 28 November 1905, when, at the first annual Convention of the National Council, Arthur Griffith outlined the Sinn Féin policy, "to establish in Ireland's capital a national legislature endowed with the moral authority of the Irish nation".

The party contested the 1908 North Leitrim by-election. Thereafter, both support and membership fell. At the 1910 Ard Fheis the attendance was poor, there was difficulty finding members willing to take seats on the executive. In 1914, Sinn Féin members, including Griffith, joined the anti-Redmond Irish Volunteers, referred to by Redmondites and others as the "Sinn Féin Volunteers". Although Griffith himself did not take part in the Easter Rising of 1916, many Sinn Féin members did, as they were members of both the Volunteers and the Irish Republican Brotherhood. Government and newspapers dubbed the Rising "the Sinn Féin Rising". After the Rising, republicans came together under the banner of Sinn Féin, at the 1917 Ard Fheis the party committed itself for the first time to the establishment of an Irish Republic. In the 1918 general election, Sinn Féin won 73 of Ireland's 105 seats, in January 1919, its MPs assembled in Dublin and proclaimed themselves Dáil Éireann, the parliament of Ireland; the party supported the Irish Republican Army during the War of Independence, members of the Dáil government negotiated the Anglo-Irish Treaty with the British government in 1921.

In the Dáil debates that followed, the party divided on the Treaty. Anti-Treaty members led by Éamon de Valera walked out, pro- and anti-Treaty members took opposite sides in the ensuing Civil War. Pro-Treaty Dáil deputies and other Treaty supporters formed a new party, Cumann na nGaedheal, on 27 April 1923 at a meeting in Dublin, where delegates agreed on a constitution and political programme. Cumann na nGaedheal went on to govern the new Irish Free State for nine years. Anti-Treaty Sinn Féin members continued to boycott the Dáil. At a special Ard Fheis in March 1926, de Valera proposed that elected members be allowed to take their seats in the Dáil if and when the controversial Oath of Allegiance was removed; when his motion was defeated, de Valera resigned from Sinn Féin. He took most Sinn Féin TDs with him. De Valera's resignation meant the loss of financial support from America; the rump Sinn Féin party could field no more than fifteen candidates, won only six seats in the June 1927 general election, a level of support not seen since before 1916.

Vice-President and de facto leader Mary MacSwiney announced that the party did not have the funds to contest the second election called that year, declaring "no true Irish citizen can vote for any of the other parties". Fianna Fáil came to power at the 1932 general election and went on to long dominate politics in the independent Irish state. An attempt in the 1940s to access funds, put in the care of the High Cou

Horizon Ahead

Horizon Ahead is an album by saxophonist/composer Benny Golson, recorded in 2015 and released on the HighNote label the following year. All About Jazz's Jack Bowers stated "At age eighty-seven, saxophonist Benny Golson is one of the last surviving links to the Golden Age of modern jazz... If time has dulled Golson's razor-sharp mind or degraded his admirable technique, it's not apparent on Horizon Ahead, on which Golson is in total command of a much-more-youthful rhythm section... Benny Golson not only keeps working but showing a younger generation that when it comes to contemporary jazz and experience are dependable allies in the ongoing battle with Father Time, it is, of course, a battle that can never be won, but Golson proves on Horizon Ahead that when his time comes, he'll go down swinging". JazzTimes' Evan Haga observed "Neither blowing session nor conceptual work, Horizon Ahead is terrific". All compositions by Benny Golson except where noted "Don't Get Around Much Anymore" – 6:16 "Jump Start" – 3:10 "Horizon Ahead" – 6:03 "Mood Indigo" – 4:16 "Domingo" – 8:41 "Lulu's Back In Town" – 4:40 "Night Shade" – 5:28 "Three Little Words" – 5:57 Spoken introduction – 2:39 "Out of the Darkness, Into the Light" – 7:43 Benny Golson – tenor saxophone Mike LeDonnepiano Buster Williams - bass Carl Allendrums Joe Fields – executive producer Dennis Wall – engineer

Volodymyr Oskilko

Volodymyr Panteleimonovych Oskilko was a Ukrainian military activist and administrator. He became famous for the historical Oskilko's Affair. Volodymyr Oskilko was born January 12, 1892 in a village of Horodok, Rovno uyezd, in the Volyn Governorate. At first he finished a gymnasium - a teacher's seminary receiving a specialization of a teacher. Oskilko started to work as a village teacher in Zolote near Dubrovytsia. With a start of the World War I, Oskilko was drafted to the Russian Imperial Army. During his service he had a successful career. After the February Revolution in 1917 Oskilko was appointed a governorate commissar of the Russian Provisional Government in Tula. By the end of 1917 he returned to his native Volyn in Ukraine, where he participated in the formation of the Ukrainian People's Army. In the beginning of 1918 Oskilko was appointed a commissar of the Central Rada in Rivne, he was a member of the Ukrainian Party of Socialists Sovereigns, critical of the Central Rada's policies. During the time of Ukrainian State of Pavlo Skoropadsky, Oskilko was appointed a chief of security of the Korosten Railways, an important railway connection in Polissya.

In November 1918 Oskilko led an uprising against the hetman in Volyn. In December he was promoted to colonel of the Ukrainian People's Army. In January 1919 he became a General Khorunzhy and a commander of the North group of the Ukrainian People's Army. On January 5, 1919 his unit, passing through Berdichev, perpetrated a pogrom, killing 23 Jews. Oskilko participated in extinguishing the Bolshevik-led Polissya Uprising, directed against the Directorate of Ukraine and preventing the advancement of the Polish army into Volyn. During that time Rivne became a temporary capital of Ukraine. Due to the strained situation in the region Oskilko suspected that the Ukrainian government and army became infiltrated by the Russian Cheka that sabotaged the frontlines of the Ukrainian army, he did not trust Petlyura not because of his suspicions, but rather of his believe that Petlyura was weak in character and an unreliable person who became influenced by generals-deserters. On April 12, 1919 a new government was formed headed by Borys Martos replacing the Ostapenko's cabinet.

Martos proclaimed the creation of a republic of worker's Councils and intention to conclude a peace treaty with the Bolshevik Russia. Such turn of events made a big impact on the political life of Ukraine. On April 20, 1919 numerous socialists parties of Ukraine entrusted Volodymyr Oskilko to deliver a memorandum to Petlyura for an immediate resignation of the Martos' government. Oskilko handed over the document to Petlyura in Zdolbuniv. At the end of April 1919 Petlyura twice ordered Oskilko to lead his army to the frontlines against the Bolsheviks. Both orders were never executed. Petlyura fired the Oskilko's chief of staff, Vsevolod Agapiev, Oskilko refused to follow that order as well. On April 28 the Chief Otaman sent him the last order to surrender the command to general Zhelikhovski. On April 29, 1919 Oskilko led a coup-d'etat in Rivne supported by members of the Ukrainian Party of Socialists-Independentists and the Ukrainian People-Republican Party; the participants of the putsch were requesting the appointment of Yevhen Petrushevych as the provisional president of Ukraine until the convocation of Constituent Assembly, transfer of all command to general Omelianovych-Pavlenko and dismiss Symon Petlyura with Andriy Makarenko from organization of military affairs, organization of a coalition government from the members of both Ukrainian republics.

Oskilko sent his representative to Poland with an intent to conduct peace talks. Oskilko reentered politics in late 1922 as an agent of the Polish government in Volhynia, during which time he tried to break up a Jewish-Ukrainian coalition in the Polish parliamentary elections of that year, his campaign was criticized for its usage of antisemitic tropes. Oskilko was assassinated in Rivne in 1926. Mandate on a revolution Rivne Oblast website Website of Doctor Historical Sciences of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, Pavlo Hai-Nyzhnyk Fight of Otamans. Volodymyr Oskilko against Symon Petlyura

ALF Products

ALF Products Inc. or ALF, was a Colorado company known for its computer-controlled music synthesizers and floppy disk supplies and duplicators. In 1971 Tim Gill, a Wheat Ridge High School student with an interest in computers, visited the computer terminal room at Lakewood High School looking for "other intelligent life-forms". There he met a Lakewood High School student, who shared his interest in computers; this meeting inspired Philip to start the Jefferson County Computer Club. As a freshman, Philip had served as Student President, he had good relationships with the school's and district's staff, he was able to create the only student-founded multi-school club in the district. Using log-on messages on the county's Hewlett-Packard 2000-series time-shared computer system, club meetings were announced county-wide and held at various high schools. At the Jefferson County Computer Club, Philip Tubb met many other students who shared an interest in computers, he shared a strong interest in electronics with John Ridges, a Wheat Ridge High School student.

John designed and built one of the first computer-controlled music synthesizers, a polyphonic unit with 6 voices. It could be controlled by a remotely located computer when connected between a teletype and its modem; the ASCII serial data flowing on that connection was used to issue commands to the synthesizer. John wrote programs in BASIC which allowed music to be entered in text format, saved on the computer's hard drive, played back using the device; the synthesizer got the nickname "Mesmerelda" due to the hypnotic effects of its status LEDs during playback. While a student at Lakewood High School, Philip Tubb was hired part-time to operate the district's computer. In that job, Philip taught seminars on programming to many of the county's high school math teachers who, with little if any prior instruction, were struggling to teach the programming classes. With those contacts and John began demonstrating Mesmerelda to music classes at several high schools, introducing the students to this new concept of computer-controlled music.

Many of the students were interested in music but not skilled enough to perform using a conventional instrument. These students were excited by the idea of using a computer to play music, eliminating the need to master an instrument first; the potential market for computer-controlled synthesizers was larger than the two had assumed. After high school, Philip Tubb joined fellow former computer club members Tim Gill and Rich Harman at the University of Colorado. Philip soon discovered the computer science classes were based entirely on mainframe computers, which he considered obsolete by that time, he dropped out after one semester to study programming independently. Late in 1975, Philip began discussing the idea of starting a company to make computer-related electronic products with John Ridges. Colorado law at that time required an incorporator to be 21, required at least three directors. Neither Philip nor John were 21 years old; the three served as the Board of Directors at ALF through 1992. The name "ALF" was chosen from a list of assembly language instructions for the Hewlett-Packard computer.

It stands for "rotate the A register Left Four bits". This particular instruction was chosen because the letters have no curves and would therefore be easy to draw with a plotter or other line-vector graphics device. ALF developed miscellaneous products before doing more serious work on computer-controlled music synthesizers. Several former Jefferson County Computer Club members became ALF employees, including Tim Gill. ALF created several products for the Apple II computer. Tim Gill wanted ALF to work on products for the new Apple III, but Philip Tubb had concerns about the viability of that computer. Tim soon left ALF to start Quark, Inc. and wrote Word Juggler for the Apple III. Despite this parting, ALF and Quark maintained a relationship over the years. One item ALF manufactured for Quark was a keyboard enhancement circuit that allowed Word Juggler to be used with the Apple II. ALF was known for its whimsical advertisements and subtle humor in owner's manuals and product brochures. ALF's "Rock Star" ad noted that "Some companies will say anything to sell you a music card" and proceeded to ridicule selected quotes from competitors' ads.

One of the quotes was from one of ALF's own earlier ads. The "guitarple" in the ad is not a real instrument. ALF's "Craftsman" advertisement was featured in Creative Computing's 1980 April Fools issue; the magazine, when turned upside down, appeared to be "Dr. KiloBYTE's creative Popular Personal Recreational Micro Computer Data Interface World Journal", a take-off on the names of several computer magazines at the time; this issue included 73 pages of humorous articles, with all the pages numbered in hexadecimal. As computer-controlled music became more and more popular, much larger companies began entering the market. ALF decided to switch their focus to equipment for duplicating floppy disks, which had little competition, became a dominant supplier in that field; as compact discs began to replace floppy disks, ALF realized a larger partner was needed for that market. A buyout by Rimage Corporation, who had completed their IPO, was negotiated. Most former ALF employees left soon after the acquisition.

Edith Marian Begbie

Edith Marian Begbie was a militant suffragette and member of the Women's Social and Political Union who went on hunger strike in Winson Green Prison in Birmingham in 1912 and, awarded the WSPU's Hunger Strike Medal. She was born in 1866 as Edith Marian Macfarlane in Leith in Midlothian in Scotland, the oldest daughter of at least twelve children born to Marian Elizabeth née Newton and John Macfarlane; the couple's second daughter, Florence Geraldine Macfarlane who sometimes using the pseudonym Muriel Muir was to take an active role in the suffrage movement. In 1856 John Macfarlane joined the family business making wire cloth products and which moved into paper milling; the 1881 census shows that. As his businesses became more profitable John Macfarlane founded a liberal newspaper and his liberal principles may have influenced his daughters in their actions. By 1901 Florence was running a hospital for women in Edinburgh with two of her younger sisters. In 1888 Edith Marian Macfarlane married John Aitchison Begbie, an East India merchant, following which the couple moved to Stanmore in Middlesex where they had four children: George Begbie.

The now widowed Begbie was first arrested on Black Friday in 1910 but the charges against her were subsequently dropped. In 1911 she participated in the "No Vote no Census" protest and although she gave her name for the 1911 Census she refused to disclose any further information. Arrested again on 7 March 1912 she was charged with smashing windows at various premises along The Strand in London with something she had hidden in her muff, she remanded in custody for committal. At her trial a witness described how Begbie walked down The Strand smashing one window after another causing about £40 in damage. During her first appearance in court Begbie declared "I stand here as the mother of four children... that my children should have equal rights and protection and sons, as I cannot appeal to men’s reason I must use their own language, violence." During her imprisonment in Winson Green Prison in Birmingham Begbie went on hunger strike along with Gertrude Wilkinson and her sister Florence Macfarlane, known as "Dundee’s hunger-striker" and who arrived in prison a few days after the former two.

On their release from prison both sisters were unwell and appeared frail. In the group photograph shown Begbie is on the left with Wilkinson in the centre and Macfarlane on the right; the child kneeling in front of the hammock is three year old Paul Lamartine Yates, the son of Rose Emma Lamartine Yates, the Organising Secretary and Treasurer of the Wimbledon branch of the WSPU and at whose home, Dorset Hall in Merton Park the photograph was taken in about 1912. Begbie was the second-in-command of the WSPU branch at Wimbledon. Edith Marian Begbie lived at 107 The Ridgeway in Wimbledon. On her death in 1932 she left £3,045 9s 7d

We Invented the Remix

We Invented the Remix is a remix album by P. Diddy and The Bad Boy Family, released on May 14, 2002, it features remixes of hit singles by artists from P. Diddy's Bad Boy Records record label; the album reached number one of the U. S. Billboard 200 albums chart for a week and was certified Platinum for shipments of over one million copies; the album 256,000 copies in its first week. The album reached number 17 on the UK Albums Chart; the album featured the hit singles "I Need a Girl", which reached number two in the U. S. and "I Need a Girl", which reached number four, a rare occurrence of both parts of the same song both becoming big hits. This was the last album. Jason Birchmeier of AllMusic praised the album for crafting a collection of top-notch producers and guest artists to create sure-fire hits that are better than those from The Saga Continues... concluding that "As a result, We Invented the Remix confirms Combs' return to the top of the urban music world after a few years of struggle."

Wise Q of HipHopDX praised the tracks for the producers and guest artists that come up with their own interpretation but questioned if Diddy can keep his remix formula going without losing any creative steam. Steve'Flash' Juon of RapReviews said that despite great remixes of "Special Delivery" and "I Need a Girl", he criticized P. Diddy's involvement on the album for making terrible choices to songs that were both unoriginal and pointless, concluding that "If anything it proves that some songs DON'T need a remix, those that do should be given better treatment than the selection was here. If you can't find the album on sale or at a comparable price it's just not a good investment; the only thing P. Diddy "Invented" here was a mediocre album." We Invented the Remix lyrics