First Great Awakening
The First Great Awakening or the Evangelical Revival was a series of Christian revivals that swept Britain and its Thirteen Colonies between the 1730s and 1740s. The revival movement permanently affected Protestantism as adherents strove to renew individual piety and religious devotion; the Great Awakening marked the emergence of Anglo-American evangelicalism as a transdenominational movement within the Protestant churches. In the United States, the term Great Awakening is most used, while in the United Kingdom, it is referred to as the Evangelical Revival. Building on the foundations of older traditions—Puritanism and Presbyterianism—major leaders of the revival such as George Whitefield, John Wesley and Jonathan Edwards articulated a theology of revival and salvation that transcended denominational boundaries and helped create a common evangelical identity. Revivalists added to the doctrinal imperatives of Reformation Protestantism an emphasis on providential outpourings of the Holy Spirit.
Extemporaneous preaching gave listeners a sense of deep personal conviction of their need of salvation by Jesus Christ and fostered introspection and commitment to a new standard of personal morality. Revival theology stressed that religious conversion was not only intellectual assent to correct Christian doctrine but had to be a "new birth" experienced in the heart. Revivalists taught that receiving assurance of salvation was a normal expectation in the Christian life. While the Evangelical Revival united evangelicals across various denominations around shared beliefs, it led to division in existing churches between those who supported the revivals and those who did not. Opponents accused the revivals of fostering disorder and fanaticism within the churches by enabling uneducated, itinerant preachers and encouraging religious enthusiasm. In England, evangelical Anglicans would grow into an important constituency within the Church of England, Methodism would develop out of the ministries of Whitefield and Wesley.
In the American colonies, the Awakening caused the Congregational and Presbyterian churches to split, while it strengthened both the Methodist and Baptist denominations. It had little impact on most Lutherans and non-Protestants. Evangelical preachers "sought to include every person in conversion, regardless of gender and status." Throughout the colonies in the South, the revival movement increased the number of African slaves and free blacks who were exposed to and subsequently converted to Christianity. It inspired the creation of new missionary societies, such as the Baptist Missionary Society in 1792. Historian Sydney E. Ahlstrom sees the Great Awakening as part of a "great international Protestant upheaval" that created pietism in the Lutheran and Reformed churches of continental Europe. Pietism emphasized heartfelt religious faith in reaction to an overly intellectual Protestant scholasticism perceived as spiritually dry; the pietists placed less emphasis on traditional doctrinal divisions between Protestant churches, focusing rather on religious experience and affections.
Pietism prepared Europe for revival, it occurred in areas where pietism was strong. The most important leader of the Awakening in central Europe was Nicolaus Zinzendorf, a Saxon noble who studied under pietist leader August Hermann Francke at Halle University. In 1722, Zinzendorf invited members of the Moravian Church to live and worship on his estates, establishing a community at Herrnhut; the Moravians came to Herrnhut as refugees, but under Zinzendorf's guidance, the group enjoyed a religious revival. Soon, the community became a refuge for other Protestants as well, including German Lutherans, Reformed Christians and Anabaptists; the church began to grow, Moravian societies would be established in England where they would help foster the Evangelical Revival as well. While known as the Great Awakening in the United States, the movement is referred to as the Evangelical Revival in Britain; the revivalist tradition had existed in Scottish Presbyterianism since the 1620s. The Evangelical Revival, first broke out in Wales.
In 1735, Howell Harris and Daniel Rowland experienced a religious conversion and began preaching to large crowds throughout South Wales. Their preaching initiated the Welsh Methodist revival. In England, the major leaders of the Evangelical Revival were brothers John and Charles Wesley and their friend George Whitefield, who would become the founders of Methodism, they had been members of a religious society at Oxford University called the Holy Club and "Methodists" due to their methodical piety. This society was modeled on the collegia pietatis used by pietists for Bible study and accountability. All three men experienced a spiritual crisis in which they sought true conversion and assurance of faith. Whitefield joined the Holy Club in 1733 and, under the influence of Charles Wesley, read German pietist August Hermann Francke's Against the Fear of Man and Scottish theologian Henry Scougal's The Life of God in the Soul of Man. Whitefield wrote that he "never knew what true religion was" until he read Scougal, who said that it consisted of becoming a "new creature".
From that point on, Whitefield sought the new birth. After a period of spiritual struggle, Whitefield experienced conversion during Lent in 1735. Afterwards, he was ordained a priest in the Church of England, but he always maintained a willingness to work with evangelicals from other denominations. In 1737, Whitefield began preaching in Bristol and London, he became well known for his dramatic sermons, which were reported on by the press. In February 1739, Whitefield began open-air field preaching in the mining community of Kingswood, near Bristol, he learned this method from Howell
Jonathan Edwards (theologian)
Jonathan Edwards was an American revivalist preacher and Congregationalist Protestant theologian. Edwards is regarded as one of America's most important and original philosophical theologians. Edwards' theological work is broad in scope, but he was rooted in Reformed theology, the metaphysics of theological determinism, the Puritan heritage. Recent studies have emphasized how Edwards grounded his life's work on conceptions of beauty and ethical fittingness, how central The Enlightenment was to his mindset. Edwards played a critical role in shaping the First Great Awakening, oversaw some of the first revivals in 1733–35 at his church in Northampton, Massachusetts, his theological work gave rise to a distinct school of theology known as the New England theology. Edwards delivered the sermon "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God", a classic of early American literature, during another revival in 1741, following George Whitefield's tour of the Thirteen Colonies. Edwards is well known for his many books, The End For Which God Created the World, The Life of David Brainerd, which inspired thousands of missionaries throughout the 19th century, Religious Affections, which many Reformed Evangelicals still read today.
Edwards died from a smallpox inoculation shortly after beginning the presidency at the College of New Jersey. He was the grandfather of Aaron Burr, third Vice President of the United States. Jonathan Edwards was born on October 5, 1703, was the son of Timothy Edwards, a minister at East Windsor, who eked out his salary by tutoring boys for college, his mother, Esther Stoddard, daughter of the Rev. Solomon Stoddard, of Northampton, seems to have been a woman of unusual mental gifts and independence of character. Jonathan, their only son, was the fifth of 11 children, he was trained for college by his father and elder sisters, all of whom received an excellent education and one of whom, the eldest, wrote a semi-humorous tract on the immateriality of the soul mistakenly attributed to Jonathan. He entered Yale College in 1716, at just under the age of 13. In the following year, he became acquainted with John Locke's Essay Concerning Human Understanding, which influenced him profoundly. During his college studies, he kept notebooks labeled "The Mind," "Natural Science", "The Scriptures" and "Miscellanies," had a grand plan for a work on natural and mental philosophy, drew up for himself rules for its composition.
He was interested in natural history, as a precocious 11-year-old and wrote an essay detailing the ballooning behavior of some spiders. Edwards would edit this text to match the burgeoning genre of scientific literature, his "The Flying Spider" fit into the then-current scholarship on spiders. Though he would go on to study theology for two years after his graduation, Edwards continued to be interested in science. However, while many European scientists and American clergymen found the implications of science pushing them towards deism, Edwards went the other way, saw the natural world as evidence of God's masterful design, throughout his life, Edwards went into the woods as a favorite place to pray and worship in the beauty and solace of nature. Edwards was fascinated by other scientists of his age. Before he undertook full-time ministry work in Northampton, he wrote on various topics in natural philosophy, including flying spiders and optics. While he was worried about the materialism and faith in reason alone of some of his contemporaries, he saw the laws of nature as derived from God and demonstrating his wisdom and care.
Edwards wrote sermons and theological treatises that emphasized the beauty of God and the role of aesthetics in the spiritual life, in which he anticipates a 20th-century current of theological aesthetics, represented by figures like Hans Urs von Balthasar. In 1722 to 1723, he was for eight months "stated supply" of a small Presbyterian Church in New York City; the church invited him to remain. After spending two months in study at home, in 1724–26, he was one of the two tutors at Yale, earning for himself the name of a "pillar tutor", from his steadfast loyalty to the college and its orthodox teaching, at the time when Yale's rector, Timothy Cutler, his tutor Daniel Brown, his former tutor Samuel Johnson, four local ministers, had declared for the Anglican Church; the years 1720 to 1726 are recorded in his diary and in the resolutions for his own conduct which he drew up at this time. He had long been an eager seeker after salvation and was not satisfied as to his own conversion until an experience in his last year in college, when he lost his feeling that the election of some to salvation and of others to eternal damnation was "a horrible doctrine," and reckoned it "exceedingly pleasant and sweet."
He now took a great and new joy in taking in the beauties of nature and delighted in the allegorical interpretation of the Song of Solomon. Balancing these mystic joys is the stern tone of his Resolutions, in which he is ascetic in his eagerness to live earnestly and soberly, to waste no time, to maintain the strictest temperance in eating and drinking. On February 15, 1727, Edwards was ordained minister at Northampton and assistant to his grandfather Solomon Stoddard, he was a scholar-pastor, not a visiting pastor. In the same year, he married Sarah Pierpont. 17, Sarah was from a storied New England clerical family: her father was James Pierp
The Bible is a collection of sacred texts or scriptures. Varying parts of the Bible are considered to be a product of divine inspiration and a record of the relationship between God and humans by Christians, Jews and Rastafarians. What is regarded as canonical text differs depending on traditions and groups; the Hebrew Bible overlaps with the Christian Old Testament. The Christian New Testament is a collection of writings by early Christians, believed to be Jewish disciples of Christ, written in first-century Koine Greek. Among Christian denominations there is some disagreement about what should be included in the canon about the Apocrypha, a list of works that are regarded with varying levels of respect. Attitudes towards the Bible differ among Christian groups. Roman Catholics, high church Anglicans and Eastern Orthodox Christians stress the harmony and importance of the Bible and sacred tradition, while Protestant churches, including Evangelical Anglicans, focus on the idea of sola scriptura, or scripture alone.
This concept arose during the Protestant Reformation, many denominations today support the use of the Bible as the only infallible source of Christian teaching. The Bible has been a massive influence on literature and history in the Western World, where the Gutenberg Bible was the first book printed using movable type. According to the March 2007 edition of Time, the Bible "has done more to shape literature, history and culture than any book written, its influence on world history is unparalleled, shows no signs of abating." With estimated total sales of over 5 billion copies, it is considered to be the most influential and best-selling book of all time. As of the 2000s, it sells 100 million copies annually; the English word Bible is from the Latin biblia, from the same word in Medieval Latin and Late Latin and from Koinē Greek: τὰ βιβλία, translit. Ta biblia "the books". Medieval Latin biblia is short for biblia sacra "holy book", while biblia in Greek and Late Latin is neuter plural, it came to be regarded as a feminine singular noun in medieval Latin, so the word was loaned as a singular into the vernaculars of Western Europe.
Latin biblia sacra "holy books" translates Greek τὰ βιβλία τὰ ἅγια tà biblía tà ágia, "the holy books". The word βιβλίον itself had the literal meaning of "paper" or "scroll" and came to be used as the ordinary word for "book", it is the diminutive of βύβλος byblos, "Egyptian papyrus" so called from the name of the Phoenician sea port Byblos from whence Egyptian papyrus was exported to Greece. The Greek ta biblia was "an expression. Christian use of the term can be traced to c. 223 CE. The biblical scholar F. F. Bruce notes that Chrysostom appears to be the first writer to use the Greek phrase ta biblia to describe both the Old and New Testaments together. By the 2nd century BCE, Jewish groups began calling the books of the Bible the "scriptures" and they referred to them as "holy", or in Hebrew כִּתְבֵי הַקֹּדֶשׁ, Christians now call the Old and New Testaments of the Christian Bible "The Holy Bible" or "the Holy Scriptures"; the Bible was divided into chapters in the 13th century by Stephen Langton and it was divided into verses in the 16th century by French printer Robert Estienne and is now cited by book and verse.
The division of the Hebrew Bible into verses is based on the sof passuk cantillation mark used by the 10th-century Masoretes to record the verse divisions used in earlier oral traditions. The oldest extant copy of a complete Bible is an early 4th-century parchment book preserved in the Vatican Library, it is known as the Codex Vaticanus; the oldest copy of the Tanakh in Hebrew and Aramaic dates from the 10th century CE. The oldest copy of a complete Latin Bible is the Codex Amiatinus. Professor John K. Riches, Professor of Divinity and Biblical Criticism at the University of Glasgow, says that "the biblical texts themselves are the result of a creative dialogue between ancient traditions and different communities through the ages", "the biblical texts were produced over a period in which the living conditions of the writers – political, cultural and ecological – varied enormously". Timothy H. Lim, a professor of Hebrew Bible and Second Temple Judaism at the University of Edinburgh, says that the Old Testament is "a collection of authoritative texts of divine origin that went through a human process of writing and editing."
He states that it is not a magical book, nor was it written by God and passed to mankind. Parallel to the solidification of the Hebrew canon, only the Torah first and the Tanakh began to be translated into Greek and expanded, now referred to as the Septuagint or the Greek Old Testament. In Christian Bibles, the New Testament Gospels were derived from oral traditions in the second half of the first century CE. Riches says that: Scholars have attempted to reconstruct something of the history of the oral traditions behind the Gospels, but the results have not been too encouraging; the period of transmission is short: less than 40 years passed between the death of Jesus and the writing of Mark's Gospel. This means that there was little time for oral trad
Enfield is a town in Hartford County, United States. The population was 44,654 at the 2010 census, it is bordered by Longmeadow and East Longmeadow, Massachusetts, to the north, Somers to the east, East Windsor and Ellington to the south, the Connecticut River to the west. Enfield was inhabited by the Pocomtuc tribe, contained their two villages of Scitico and Nameroke. Though land grants were first granted in 1674, no one attempted to settle what is known as Enfield until 1679 when the Pease Brothers of Robert and John II, settlers from Salem, Massachusetts came in to settle the fertile lands, they dug a shelter into a bill and camped there for the winter until their families came to help them build houses. In 1675, a sawmill owned by William Pynchon II was burned in the wake of King Phillip's War; the first town meeting was held on August 14, 1679 and a committee of five were appointed by men from Springfield as it was the parent town at the time. Enfield was incorporated in Massachusetts on May 1683 as the Freshwater Plantation.
The same day as the town of Stow, making them the 52nd/53rd towns in the Colony. The namesake is the Freshwater Brook. Five years on March 16, 1688, the townspeople purchased Enfield from a Podunk named Notatuck for 25 pounds Sterling, it is unclear what claim Notatuck had to the land, or whether he was selling the land or the rights to use it. Shortly around 1700, the town changed its name to Enfield after Enfield Town in Middlesex, to go with the other fields in the area such as Springfield and Suffield. In 1734, the eastern part of town separated into the town of Somers. In 1749, following the settlement of a lawsuit in which it was determined that a surveyor's error placed a section of present-day Hartford County within the boundaries of Massachusetts, the town seceded and became part of Connecticut. Jonathan Edwards preached "Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God", in Enfield, it was part of the Great Awakening revival that struck New England in the mid-18th century and spread throughout Western North American civilization.
The modern town of Enfield was formed through the merging of Enfield and Hazardville, named for Colonel Augustus George Hazard, whose company manufactured gunpowder in the Powder Hollow area of the town from the 1830s to the 1910s. In the 1989 film Glory, boxes of gunpowder can be seen with the words Enfield, CT printed on the sides. In an episode in the 1970s police drama Hawaii Five-O, Jack Lord's character Steve McGarrett traces explosives back to "The Hazard Gunpowder Company- Enfield, CT"; the capacity of the mill at the time of the Civil War was 1,200 pounds per day. Over 60 people died in explosions in Powder Hollow during the years when gunpowder was manufactured there; the mill blew up several times, but was set up so that if one building blew up, the rest would not follow in a chain reaction. The ruins of these buildings and the dams are open to the public. Powder Hollow is now home to baseball fields and hiking trails. King's Island in the Connecticut River known as Terry Island, was the location of pivotal meetings of Adventist Christians in 1872 and 1873.
In 1972, Asnuntuck Community College was established in Enfield as the twelfth institution in the Connecticut State Colleges and Universities system. Classes began in 1972 with an initial enrollment of 251, 12 Associate in Science degrees and 20 Associate of Art degrees were awarded to the first graduating class in 1974. There are five sections of the town of Enfield. Enfield Village, Hazardville and Sherwood Village. In 1793, a historic Shaker village, Enfield Shaker village, one of nineteen scattered from Maine to Kentucky, was established in the town; the Utopian religious sect practiced celibate, communal living, is today renowned for its simple architecture and furniture. Membership dwindled and the village disbanded; the property has since been redeveloped by the Enfield Correctional Institution, still located on Shaker Road. According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 34.2 square miles, of which 33.3 square miles is land and 0.93 square miles, or 2.76%, is water.
As of the census of 2000, there were 45,212 people, 16,418 households, 11,394 families residing in the town. The population density was 1,354.3 people per square mile. There were 17,043 housing units at an average density of 510.5 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 89.74% White, 5.61% African American, 0.20% Native American, 1.34% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 1.57% from other races, 1.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.74% of the population. There were 16,418 households out of which 31.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.7% were married couples living together, 10.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.6% were non-families. 25.0% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.53 and the average family size was 3.04. In the town, the population was spread out with 22.6% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 34.2% from 25 to 44, 21.9% from 45 to 64, 13.7% who were 65 years of age or older.
The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 110.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 112.7 males. The median income for a household in the town was $67,402, the median income for a family was $77,554. Males had
The city of Northampton is the county seat of Hampshire County, United States. As of the 2010 census, the population of Northampton was 28,549. Northampton is known as an academic, artistic and countercultural hub, it features a large politically liberal community along with numerous alternative health and intellectual organizations. Based on U. S. Census demographics, election returns, other criteria, the website Epodunk rates Northampton as the most politically liberal medium-size city in the United States; the city has a high proportion of residents who identify as gay and lesbian, a high number of same-sex households, is a popular destination for the LGBT community. Northampton is part of the Pioneer Valley and is one of the northernmost cities in the Knowledge Corridor—a cross-state cultural and economic partnership with other Connecticut River Valley cities and towns. Northampton is part of the Springfield Metropolitan Area, one of western Massachusetts's two separate metropolitan areas.
It sits 19 miles north of the city of Springfield. Northampton is home to Smith College, Northampton High School, Smith Vocational and Agricultural High School, the Clarke Schools for Hearing and Speech. Northampton is known as "Norwottuck", or "Nonotuck", meaning "the midst of the river", named by its original Pocumtuc inhabitants. According to various accounts, Northampton was given its present name by John A. King, one of its original English settlers, or in King's honor, since it is supposed that he came to Massachusetts from Northampton, his birthplace; the Pocumtuc confederacy occupied the Connecticut River Valley from what is now southern Vermont and New Hampshire into northern Connecticut. The Pocumtuc tribes were Algonquian and traditionally allied with the Mahican confederacy to the west. By 1606 an ongoing struggle between the Mahican and Iroquois confederacies led to direct attacks on the Pocumtuc by the Iroquoian Mohawk nation; the Mahican confederacy had been defeated by 1628, limiting Pocumtuc access to trade routes to the west.
The area suffered a major smallpox epidemic in the 1630s following the arrival of Dutch traders in the Hudson Valley and English settlers in the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the previous two decades. It was in this context that the land making up the bulk of modern Northampton was sold to settlers from Springfield in 1653. On May 18, 1653, a petition for township was approved by the general court of Springfield. While some settlers visited the land in the fall of 1653, they waited till early spring 1654 to arrive and establish a permanent settlement; the situation in the region further deteriorated when the Mohawk people escalated hostilities against the Pocumtuc confederacy and other Algonquian tribes after 1655, forcing many of the plague-devastated Algonquian groups into defensive mergers. This coincided with a souring of relations between the Wampanoag and the Massachusetts Bay colonists leading to the expanded Algonquian alliance, which took part in King Philip's War. Northampton was part of the Equivalent Lands compromise.
Its territory was enlarged beyond the original settlement, but portions would be carved up into separate cities and municipalities. Southampton, for example, was incorporated in 1775 and included parts of the territories of modern Montgomery and Easthampton. Westhampton was incorporated in 1778 and Easthampton in 1809. A hamlet of Northampton, called Smith's Ferry, became separated from the rest of the city with the drawing of boundaries for Easthampton; because the village was separated by Mount Tom, the shortest path to from the downtown to this area was a road near the Connecticut River oxbow, subject to flooding. This led to many services such as fire and police being provided by the city of Holyoke rather than Northampton's own municipal departments, after a number of negotiations between the two cities, Smith's Ferry was ceded to Holyoke in 1909 for a sum of $62,000. Congregational preacher and philosopher Jonathan Edwards was a leading figure in a 1734 Christian revival in Northampton.
In the winter of 1734 and the following spring it reached such intensity that it threatened the town's businesses. In the spring of 1735 the movement began to subside and a reaction set in, but the relapse was brief, the Northampton revival, which had spread through the Connecticut River Valley and whose fame had reached England and Scotland, was followed in 1739–1740 by the Great Awakening, under the leadership of Edwards. For this achievement, Edwards is considered one of the founders of evangelical Christianity, he is credited with being one of the primary inspirations for transcendentalism, because of passages like this: "That the works of nature are intended and contrived of God to signify and indigitate spiritual things is evident concerning the rainbow, by God's express revelation." Northampton hosted its own witch trials in the 1700s. Members of the Northampton community were present at the Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia. On August 29, 1786, Daniel Shays and a group of Revolutionary War veterans stopped the civil court from sitting in Northampton, in an uprising known as Shays' Rebellion.
In 1805 a crowd of 15,000 gathered in Northampton to watch the executions of two Irishmen convicted of murder: Dominic Daley, 34, James Halligan, 27. The crowd, composed of New England Protestants of English ancestry, lit bonfires and expressed virulently anti-Irish and anti-Catholic sentiments; the trial evidence against Daley and Halligan was sparse, contrived, p
Satan known as the Devil, is an entity in the Abrahamic religions that seduces humans into sin or falsehood. In Christianity and Islam, he is seen as either a fallen angel or a jinn, who used to possess great piety and beauty, but rebelled against God, who allows him temporary power over the fallen world and a host of demons. In Judaism, Satan is regarded as a metaphor for the yetzer hara, or "evil inclination", or as an agent subservient to God. A figure known as "the satan" first appears in the Tanakh as a heavenly prosecutor, a member of the sons of God subordinate to Yahweh, who prosecutes the nation of Judah in the heavenly court and tests the loyalty of Yahweh's followers by forcing them to suffer. During the intertestamental period due to influence from the Zoroastrian figure of Angra Mainyu, the satan developed into a malevolent entity with abhorrent qualities in dualistic opposition to God. In the apocryphal Book of Jubilees, Yahweh grants the satan authority over a group of fallen angels, or their offspring, to tempt humans to sin and punish them.
In the Synoptic Gospels, Satan tempts Jesus in the desert and is identified as the cause of illness and temptation. In the Book of Revelation, Satan appears as a Great Red Dragon, defeated by Michael the Archangel and cast down from Heaven, he is bound for one thousand years, but is set free before being defeated and cast into the Lake of Fire. In Christianity, Satan is known as the Devil and, although the Book of Genesis does not mention him, he is identified as the serpent in the Garden of Eden. In the Middle Ages, Satan played a minimal role in Christian theology and was used as a comic relief figure in mystery plays. During the early modern period, Satan's significance increased as beliefs such as demonic possession and witchcraft became more prevalent. During the Age of Enlightenment, belief in the existence of Satan became harshly criticized. Nonetheless, belief in Satan has persisted in the Americas. In the Quran, Shaitan known as Iblis, is an entity made of fire, cast out of Heaven because he refused to bow before the newly-created Adam and incites humans to sin by infecting their minds with waswās.
Although Satan is viewed as evil, some groups have different beliefs. In Theistic Satanism, Satan is considered a deity, either worshipped or revered. In LaVeyan Satanism, Satan is a symbol of virtuous characteristics and liberty. Satan's appearance is never described in the Bible, since the ninth century, he has been shown in Christian art with horns, cloven hooves, unusually hairy legs, a tail naked and holding a pitchfork; these are an amalgam of traits derived from various pagan deities, including Pan and Bes. Satan appears in Christian literature, most notably in Dante Alighieri's Inferno, variants of the Faust legend, John Milton's Paradise Lost and Paradise Regained, the poems of William Blake, he continues to appear in film and music. The original Hebrew term sâtan is a generic noun meaning "accuser" or "adversary", used throughout the Hebrew Bible to refer to ordinary human adversaries, as well as a specific supernatural entity; the word is derived from a verb meaning "to obstruct, oppose".
When it is used without the definite article, the word can refer to any accuser, but when it is used with the definite article, it refers to the heavenly accuser: the satan. Ha-Satan with the definite article occurs 13 times in the Masoretic Text, in two books of the Hebrew Bible: Job ch. 1–2 and Zechariah 3:1–2. Satan without the definite article is used in 10 instances, of which two are translated diabolos in the Septuagint and "Satan" in the King James Version: 1 Chronicles 21:1, "Satan stood up against Israel" or "And there standeth up an adversary against Israel" Psalm 109:6b "and let Satan stand at his right hand" or "let an accuser stand at his right hand." The word "satan" does not occur in the Book of Genesis, which mentions only a talking serpent and does not identify the serpent with any supernatural entity. The first occurrence of the word "satan" in the Hebrew Bible in reference to a supernatural figure comes from Numbers 22:22, which describes the Angel of Yahweh confronting Balaam on his donkey: "Balaam's departure aroused the wrath of Elohim, the Angel of Yahweh stood in the road as a satan against him."
In 2 Samuel 24, Yahweh sends the "Angel of Yahweh" to inflict a plague against Israel for three days, killing 70,000 people as punishment for David having taken a census without his approval. 1 Chronicles 21:1 repeats this story, but replaces the "Angel of Yahweh" with an entity referred to as "a satan". Some passages refer to the satan, without using the word itself. 1 Samuel 2:12 describes the sons of Eli as "sons of Belial". In 1 Samuel 16:14-23 Yahweh sends a "troubling spirit" to torment King Saul as a mechanism to ingratiate David with the king. In 1 Kings 22:19-25, the prophet Micaiah describes to King Ahab a vision of Yahweh sitting on his throne surrounded by the Host of Heaven. Yahweh asks the Host. A "spirit", whose name is not specified, but, analogous to the satan, volunteers to be "a Lying Spirit in the mouth of all his Prophets"; the satan appears in the Book of Job, a poetic dialogue set within a prose framework, which may have been written around the time of the Babylonian captivity.
In the text, Job is a righteous man favored by Yahweh. Job 1:6-8 describes the "sons of God" (bənê hāʼĕ
The Puritans were English Protestants in the 16th and 17th centuries who sought to purify the Church of England of Roman Catholic practices, maintaining that the Church of England had not been reformed and needed to become more Protestant. Puritanism played a significant role in English history during the Protectorate. Puritans were dissatisfied with the limited extent of the English Reformation and with the Church of England's toleration of certain practices associated with the Roman Catholic Church, they formed and identified with various religious groups advocating greater purity of worship and doctrine, as well as personal and corporate piety. Puritans adopted a Reformed theology and, in that sense, were Calvinists. In church polity, some advocated separation from all other established Christian denominations in favour of autonomous gathered churches; these separatist and independent strands of Puritanism became prominent in the 1640s, when the supporters of a Presbyterian polity in the Westminster Assembly were unable to forge a new English national church.
By the late 1630s, Puritans were in alliance with the growing commercial world, with the parliamentary opposition to the royal prerogative, with the Scottish Presbyterians with whom they had much in common. They became a major political force in England and came to power as a result of the First English Civil War. All Puritan clergy left the Church of England after the restoration of the monarchy in 1660 and the 1662 Uniformity Act. Many continued to practice their faith in nonconformist denominations in Congregationalist and Presbyterian churches; the nature of the movement in England changed radically, although it retained its character for a much longer period in New England. Puritanism was never a formally defined religious division within Protestantism, the term Puritan itself was used after the turn of the 18th century; some Puritan ideals, including the formal rejection of Roman Catholicism, were incorporated into the doctrines of the Church of England. The Congregational churches considered to be a part of the Reformed tradition, are descended from the Puritans.
Moreover, Puritan beliefs are enshrined in the Savoy Declaration, the confession of faith held by the Congregationalist churches. In the 17th century, the word Puritan was a term applied not to many. Historians still debate a precise definition of Puritanism. Puritan was a pejorative term characterizing certain Protestant groups as extremist. Thomas Fuller, in his Church History, dates the first use of the word to 1564. Archbishop Matthew Parker of that time used it and precisian with a sense similar to the modern stickler. Puritans were distinguished for being "more intensely protestant than their protestant neighbors or the Church of England"."Non-separating Puritans" were dissatisfied with the Reformation of the Church of England but remained within it, advocating for further reform. "Separatists", or "separating Puritans", thought the Church of England was so corrupt that true Christians should separate from it altogether. In its widest historical sense, the term Puritan includes both groups.
Puritans should not be confused with more radical Protestant groups of the 16th and 17th centuries, such as Quakers and Familists who believed that individuals could be directly guided by the Holy Spirit and prioritized direct revelation over the Bible. In current English, puritan means "against pleasure". In such usage and puritanism are antonyms. In fact, Puritans placed it in the context of marriage. Peter Gay writes of the Puritans' standard reputation for "dour prudery" as a "misreading that went unquestioned in the nineteenth century", commenting how unpuritanical they were in favour of married sexuality, in opposition to the Catholic veneration of virginity, citing Edward Taylor and John Cotton. One Puritan settlement in western Massachusetts banished a husband because he refused to fulfill his sexual duties to his wife. Puritanism has a historical importance over a period of a century, followed by fifty years of development in New England, it changed character and emphasis decade-by-decade over that time.
Elizabethan Puritanism contended with the Elizabethan religious settlement, with little to show for it. The Lambeth Articles of 1595, a high-water mark for Calvinism within the Church of England, failed to receive royal approval; the accession of James I to the English throne brought the Millenary Petition, a Puritan manifesto of 1603 for reform of the English church, but James wanted a religious settlement along different lines. He called the Hampton Court Conference in 1604, heard the teachings of four prominent Puritan leaders, including Laurence Chaderton, but sided with his bishops, he was well informed on theological matters by his education and Scottish upbringing, he dealt shortly with the peevish legacy of Elizabethan Puritanism, pursuing an eirenic religious policy, in which he was arbiter. Many of James's episcopal appointments were Calvinists, notably James Montague, an influential courtier. Puritans still opposed much of the Roman Catholic summation in the Church of England, notably the Book of Common Prayer but the use of non-secular vestments during services, the sign of the Cross in baptism, kneeling to receive Holy Communion.
Some of the bishops under both Elizabeth and James tried to suppress Puritanism, though other bishops were more to