Sino-Indian War

The Sino-Indian War known as the Indo-China War and Sino-Indian Border Conflict, was a war between China and India that occurred in 1962. A disputed Himalayan border was the main pretext for war. There had been a series of violent border incidents after the 1959 Tibetan uprising, when India had granted asylum to the Dalai Lama. India initiated a Forward Policy in which it placed outposts along the border, including several north of the McMahon Line, the eastern portion of the Line of Actual Control proclaimed by Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in 1959. Unable to reach political accommodation on disputed territory along the 3,225 kilometre- long Himalayan border, the Chinese launched simultaneous offensives in Ladakh and across the McMahon Line on 20 October 1962. Chinese troops advanced over Indian forces in both theatres, capturing Rezang La in Chushul in the western theatre, as well as Tawang in the eastern theatre; the war ended when China declared a ceasefire on 20 November 1962, announced its withdrawal to its claimed'line of actual control'.

Much of the battle took place in harsh mountain conditions, entailing large-scale combat at altitudes of over 4,000 metres. The Sino-Indian War was noted for the non-deployment of the air force by either the Chinese or Indian side; the buildup and offensive from China occurred concurrently with the 13-day Cuban Missile Crisis that saw the United States and the Soviet Union confronting each other, India did not receive assistance from either of these world powers until the Cuban Missile Crisis was resolved. It was the first war between China. Following the end of the war, a number of small clashes broke out between both sides, but no large-scale fighting ensued. China and India shared a long border, sectioned into three stretches by Nepal and Bhutan, which follows the Himalayas between Burma and what was West Pakistan. A number of disputed regions lie along this border. At its western end is the Aksai Chin region, an area the size of Switzerland, that sits between the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang and Tibet.

The eastern border, between Burma and Bhutan, comprises the present Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh. Both of these regions were overrun by China in the 1962 conflict. Most combat took place at high altitudes; the Aksai Chin region is a desert of salt flats around 5,000 metres above sea level, Arunachal Pradesh is mountainous with a number of peaks exceeding 7,000 metres. The Chinese Army had possession of one of the highest ridges in the regions; the high altitude and freezing conditions caused logistical and welfare difficulties. The Sino-Indian War was no different, with many troops on both sides dying in the freezing cold; the main cause of the war was a dispute over the sovereignty of the separated Aksai Chin and Arunachal Pradesh border regions. Aksai Chin, claimed by India to belong to Kashmir and by China to be part of Xinjiang, contains an important road link that connects the Chinese regions of Tibet and Xinjiang. China's construction of this road was one of the triggers of the conflict.

The western portion of the Sino-Indian boundary originated in 1834, with the conquest of Ladakh by the armies of Raja Gulab Singh under the suzerainty of the Sikh Empire. Following an unsuccessful campaign into Tibet, Gulab Singh and the Tibetans signed a treaty in 1842 agreeing to stick to the "old, established frontiers", which were left unspecified; the British defeat of the Sikhs in 1846 resulted in the transfer of the Jammu and Kashmir region including Ladakh to the British, who installed Gulab Singh as the Maharaja under their suzerainty. British commissioners contacted Chinese officials to negotiate the border, who did not show any interest; the British boundary commissioners fixed the southern end of the boundary at Pangong Lake, but regarded the area north of it till the Karakoram Pass as terra incognita. The Maharaja of Kashmir and his officials were keenly aware of the trade routes from Ladakh. Starting from Leh, there were two main routes into Central Asia: one passed through the Karakoram Pass to Shahidulla at the foot of the Kunlun Mountains and went on to Yarkand through the Kilian and Sanju passes.

The Maharaja regarded Shahidulla as his northern outpost, in effect treating the Kunlun mountains as the boundary of his domains. His British suzerains were sceptical of such an extended boundary because Shahidulla was 79 miles away from the Karakoram pass and the intervening area was uninhabited; the Maharaja was allowed to treat Shahidulla as his outpost for more than 20 years. Chinese Turkestan regarded the "northern branch" of the Kunlun range with the Kilian and Sanju passes as its southern boundary, thus the Maharaja's claim was uncontested. After the 1862 Dungan Revolt, which saw the expulsion of the Chinese from Turkestan, the Maharaja of Kashmir constructed a small fort at Shahidulla in 1864; the fort was most supplied from Khotan, whose ruler was now independent and on friendly terms with Kashmir. When the Khotanese ruler was deposed by the Kashgaria strongman Yakub Beg, the Maharaja was forced to abandon his post in 1867, it was occupied by Yakub Beg's forces until the end of the Dungan Revolt.

In the intervening period, W. H. Johnson of Survey of India was

End-of-Transmission character

In telecommunication, an End-of-Transmission character is a transmission control character. Its intended use is to indicate the conclusion of a transmission that may have included one or more texts and any associated message headings. An EOT is used to initiate other functions, such as releasing circuits, disconnecting terminals, or placing receive terminals in a standby condition, its most common use today is to cause a Unix terminal driver to signal end of file and thus exit programs that are awaiting input. In ASCII and Unicode, the character is encoded at U+0004 <control-0004>. It can be referred to as Ctrl+D, ^D in caret notation. Unicode provides the character U+2404 ␄ SYMBOL FOR END OF TRANSMISSION for when EOT needs to be displayed graphically. In addition, U+2301 ⌁ ELECTRIC ARROW can be used as a graphic representation of EOT; the EOT character in Unix is different from the Control-Z in DOS. The DOS Control-Z byte is sent and/or placed in files to indicate where the text ends. In contrast, the Control-D causes the Unix terminal driver to signal the EOF condition, not a character, while the byte has no special meaning if read or written from a file or terminal.

In Unix, the end-of-file character causes the terminal driver to make available all characters in its input buffer immediately. If the input buffer is empty, a program reading from the terminal reads a count of zero bytes. In Unix, such a condition is understood as having reached the end of the file; this can be demonstrated with the cat program on Unix-based operating systems such as Linux: Run the cat command with no arguments, so it accepts its input from the keyboard and prints output to the screen. Type a few characters without pressing ↵ Enter type Ctrl+D; the characters typed to that point are sent to cat, which writes them to the screen. If Ctrl+D is typed without typing any characters first, the input stream is terminated and the program ends. An actual EOT is obtained by typing Ctrl+V Ctrl+D. If the terminal driver is in "raw" mode, it no longer interprets control characters, the EOT character is sent unchanged to the program, free to interpret it any way it likes. A program may decide to handle the EOT byte as an indication that it should end the text.

The EOT character is used in legacy communications protocols by mainframe computer manufacturers such as IBM, Burroughs Corporation, the BUNCH. Terminal transmission control protocols such as IBM 3270 Poll/Select, or Burroughs TD830 Contention Mode protocol use the EOT character to terminate a communications sequence between two cooperating stations. A single Poll or Select operation will include two round-trip send-reply operations between the polling station and the station being polled, the final operation being transmission of a single EOT character to the initiating station. C0 and C1 control codes ASCII Keyboard shortcut This article incorporates public domain material from the General Services Administration document: "Federal Standard 1037C"

Torre del Fraile

The Torre del Fraile is one of a set of military watchtowers built around the South and East coast of Spain to keep an eye on passing shipping and Barbary pirates. The watchtowers were in sight of one another and it was therefore possible to get a signal to Gibraltar from the watchtower in Tarifa; the tower was designed by Luis Bravo and Juan Pedro Laguna in 1588. The tower is about 240 metres back from 120 metres above it; the tower is over six metres in diameter and was over thirteen metres high until the top collapsed in 2006 with the loss of a window and the upper staircase. The tower's entrance was over five metres in this led onto a floor. From this the soldiers could climb to the top where space was reserved for firewood for signalling