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Sino-Indian border dispute

Sovereignty over two separated pieces of territory has been contested between China and India. Aksai Chin is located either in the Indian union territory of Ladakh or the Chinese autonomous region of Xinjiang and forms part of the Kashmir conflict, it is a uninhabited high-altitude wasteland crossed by the Xinjiang-Tibet Highway. The other disputed territory lies south of the McMahon Line, it was referred to as the North East Frontier Agency, is now called Arunachal Pradesh. The McMahon Line was part of the 1914 Simla Convention between British India and Tibet, an agreement rejected by China; the 1962 Sino-Indian War was fought in both of these areas. An agreement to resolve the dispute was concluded in 1996, including "confidence-building measures" and a mutually agreed Line of Actual Control. In 2006, the Chinese ambassador to India claimed that all of Arunachal Pradesh is Chinese territory amidst a military buildup. At the time, both countries claimed incursions as much as a kilometre at the northern tip of Sikkim.

In 2009, India announced. In 2014, India proposed. From the area's lowest point (on the Karakash River at about 14,000 feet to the glaciated peaks up to 22,500 feet above sea level, this is a desolate uninhabited area, it covers an area of about 37,244 square kilometres. The desolation of Aksai Chin meant that it had no significant human importance other than ancient trade routes crossing it, providing brief passage during summer for caravans of yaks from Xinjiang and Tibet. One of the earliest treaties regarding the boundaries in the western sector was issued in 1842; the Sikh Empire of the Punjab region had annexed Ladakh into the state of Jammu in 1834. In 1841, they invaded Tibet with an army. Chinese forces in turn entered Ladakh and besieged Leh. After being checked by the Sikh forces, the Chinese and the Sikhs signed a treaty in September 1842, which stipulated no transgressions or interference in the other country's frontiers; the British defeat of the Sikhs in 1846 resulted in transfer of sovereignty over Ladakh to the British, British commissioners attempted to meet with Chinese officials to discuss the border they now shared.

However, both sides were sufficiently satisfied that a traditional border was recognised and defined by natural elements, the border was not demarcated. The boundaries at the two extremities, Pangong Lake and Karakoram Pass, were reasonably well-defined, but the Aksai Chin area in between lay undefined. W. H. Johnson, a civil servant with the Survey of India proposed the "Johnson Line" in 1865, which put Aksai Chin in Jammu and Kashmir; this was the time of the Dungan revolt, when China did not control Xinjiang, so this line was never presented to the Chinese. Johnson presented this line to the Maharaja of Jammu and Kashmir, who claimed the 18,000 square kilometres contained within his territory and by some accounts he claimed territory further north as far as the Sanju Pass in the Kun Lun Mountains; the Maharajah of Jammu and Kashmir constructed a fort at Shahidulla, had troops stationed there for some years to protect caravans. Most sources placed Shahidulla and the upper Karakash River within the territory of Xinjiang.

According to Francis Younghusband, who explored the region in the late 1880s, there was only an abandoned fort and not one inhabited house at Shahidulla when he was there – it was just a convenient staging post and a convenient headquarters for the nomadic Kirghiz. The abandoned fort had been built a few years earlier by the Dogras. In 1878 the Chinese had reconquered Xinjiang, by 1890 they had Shahidulla before the issue was decided. By 1892, China had erected boundary markers at Karakoram Pass. In 1897 a British military officer, Sir John Ardagh, proposed a boundary line along the crest of the Kun Lun Mountains north of the Yarkand River. At the time Britain was concerned at the danger of Russian expansion as China weakened, Ardagh argued that his line was more defensible; the Ardagh line was a modification of the Johnson line, became known as the "Johnson-Ardagh Line". In 1893, Hung Ta-chen, a senior Chinese official at St. Petersburg, gave maps of the region to George Macartney, the British consul general at Kashgar, which coincided in broad details.

In 1899, Britain proposed a revised boundary suggested by Macartney and developed by the Governor General of India Lord Elgin. This boundary placed the Lingzi Tang plains, which are south of the Laktsang range, in India, Aksai Chin proper, north of the Laktsang range, in China; this border, along the Karakoram Mountains, was proposed and supported by British officials for a number of reasons. The Karakoram Mountains formed a natural boundary, which would set the British borders up to the Indus River watershed while leaving the Tarim River watershed in Chinese control, Chinese control of this tract would present a further obstacle to Russian advance in Central Asia; the British presented this line, known as the Macartney-MacDonald Line, to the Chinese in 1899 in a note by Sir Claude MacDonald. The Qing government did not respond to the note. According to some commentators, China believed. Both the Johnson-Ardagh and the Macartney-MacDonald lines were used on British maps of India; until at least 1908, the British took the Macdonald line to be the boundary, but in 1911, the Xinhai Revolution resulted in the collapse of central power in China, by the end of World War I, the British used the Johnson Line.

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Plumbane, PbH4, is a metal hydride and group 14 hydride composed of lead and hydrogen. Plumbane is not well characterized or well known, it is thermodynamically unstable with respect to the loss of a hydrogen atom. Derivatives of plumbane include lead tetrafluoride, tetraethyllead; until it was uncertain whether plumbane had actually been synthesized. Plumbane has been the subject of Dirac–Hartree–Fock relativistic calculation studies, which investigate the stabilities and relative energies of hydrides of the formula MH4 or MH2. Plumbane is the heaviest group IV hydride. Furthermore, plumbane has a tetrahedral structure with an equilibrium distance between lead and hydrogen of 1.73 Å. By weight percent, the composition of plumbane is 1.91 % 98.09 % lead. In plumbane, the formal oxidation states of hydrogen and lead are -1 and +4 because the electronegativity of hydrogen is higher than that of lead; the stability of metal hydrides with the formula MH4 decreases as the atomic number of M increases.

Early studies of PbH4 revealed. It cannot be made by methods used to synthesize GeH4 or SnH4. In 1999, plumbane was synthesized from lead nitrate, Pb2, sodium borohydride, NaBH4. A non-nascent mechanism for plumbane synthesis was reported in 2005. In 2003, Wang and Andrews studied the preparation of PbH4 by laser ablation and additionally identified the infrared bands. Congeners of plumbane include: Methane CH4 Silane SiH4 Germane GeH4 Stannane SnH4

Angels of Mons

The Angels of Mons is a popular legend about a group of angels who protected members of the British Army in the Battle of Mons at the outset of the First World War. On 22–23 August 1914, the first major engagement of the British Expeditionary Force in the First World War occurred at the Battle of Mons. Advancing German forces were thrown back by outnumbered British troops, who suffered heavy casualties and, being outflanked, were forced into rapid retreat the next day; the retreat and the battle were perceived by the British public as being a key moment in the war. Despite the censorship going on in Britain at the time, this battle was the first indication the British public had that defeating Germany would not be as easy as some had thought. On 29 September 1914 Welsh author Arthur Machen published a short story entitled "The Bowmen" in the London newspaper the Evening News, inspired by accounts that he had read of the fighting at Mons and an idea he had had soon after the battle. Machen, who had written a number of factual articles on the conflict for the paper, set his story at the time of the retreat from the Battle of Mons in August 1914.

The story described phantom bowmen from the Battle of Agincourt summoned by a soldier calling on St. George, destroying a German host. Machen's story was not, labelled as fiction and the same edition of the Evening News ran a story by a different author under the heading "Our Short Story". Additionally, Machen's story was written from a first-hand perspective and was a kind of false document, a technique Machen knew well; the unintended result was that Machen had a number of requests to provide evidence for his sources for the story soon after its publication, from readers who thought it was true, to which he responded that it was imaginary, as he had no desire to create a hoax. A month or two Machen received requests from the editors of parish magazines to reprint the story, which were granted. In the introduction to The Bowmen and Other Legends of the War Machen relates that an unnamed priest, the editor of one of these magazines, subsequently wrote to him asking if he would allow the story to be reprinted in pamphlet form, if he would write a short preface giving sources for the story.

Machen replied that they were welcome to reprint but he could not give any sources for the story since he had none. The priest replied that Machen must be mistaken, that the "facts" of the story must be true, that Machen had just elaborated on a true account; as Machen said: It seemed that my light fiction had been accepted by the congregation of this particular church as the solidest of facts. This happened, I should think, some time in April, the snowball of rumour, set rolling has been rolling since, growing bigger and bigger, till it is now swollen to a monstrous size. Around that time variations of the story began to appear, told as authentic histories, including an account that told how the corpses of German soldiers had been found on the battlefield with arrow wounds. In "The Bowmen" Machen's soldier saw "a long line of shapes, with a shining about them." A Mr. A. P. Sinnett, writing in the Occult Review, stated that "those who could see said they saw'a row of shining beings' between the two armies."

This led Machen to suggest. This last point was challenged by Harold Begbie in his book: On the Side of the Angels: A Reply to Arthur Machen, London 1915. On 24 April 1915, an account was published in the British Spiritualist magazine telling of visions of a supernatural force that miraculously intervened to help the British at the decisive moment of the battle; this resulted in a flurry of similar accounts and the spread of wild rumours. Descriptions of this force varied from it being medieval longbow archers alongside St. George to a strange luminous cloud, though the most popular version came to be angelic warriors. Similar tales of such battlefield visions occurred in ancient warfare. Atrocity reports like the Rape of Belgium and that of the Crucified Soldier paved the way for a belief that the Christian God would intervene directly against such an evil enemy. However, there are strong similarities between many of these accounts of visions and Machen's story published six months earlier. In May 1915 a full-blown controversy was erupting, with the angels being used as proof of the action of divine providence on the side of the Allies in sermons across Britain, spreading into newspaper reports published across the world.

Machen, bemused by all this, attempted to end the rumours by republishing the story in August in book form, with a long preface stating the rumours were false and originated in his story. It became a bestseller, resulted in a vast series of other publications claiming to provide evidence of the Angels' existence. Machen tried to set the record straight, but any attempt to lessen the impact of such an inspiring story was seen as bordering on treason by some; these new publications included artists' renderings of the angels. There were more reports of apparitions from the front including Joan of Arc. Kevin McClure's study describes two types of accounts circulating, some more based on Machen, others with different details. In a time of intense media interest all these reports confirming sightings of supernatural activity were second-hand and some of them were hoaxes created by soldiers who were not at Mons. A careful investigation by the Society for Psychical Research in 1915 said of the first-hand testimony, "We have received none at all, o

Kraków Voivodeship

Kraków Voivodeship, refers to several historical Voivodeships of Poland in the surrounding regions, with the city of Kraków as its capital. Kraków Voivodeship 1975–1998 named Kraków Metropolitan Voivodeship was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1975–1998, superseded by Lesser Poland Voivodeship. President of the Kraków City was the voivodeship governor. Capital city: Kraków Major cities and towns,: Kraków. Capital city: Kraków Kraków Voivodeship 1921–1939 was a unit of administrative division and local government in Poland in years 1921–1939, its total area was 17 560 km² and population – 2 300 100. Population density was 131 persons per km2. Capital city: Kraków In 1938, it consisted of 18 powiats; these were as follows: Biala Krakowska county, Bochnia county, Brzesko county, Chrzanów county, Dąbrowa Tarnowska county, Dębica county, Gorlice county, Jasło county, city of Kraków county, Kraków county, Limanowa county, Mielec county, Myślenice county, Nowy Sącz county, Nowy Targ county, Tarnów county, Wadowice county, Żywiec county.

According to the 1931 census, biggest cities within the Voivodeship's boundaries were: Kraków, Tarnów, Nowy Sącz, Biala Krakowska, Chrzanów, Bochnia, Oświęcim. A Kraków Voivodeship was one of the voivodeships of Congress Poland formed from Kraków Department and existing from 1816 until 1837. Despite the name of this province, the city of Kraków was not included. In 1837 it was renamed into Kraków Governorate. Kraków Voivodeship 14th century-1795 – a unit of administrative division and local government in the Kingdom of Poland from 14th century to the partitions of Poland in 1772–1795, it was part of Little Poland province. Zygmunt Gloger, Historical Geography of Ancient Poland, Krakow Voivodeship Maly rocznik statystyczny, Summer 1939. Wydawnictwo GUS Warsaw, 1939. Voivodeships of Poland List of voivodes of Krakow

Tyrone, Georgia

Tyrone is a town in Fayette County, United States. The population was 6,879 at the 2010 census, up from 3,916 in 2000; the estimated population in 2018 was 7,388. It is a part of the Atlanta metropolitan area; the Georgia General Assembly incorporated Tyrone as a town in 1911. The community's name is a transfer from County Tyrone, in Northern Ireland. Tyrone is located in the northwest corner of Fayette County at 33°28′25″N 84°35′28″W, it is bordered to the south by Peachtree City and to the west across Line Creek. Georgia State Route 74, the Joel Cowan Parkway, passes through Tyrone, leading north 5 miles to Interstate 85 on the south side of Fairburn. Downtown Atlanta is 25 miles northeast of Tyrone via SR 74 and I-85. According to the United States Census Bureau, Tyrone has a total area of 12.9 square miles, of which 12.5 square miles is land and 0.4 square miles, or 2.94%, is water. As of the census of 2000, there were 3,916 people, 1,374 households, 1,158 families residing in the town; the population density was 309.6 people per square mile.

There were 1,425 housing units at an average density of 112.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the town was 94.38% White, 3.37% African American, 0.33% Native American, 1.00% Asian, 0.15% from other races, 0.77% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.46% of the population. There were 1,374 households out of which 41.6% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 73.3% were married couples living together, 7.9% had a female householder with no husband present, 15.7% were non-families. 12.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 4.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.85 and the average family size was 3.12. In the town, the population was spread out with 27.4% under the age of 18, 6.7% from 18 to 24, 27.7% from 25 to 44, 30.1% from 45 to 64, 8.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 39 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.5 males.

The median income for a household in the town was $63,080, the median income for a family was $71,406. Males had a median income of $45,788 versus $29,231 for females; the per capita income for the town was $26,463. None of the families and 0.9% of the population were living below the poverty line, including no under eighteens and none of those over 64. Many developers have flocked to Tyrone due to its high land accessibility to Atlanta. A number of new projects are set to debut in Tyrone in the near future, they include a restoration of the old downtown, new residential communities, a golf cart path system that will connect to Peachtree City and a new public library. Within the small town of Tyrone there are three public schools: Burch Elementary, Flat Rock Middle, Sandy Creek High School; these three are located in a triangle configuration on the same street. Our Lady of Victory Catholic School is located on Kirkley Road off Highway 74. South of town there is Crabapple Elementary School. East of town, is Bennett's Mill Middle School.

Joey Clanton, NASCAR driver Andrew Gardner, NFL football player, Miami Dolphins Kedric Golston, NFL football player, Washington Redskins Calvin Johnson, NFL football player, Detroit Lions Brittany Swann, Miss Georgia USA 2007 Town of Tyrone official website Tyrone Crime Statistics Palmer Family Cemetery historical marker


Frognerkilen is a bay in the inner Oslofjord of Norway, east of the Bygdøy peninsula. Its name stems from the neighbourhood Frogner, a name, taken from a farm, it was known, with Bestumkilen, under the name of Ladegaardsfjordene. This stems from older times. Bygdøy became a peninsula due to post-glacial rebound, separating Bestumkilen from Frognerkilen. Propositions to reconnect Bestumkilen and Frognerkilen through a canal were made in 1928 and 1937, but not carried out, it was an important shipping port for timber in the 17th and 18th centuries, but today a large part of the bay is used as a harbour for leisure boats. During the winter, Frognerkilen was used as a venue for harness racing—from 1875 to the 1920s—as well as speed skating in the pioneer days before 1900. A skating competition between Axel Paulsen and Renke van der Zee from the Netherlands on Frognerkilen in 1885, when van der Zee challenged Paulsen for his title "amateur champion of the world", attracted 30,000 spectators. Kristiania Skøiteklub had Frognerkilen as its competition arena until Frogner stadion was opened in 1901.

Frognerkilen was a popular site of boat sports. The rowing club Christiania RK had its headquarters at the mainland, in a locality known as "Kongen", whereas the Royal Norwegian Yacht Club had its headquarters at the opposite shore of Frognerkilen, in a locality known as "Dronningen". Frognerkilen was trafficked by ferry. Frognerkilen was the site where Fiskerlivets farer, depicting perils at sea, was filmed. Released in 1908, it is considered to be the Norwegian drama film