In Greek mythology, Sinon, a son of Aesimus or of the crafty Sisyphus, was a Greek warrior during the Trojan War. In the Aeneid, he pretended to have deserted the Greeks and, as a Trojan captive, told the Trojans that the giant wooden horse the Greeks had left behind was intended as a gift to the gods to ensure their safe voyage home, he told them that the horse was made so big that the Trojans would not be able to move it into their city, because if they did they would be invincible to Achaean invasion. His story convinced the Trojans because it included the former details as well as an explanation that he was left behind to die by the doing of Odysseus, his enemy; the Trojans brought the Trojan Horse into their city against the advice of Laocoön. Inside the giant wooden horse were Greek soldiers, who, as night fell, disembarked from the horse and opened the city gates, thus sealing the fate of Troy, he was an Achaean spy who told the Greeks when the soldiers in the horse had begun their fight.

This scene is in neither the Odyssey but is in the Aeneid. In Quintus of Smyrna, the Trojans, ready to attack the Greek camp, see smoke coming from the Greek camp and cautiously approach; when they arrive at the camp they find only Sinon alongside the Trojan Horse. The reader finds out that it was Sinon who started the fire signal that drew the Trojans to the Greek camp; the rest of the camp is deserted. The Trojans circle him and ask him questions but when he does not answer they grow angry and begin to threaten to stab him; when he still does not answer, the Trojans cut off his ears and nose. He tells them that the Greeks have fled and they built the Trojan Horse to honor Athena. Sinon claims that Odysseus wanted to sacrifice him but he managed to escape and hide in a marsh; when they gave up looking for him and left he returned to the Trojan Horse. Sinon claims. All the Trojans believe this story, except Laocoön who, along with his two sons, is promptly attacked by a giant sea serpent. Following this, believing that Laocoön was attacked because he offended the gods, the rest of the Trojans begin to believe Sinon's story.

Feeling bad for Sinon, fearing wrath from the gods, the Trojans bring Sinon and the Trojan Horse into Troy. In Dante Alighieri's Divine Comedy poem Inferno, Sinon is seen in the Tenth Bolgia of Hell's Circle of Fraud where, along with other Falsifiers of words, he is condemned to suffer a burning fever for all eternity. Sinon is here rather than the Evil Counselors Bolgia as well as evil; the word "Sinonical" was coined by Lewes Lewknor in his 1595 work The Estate of English Fugitives. William Shakespeare referred to Sinon on several occasions in his work, using him as a symbol of treachery. Media related to Sinon at Wikimedia Commons


Baerenthal is a commune in the Moselle department of the Grand Est administrative region in north-eastern France. The village belongs to the Northern Vosges Regional Nature Park; the village is located in wooded country, 15 kilometres from Bitche and 12 kilometres from Niederbronn, at the south-eastern border of the canton of Bitche. It has a population of 750 and is located at an altitude of 240 meters, in the lush green valley of the northern Zinsel river; when founded, during the age of the franc compté of the eighth to tenth centuries, Baerenthal was located in Nordgau, in Alsace. It was a part, during the Carolingian era, of the bishopric of Strasbourg, just at the border with the bishopric of Metz; the medieval period of the village is rich thanks to the presence of the châteaux of Château de Ramstein and Château de Grand-Arnsberg on its land. The nobles of Ramstein were cited for the first time in a document dated 22 October 1291; the village of Baerenthal was mentioned in 1318, under the name Berendal, in the valley of Bero.

Regarding secular power, Baerenthal was under the rule of Ramstein, starting in 1355, under that of Falkenstein. After this began the sinister period of pillaging by robber-knights for the'Berebdal unter Ramenstein'. By an act of sale dated 3 September 1467, Count Louis V of Lichtenberg became the owner of the southern half of the village as well as the chateau of Grand-Arnsberg and in 1569 the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg became the owners of the whole village; the names of several regions of Baerenthal date back to this time: Reinhardshof, from the name of burgrave Johann-Reinhardt Fischerhof, where fishermen lived Rosselhof, where the noblemen's stables were located Frohnacker, where a great farm near the nobles’ fields was locatedStarting from 1480, Berendal passed through the hands of the counts of Hanau-Lichtenberg and followed their fate. In 1606 milestones were placed which separated the duchy of Lorraine and the county of Hanau-Lichtenberg from the hamlet of Melch to that of Bannstein.

In 1648, Baerenthal was a part of the baillage of Lemberg, near the Pirmasens dans le Palatinat, in the landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt. Its landgrave, Louis VIII, was the son-in-law of count Johann-Reinhardt of Hanau-Lichtenberg and became his heir in 1786. In 1793, Baerenthal, as well as the neighboring territory of Philippsbourg in the canton of Bitche, were detached from Alsace and became part of the district of the Moselle, it was the Convention. In the eighteenth century, the northern Zinsel river was used to supply the factories and ironworks that brought work and life in the valley. In 1745, the first factory was built in Baerenthal, it grew rapidly. A second factory was built to transform the ore coming from Franche-Comté into cast steel. With the creation in 1807 of a steel mill, a cast-ironworks and sheetworks factories, industry grew along the length of the Zinselbach; this activity reached a peak in the middle of the nineteenth century, but slowed down at the beginning of the twentieth century.

In 1932 the last factory closed. The rest-stop in the village was taken by the Chaiserie Lorraine and destroyed during the Second World War. Reconstructed and again devoted to steel work, mechanics/mechanics workshops were replaced by a factory producing tableware. Following the imperial ordinance of 2 September 1915, the name of the village was Germanized to Bärenthal and kept this name until the return of France in 1918. From 1940 to 1944, it was Germanized again, this time to Bärental bei Bitsch. Classified as a Station de Cure d'air, Baerenthal is an important tourist center of the northern Vosges; the village has been classified as a Station verte since 1987. The Barenthal company produces solid steel tableware and silver-coated metal. In 2005, it was the second greatest producer of French tableware. In the Middle Ages, Baerenthal was part of the parish of Obersteinbach, of the archbishopric of Haut-Haguenau in the diocese of Strasbourg. In 1570, count Philippe IV of Hanau-Lichtenberg brought the Reformation to the village and the Catholic religion was suppressed.

This explains the absence of crosses by the roads in and around Baerenthal, a characteristic of Catholic regions. For the few Catholics who joined this community, the territory became a part of the bishopric of Metz in 1802 and was annexed to the parish of Mouterhouse; the Chapel of the Immaculate Conception was constructed in 1885 in the northern part of the village. After the village embraced the Reformation, the church changed to Protestantism; the Protestant church was restored in 1630. The village has been a Protestant district since 1739; the population has varied from 660 inhabitants in 1817 to 1683 in 1852, falling to 694 in 1982. Neighboring communes, which consist of only a few houses, are numerous: Betteli from 1840 Breitthal from 1841The region at the beginning of the 20th century: Daxhof, bringing the nobility of Falkenstein, constructed around 1740. Eulenkopf around 1845 Fischerhof at the beginning of the 17th century Frohnacker after 1770 Thalhäusen around the end of the 18th century Schmealenthal from the beginning of the 19th century Untermühlthal around 1720In 1150, the landgrave Dietrich ceded the abbey of Neuweiler which gave its fief to the abbey of Neubourg.

The village of Mühlenbach, which belonged to the nobility of Gross-Arnsburg, to that of Falkenstein, was reunited with the village of Lemberg in 1332. The assorted hamlets of Leimenthalerhof, Rothenbronnerh

Arkansas Highway 314

Arkansas Highway 314 is an east–west state highway in Perry and Yell Counties. The route runs 17.45 miles as a connector between Arkansas Highway 27 and Arkansas Highway 7 in the Ouachita National Forest. The route does not intersect any other state highways. Arkansas Highway 314 begins at Arkansas Highway 27 at Onyx, an unincorporated community within the Ouachita National Forest; the route runs east into Perry County to terminate at AR 7 at Hollis near the South Fourche Campground. The road is two -- lane road surrounded by trees for its entire length. AR 314 follows the South Fork of the Fourche River. There is a county road which leads to Shed Cemetery; the forest road has existed since Arkansas' earliest records, but the route didn't become a state highway until 1964. The first portion of the route was paved in 1973, but the entire route wasn't complete until 1976. List of state highways in Arkansas Media related to Arkansas Highway 314 at Wikimedia Commons