French Camp, California
French Camp is an unincorporated community in San Joaquin County, United States. The population was 3,376 at the 2010 census, down from 4,109 at the 2000 census. For statistical purposes, the United States Census Bureau has defined Foo as a census-designated place; the census definition of the area may not correspond to local understanding of the area with the same name. French Camp is the location of the U. S. Army Sharpe Depot and the GSA Western Distribution Center, is the oldest settlement in San Joaquin County. San Joaquin General Hospital is located in French Camp. French Camp is located at 37°52′58″N 121°16′47″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the CDP has a total area of 3.1 square miles, 99.97% of it land and 0.03% of it water. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, French Camp has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csa" on climate maps. French Camp was the southernmost regular camp site of the Hudson's Bay Company southern fur brigades sent from Fort Vancouver, established by Michel Laframboise in 1832.
Its Spanish name was preserved in a land grant dated January 13, 1844 as Rancho Campo de los Franceses. It is commemorated as California State Historic Landmark 668: Here was the terminus of the Oregon-California trail used by the French-Canadian trappers employed by the Hudson's Bay Company from about 1832 to 1845. Michel Laframboise, among others, met fur hunters here annually, where they camped with their families. In 1844 Charles Maria Weber and William Gulnac promoted the first white settlers' colony on "Rancho del Campo de Los Franceses" which included French Camp and the site of Stockton. French Camp was known as Castoria, the Latin word for "beaver" being "castor", reflecting its central role in the California Fur Rush. French Camp was strategically sited at the southern end of the southernmost slough of the Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta, maximizing the use of the waterway for ease of transportation. A trail led off from the site to the southeast into the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains.
It was subsequently used as an alternate route for the Mariposa Road, part of the Stockton-Los Angeles Road favored during the rainy season because of its exceptional drainage. The route was paved and exists to this day as "French Camp Road". Gilbert Luján José M. Hernández, astronaut Scott Brooks, Head coach of the NBA's Washington Wizards; the 2010 United States Census reported that French Camp had a population of 3,376. The population density was 1,074.2 people per square mile. The racial makeup of French Camp was 1,678 White, 410 African American, 31 Native American, 163 Asian, 11 Pacific Islander, 920 from other races, 163 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1,748 persons; the Census reported that 1,622 people lived in households, 336 lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, 1,418 were institutionalized. There were 509 households, out of which 202 had children under the age of 18 living in them, 262 were opposite-sex married couples living together, 64 had a female householder with no husband present, 46 had a male householder with no wife present.
There were 46 unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, 3 same-sex married couples or partnerships. 104 households were made up of individuals and 43 had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.19. There were 372 families; the population was spread out with 731 people under the age of 18, 604 people aged 18 to 24, 1,145 people aged 25 to 44, 660 people aged 45 to 64, 236 people who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30.1 years. For every 100 females, there were 193.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 208.6 males. There were 575 housing units at an average density of 183.0 per square mile, of which 276 were owner-occupied, 233 were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.5%. 872 people lived in owner-occupied housing units and 750 people lived in rental housing units. As of the census of 2000, there were 4,109 people, 576 households, 438 families residing in the CDP; the population density was 1,324.5 people per square mile.
There were 598 housing units at an average density of 192.8 per square mile. The racial makeup of the CDP was 44.20% White, 11.97% African American, 0.80% Native American, 4.45% Asian, 0.46% Pacific Islander, 32.12% from other races, 5.99% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 44.95% of the population. There were 576 households out of which 37.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.4% were married couples living together, 15.1% had a female householder with no husband present, 23.8% were non-families. 19.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 7.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 3.14 and the average family size was 3.57. In the CDP, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 14.9% from 18 to 24, 39.2% from 25 to 44, 15.2% from 45 to 64, 6.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 30 years. For every 100 females, there were 182.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 192.1 males.
The median income for a household in the CDP was $28,295, the median income for a family was $29,034. Mal
Dunsmuir is a city in Siskiyou County, northern California. It is on the upper Sacramento River in the Trinity Mountains; the official city slogan is "Home of the best water on Earth". Dunsmuir is a hub for tourism in Northern California, with Interstate 5 in California passing through it. Visitors enjoy fishing, climbing, or sight-seeing. During the steam locomotive railroad era, it was notable for being the site of an important Central Pacific railroad yard, where extra steam locomotives were added to assist trains on the grade to the north. Located in the Shasta Cascade area of Northern California, Dunsmuir is a popular destination for tourists. Visitors come to fish trout in the Sacramento and McCloud Rivers, or to see and climb Mount Shasta, Castle Crags or the Trinity Alps. Visitors ski and bicycle, or can hike to the waterfalls and lakes in the area, including nearby Mossbrae Falls, Hedge Creek Falls, Lake Siskiyou, Castle Lake and Shasta Lake. Dunsmuir is located on the Upper Sacramento River, a blue ribbon trout stream that attracts fishermen from all over the world.
Wild rainbow trout abound in the river. Additionally, the City has a private stocking permit from the Department of Game; the City has a "Big Fish Program" and stocks the river within the city limits with trophy-sized rainbow trout up to 14 pounds. These stockings take place during the summer months. Catch-and-release fishing is permitted in the river during the off-season, so fly-fishing is available year-round; the town is a destination for historical and cultural tourists, as the town has preserved an authentic 1920s and 1930s look and feel. Dunsmuir's long connection with the railroad draws railfans to enjoy the sights and sounds of the railroad in the steep Sacramento River canyon. Dunsmuir is a Union Pacific "Train Town" and enjoys many financial benefits because of its relationship with the railroad. Dunsmuir has frequent events that draw people from wide. Dunsmuir has been described by many as an ideal venue. During the summer, the City hosts many local weekend festivals, including "State of Jefferson Brewfest", "Dogwood Daze", "Railroad Days" and the "Tribute to the Trees" al fresco dinner/concert along the river in the City's pristine park, home to Dunsmuir Botanical Gardens.
These events, along with the wonderful work done by the volunteers of the Botanical Gardens, bring joy to those visiting Dunsmuir. The City has another river's edge park, Tauhindauli Park, over which passes Interstate Five, several popular easy access fishing spots. Sites in and near Dunsmuir have been inhabited for over 5000 years. At least three waves of early peoples swept through area. At the time of the first European-American contact in the 1820s, the site of Dunsmuir was within the range of the Okwanuchu tribe of Native Americans; some believe the indigenous peoples of the area were wiped out when the U. S. Army fed them poisoned beef when they signed a peace treaty. However, this point remains open to speculation, as there are few concrete sources of evidence to support this claim. During the 1820s, early European-American hunters and trappers passed through Dunsmuir's site, following the Siskiyou Trail. In the mid-1830s, pioneer horse and cattle drives came up the Sacramento Canyon, delivering livestock from Mexican California to the new settlements in the Oregon Country to the north.
In 1841, an overland party of the famous United States Exploring Expedition passed through the area. The California Gold Rush led to increased traffic along the Siskiyou Trail through Dunsmuir's site, leading to the first non-Native American settlers at Upper Soda Springs in north Dunsmuir in the early 1850s; the discovery of gold at Yreka, California increased movement through the site of Dunsmuir, a toll bridge and stagecoach hotel were built at Upper Soda Springs. In 1887, the completion of the Central Pacific Railroad along the line of the Siskiyou Trail led to the creation of the modern town of Dunsmuir; the railroad developed a division point on the flats south of Upper Soda Springs, where railroad steam engines would be serviced, added to trains to push them up the steep grades north of town. A roundhouse and turntable were built. All this activity required the creation of a town known as'Poverty Flats' or'Pusher'. South of the present downtown and north of Castella is an area known as Nutglade, known as Dunsmuir and before that, Cedar Flat.
So the name moved north from the South rail yard to the main rail yard. During the railroad heyday, Dunsmuir was the largest town in this County, the size of Delaware and Rhode Island combined. In 1888, Alexander Dunsmuir, second son of British Columbian coal baron Robert Dunsmuir, was passing through, according to contemporary accounts, was so taken with the beauty of the area that he offered to donate a fountain to the new town, if they would rename the town in his honor; the offer was accepted, Dunsmuir's fountain remains operational, relocated to the City Park's baseball field, frequented by Babe Ruth and other N. Y. Yankees. By the early 1900s, Dunsmuir was the largest town in Siskiyou County, for a long time had been the largest California city north of Sacramento; the construction of the Pacific Highway along the Siskiyou Trail in the mid-1910s brought more tourists. By the mid-1950s, the railroad transitioned from steam to diesel locomotives, the substantial workforce in Dunsmuir was not needed, resulting in the town's contraction.
Interstate 5 runs through the canyon along with the upper Sacramento River. As a result, Dunsmuir retains today much of the charm and scale of the 1920s and 1930s, a
Interstate 5 is the main Interstate Highway on the West Coast of the United States, running parallel to the Pacific coast of the contiguous U. S. from Mexico to Canada. It travels through the states of California and Washington, serving several large cities on the U. S. West Coast, including San Diego, Los Angeles, Sacramento and Seattle, it is the only continuous Interstate highway to touch both the Mexican border and the Canadian border. Upon crossing the Mexican border at its southern terminus, Interstate 5 continues to Tijuana, Baja California as Mexico Federal Highway 1. Upon crossing the Canadian border at its northern terminus, it continues to Vancouver as British Columbia Highway 99. Interstate 5 was created in 1956 as part of the Interstate Highway System, but was predated by several auto trails and highways built in the early 20th century; the Pacific Highway auto trail was built in the 1910s and 1920s by the states of California and Washington, was incorporated into U. S. Route 99 in 1926.
Interstate 5 follows the route of US 99, with the exception of a portion in the Central Valley of California. The freeway was built in segments between 1956 and 1979, including expressway sections of US 99 that were built earlier to bypass various towns along the route; the southernmost point of I-5 is at the Mexican border at the San Ysidro border crossing, one of the busiest in the world. Beginning at the border in San Ysidro, part of the city of San Diego, as the John J. Montgomery Freeway, I-5 goes through the suburbs of Chula Vista and National City before reaching downtown San Diego, it parallels the Pacific coastline, going through the northern suburbs of San Diego, bisecting the University of California, San Diego campus, passing the I-805 merge, before passing through the 28 miles of Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton in northern San Diego County. Here I-5 is known as the San Diego Freeway. At Dana Point, I-5 turns inland and heads due north through Mission Viejo to the El Toro Y interchange in southeastern Irvine.
I-5 becomes the Santa Ana Freeway as it runs southeast to northwest, passing through major cities and suburbs in Orange and Southern Los Angeles counties. Southern Californians refer as the Santa Ana Freeway in the Los Angeles area. From this point, the San Diego Freeway continues northward as I-405; when the freeway reaches the East Los Angeles Interchange one mile east of downtown Los Angeles, I-5 becomes the Golden State Freeway. The route continues through the San Fernando Valley and crosses the Newhall Pass through the Santa Susana Mountains into the Santa Clarita Valley; the interchange with State Route 14 is unusual in that truck traffic is separated into its own lanes for both the mainline of the freeway and the transition ramps to and from SR 14. For about a four-mile stretch between Santa Clarita Valley and the Pyramid Lake, the northbound and southbound lanes separate and cross sides, with the southbound lanes running to the east of the northbound ones. At that point, the Golden State Freeway rises to the north through the Grapevine to reach the second-highest point of its entire length, the Tejon Pass.
Through the Tehachapi Mountains. Path 26 power lines follow the freeway along this stretch; the freeway descends for 12 miles at Tejon Pass to around 1,600 feet at Grapevine near the southernmost point of the San Joaquin Valley 30 miles south of Bakersfield and 4 mi south from where SR 99 splits away from it in Wheeler Ridge. From SR 99 to south of Tracy, I-5 skirts along the far more remote western edge of the great Central Valley, thus here is removed from population centers such as Bakersfield and Fresno; this part of I-5 is known as the West Side Freeway, is a major connector between the San Francisco Bay Area and Southern California. I-580 splits from I-5 at a point south of Tracy as the West Side Freeway Scenic Byway, the last stretch of the West Side Freeway—providing a loop-route connection to the San Francisco Bay Area. East of Tracy, I-5 intersects with I-205, another freeway that links I-5 to the Bay Area and passes through Tracy. After passing Tracy, I-5 heads north through Stockton and Sacramento before turning west to Woodland.
At Woodland, the Interstate heads northwest again towards Dunnigan, where it converges with I-505. From Dunnigan, I-5 skirts north along the western edge of the Sacramento Valley to Red Bluff. I-5 enters the Shasta Cascade region, passing through Redding and Shasta Lake before climbing up to near the foot of Mount Shasta; the interstate travels to Weed and Yreka before reaching the Oregon border. About three miles north of the California border, the highway crosses 4,310 feet Siskiyou Summit, the highest point on I-5, drops down into the Rogue Valley through Oregon's southern mountains and towns such as Ashland and Grants Pass. Turning north across three passes to the Umpqua Valley and through Roseburg, the mountains tend to turn into hills, as it reaches Cottage Grove, the road enters the Willamette River Valley. At Eugene the highway intersects a short spur route into Downtown Eugene; some city highways intersect on I-5 in the Eugene Metro. The Interstate heads due north, skirting Albany and Corvallis, passing through Salem, crossing through Woodburn.
There were plans to build a spur, called I-305, into Salem. I-5 covers 308 miles in Oregon. Just north of Salem, between mile markers 259 and 260 just short of mile marker 26
Portland is the largest and most populous city in the U. S. state of Oregon and the seat of Multnomah County. It is a major port in the Willamette Valley region of the Pacific Northwest, at the confluence of the Willamette and Columbia rivers; as of 2017, Portland had an estimated population of 647,805, making it the 26th-largest city in the United States, the second-most populous in the Pacific Northwest. 2.4 million people live in the Portland metropolitan statistical area, making it the 25th most populous MSA in the United States. Its Combined Statistical Area ranks 18th-largest with a population of around 3.2 million. 60% of Oregon's population resides within the Portland metropolitan area. Named after Portland, the Oregon settlement began to be populated in the 1830s near the end of the Oregon Trail, its water access provided convenient transportation of goods, the timber industry was a major force in the city's early economy. At the turn of the 20th century, the city had a reputation as one of the most dangerous port cities in the world, a hub for organized crime and racketeering.
After the city's economy experienced an industrial boom during World War II, its hard-edged reputation began to dissipate. Beginning in the 1960s, Portland became noted for its growing progressive political values, earning it a reputation as a bastion of counterculture; the city operates with a commission-based government guided by a mayor and four commissioners as well as Metro, the only directly elected metropolitan planning organization in the United States. The city government is notable for its land-use investment in public transportation. Portland is recognized as one of the world's most environmentally conscious cities because of its high walkability, large community of bicyclists, farm-to-table dining, expansive network of public transportation options, over 10,000 acres of public parks, its climate is marked by cool, rainy winters. This climate is ideal for growing roses, Portland has been called the "City of Roses" for over a century. During the prehistoric period, the land that would become Portland was flooded after the collapse of glacial dams from Lake Missoula, in what would become Montana.
These massive floods occurred during the last ice age and filled the Willamette Valley with 300 to 400 feet of water. Before American pioneers began arriving in the 1800s, the land was inhabited for many centuries by two bands of indigenous Chinook people—the Multnomah and the Clackamas; the Chinook people occupying the land were first documented in 1805 by Meriwether Lewis and William Clark. Before its European settlement, the Portland Basin of the lower Columbia River and Willamette River valleys had been one of the most densely populated regions on the Pacific Coast. Large numbers of pioneer settlers began arriving in the Willamette Valley in the 1830s via the Oregon Trail, though life was centered in nearby Oregon City. In the early 1840s a new settlement emerged ten miles from the mouth of the Willamette River halfway between Oregon City and Fort Vancouver; this community was referred to as "Stumptown" and "The Clearing" because of the many trees cut down to allow for its growth. In 1843 William Overton saw potential in the new settlement but lacked the funds to file an official land claim.
For 25 cents, Overton agreed to share half of the 640-acre site with Asa Lovejoy of Boston. In 1845 Overton sold his remaining half of the claim to Francis W. Pettygrove of Maine. Both Pettygrove and Lovejoy wished to rename "The Clearing" after their respective hometowns; this controversy was settled with a coin toss that Pettygrove won in a series of two out of three tosses, thereby providing Portland with its namesake. The coin used for this decision, now known as the Portland Penny, is on display in the headquarters of the Oregon Historical Society. At the time of its incorporation on February 8, 1851, Portland had over 800 inhabitants, a steam sawmill, a log cabin hotel, a newspaper, the Weekly Oregonian. A major fire swept through downtown in August 1873, destroying twenty blocks on the west side of the Willamette along Yamhill and Morrison Streets, causing $1.3 million in damage. By 1879, the population had grown to 17,500 and by 1890 it had grown to 46,385. In 1888, the city built the first steel bridge built on the West Coast.
Portland's access to the Pacific Ocean via the Willamette and Columbia rivers, as well as its easy access to the agricultural Tualatin Valley via the "Great Plank Road", provided the pioneer city with an advantage over other nearby ports, it grew quickly. Portland remained the major port in the Pacific Northwest for much of the 19th century, until the 1890s, when Seattle's deepwater harbor was connected to the rest of the mainland by rail, affording an inland route without the treacherous navigation of the Columbia River; the city had its own Japantown, for one, the lumber industry became a prominent economic presence, due to the area's large population of Douglas Firs, Western Hemlocks, Red Cedars, Big Leaf Maple trees. Portland developed a reputation early in its history as a gritty port town; some historians have described the city's early establishment as being a "scion of New England. In 1889, The Oregonian called Portland "the most filthy city in the Northern States", due to the unsanitary sewers and gutters, and, at the turn of the 20th century, it was considered one of the most dangerous port cities in the world.
The city housed a large number of saloons
The Umpqua River on the Pacific coast of Oregon in the United States is 111 miles long. One of the principal rivers of the Oregon Coast and known for bass and shad, the river drains an expansive network of valleys in the mountains west of the Cascade Range and south of the Willamette Valley, from which it is separated by the Calapooya Mountains. From its source northeast of Roseburg, the Umpqua flows northwest through the Oregon Coast Range and empties into the Pacific at Winchester Bay; the river and its tributaries flow within Douglas County, which encompasses most of the watershed of the river from the Cascades to the coast. The "Hundred Valleys of the Umpqua" form the heart of the timber industry of southern Oregon centered on Roseburg; the Native Americans in the Umpqua's watershed consist of several tribes, such as the Umpqua, the Kalapuya. These tribes witnessed much of the Great Flood of 1862, during which the Umpqua and other rivers rose to levels so high that the oldest Indians had never seen a greater flood.
The North Umpqua and South Umpqua rivers rise in the Southern Oregon Cascades, flow west for over 100 miles to join 6 miles northwest of Roseburg. In modern terminology, the "Umpqua Valley" is sometimes taken to refer to the populated lower reaches of the South Umpqua south of Roseburg, along the route of Interstate 5; the North Umpqua rises from snowmelt and is considered one of the premier summer steelhead streams in the West. From Roseburg, the Umpqua flows northwest through broad farming valleys in the Oregon Coast Range in a serpentine course past the settlement of Umpqua and the city Elkton. At Elkton, it turns to flow west through a narrower canyon past Scottsburg, located at the head of tide, it enters Winchester Bay on the Pacific near Reedsport. It receives the Smith River from the north near its estuary on Winchester Bay; the Umpqua River Light protects ships nearing the mouth of the river. The Umpqua is one of four major rivers in Oregon that start in or east of the Cascade Range and reach the Pacific Ocean.
The others are Klamath River and Columbia River. Named tributaries from source to mouth are the North Umpqua and South Umpqua rivers followed by Hidden Valley, Mill and Rock creeks. Next come Bottle, Wolf, Leonard and Lost creeks followed by Galagher Canyon. Yellow Creek is next Deep Gulch and McGee, Martin, Williams, Mehl and Heddin creeks. Further downstream is Elk Creek Grubbe, Beener, Sawyer, Stony Brook, Little Stony Brook creeks. Come Scott, Lutsinger, Burchard, Golden and Little Mill Creek. Mill Creek is next, followed by Luder, Franklin, Indian Charlie and Dean creeks. Entering the lower reaches are the Smith River and Scholfield and Winchester creeks. In the early 19th century the river valley was inhabited by the Coquille tribe of Native Americans; the tribe ceded most of its land to the U. S. government in the 1854 Treaty with the Umpqua and Kalapuya, agreeing to move to a reservation in Lincoln County as part of the Confederated Tribes of Siletz. The river itself is named for a band of the Coquille.
The Umpqua River valley was inhabited by several different bands of Indians: the Athabaskan-speaking Upper Umpqua, Takelman speaking Cow Creek Band of Umpqua, the Yoncalla in the north, the Quich from Scottsburg/Wells Creek to the coast. The Quich spoke a language distantly related to the Coos Bay languages. In the Great Flood of 1862, the Umpqua River had the largest flood known to all of the area's Indians at the time, water was 10 to 15 feet higher than the 1853 flood, it rose from November 3 to December 3, subsided for two days rose again until December 9. At Fort Umpqua, communication up river was cut off above Scottsburg, the river was full of floating houses, barns and produce. At Port Orford, the Coquille River swept away settlers' property. Great damage occurred on the Rogue River and on other small streams; the Umpqua River boasts some of the world's best fly-fishing, salmon fishing, sturgeon fishing. Umpqua river fishing is famous for its small-mouth bass, striped bass, shad population.
There are several campgrounds and RV parks on the Umpqua River, some of which offer riverfront RV camping, boat ramps, fish cleaning stations, hot showers for guests to use. List of rivers of Oregon List of longest streams of Oregon Umpqua Basin Umpqua River in the Oregon Encyclopedia Oregon Coastal Atlas: Umpqua River Estuary The Umpqua Basin Explorer from Oregon State University Floods of November 1996 through January 1997 in the Umpqua River Basin, OregonUnited States Geological Survey
United States Exploring Expedition
The United States Exploring Expedition of 1838–1842 was an exploring and surveying expedition of the Pacific Ocean and surrounding lands conducted by the United States. The original appointed commanding officer was Commodore Thomas ap Catesby Jones. Funding for the original expedition was requested by President John Quincy Adams in 1828, Congress would not implement funding until eight years later. In May 1836, the oceanic exploration voyage was authorized by Congress and created by President Andrew Jackson; the expedition is sometimes called the "U. S. Ex. Ex." for short, or the "Wilkes Expedition" in honor of its next appointed commanding officer, United States Navy Lieutenant Charles Wilkes. The expedition was of major importance to the growth of science in the United States, in particular the then-young field of oceanography. During the event, armed conflict between Pacific islanders and the expedition was common and dozens of natives were killed in action, as well as a few Americans. Through the lobbying efforts of Jeremiah N. Reynolds, the United States House of Representatives passed a resolution on May 21, 1828, requesting President John Quincy Adams to send a ship to explore the Pacific.
Adams was keen on the resolution and ordered his Secretary of the Navy to ready a ship, the Peacock, while the House voted an appropriation in December Yet, the bill stalled in the US Senate in February 1829. However, under President Andrew Jackson, Congress passed legislation in 1836 approving the exploration mission, yet again, the effort stalled under Secretary of the Navy Mahlon Dickerson until President Van Buren assumed office and pushed the effort forward. The expedition was under the command Commodore Jones, but he resigned in November 1837, frustrated with all of the procrastination. Secretary of War Joel Roberts Poinsett, in April 1838 assigned command to Wilkes, after more senior officers refused the command. Wilkes had a reputation for hydrography and magnetism. Additionally, Wilkes had received mathematics training from Nathaniel Bowditch, triangulation methods from Ferdinand Hassler, geomagnetism from James Renwick. Personnel included naturalists, botanists, a mineralogist, a taxidermist, a philologist.
They were carried aboard the sloops-of-war USS Vincennes, USS Peacock, the brig USS Porpoise, the full-rigged ship Relief, which served as a store-ship, two schooners, Sea Gull and USS Flying Fish, which served as tenders. On the afternoon of August 18, 1838, the vessels weighed set to sea under full sail. By 0730 the next morning, they had passed the lightship off Willoughby Spit and discharged the pilot; the fleet headed to Madeira, taking advantage of the prevailing winds. Coincidentally, Commodore George C. Read in command of the East India Squadron aboard the flagship frigate USS Columbia, together with the frigate USS John Adams, were at the time in the process of circumnavigating the globe when the ships paused for the second Sumatran punitive expedition, which required no detour; the expedition consisted of a great many people, a lot of whom were not assigned to any specific vessel. Others served on more than one vessel. Ships Command Naval officers Scientific corps Wilkes was to search for vigias, or shoals, as reported by John Purdy, but failed to corroborate those claims for the locations given.
The squadron arrived in the Madeira Islands on September 16, 1838, Porto Praya on October 6. The Peacock arrived at Rio de Janeiro on November 21, the Vincennes with brigs and schooners on November 24. However, the Relief did not arrive until the November 27, setting a record for 100 days. While there, they used Enxados Island in Guanabara Bay for an observatory and naval yard for repair and refitting; the Squadron did not leave Rio de Janeiro until January 6, 1839, arriving at the mouth of the Río Negro on January 25. On February 19, the squadron joined the Relief, Flying Fish, Sea Gull in Orange Harbor, Hoste Island, after passing through Le Maire Strait. While there, the expedition came in contact with the Fuegians. Wilkes sent an expedition south in an attempt to exceed Captain Cook's farthest point south, 71°10'; the Flying Fish reached 70° on March 22, in the area about 100 miles north of Thurston Island, what is now called Cape Flying Fish, the Walker Mountains. The squadron joined the Peacock in Valparaiso on May 10.
On June 6, the squadron arrived San Lorenzo, off Callao for repair and provisioning, while Wilkes dispatched the Relief homewards on June 21. Leaving South America on July 12, the expedition reached Reao of the Tuamotu Group on August 13, Tahiti on September 11, they departed Tahiti on October 10. The expedition visited Samoa and New South Wales, Australia. In December 1839, the expedition sailed from Sydney into the Antarctic Ocean and reported the discovery of the Antarctic continent on January 16, 1840, when Henry Eld and William Reynolds aboard the Peacock sighted Eld Peak and Reynolds Peak along the George V Coast. On the January 19, Reynolds spotted Cape Hudson. On January 25, the Vincennes sighted the mountains behind the Cook Ice Shelf, similar peaks at Piner Bay on January 30, had covered 800 miles of coastline by February 12, from 140° 30' E. to 112° 16' 12"E. when Wilkes acknowledged they had "discovered the Antarctic Continent." Named Wilkes Land, it includes Claire Land, Banzare Land, Sabrina Land, Budd Land, Knox Land.
They reached a westward goal of 105° E. the edge of Queen Mary Land, before departing to the north again on February 21. The Porpoise came across the French expedition of Jules Dumont d'Urville on January 30. However, due to a misunderstanding of each other's intentions, the Porpoise and Astrolabe were unable to communicate
Ewing Young was an American fur trapper and trader from Tennessee who traveled in what was the northern Mexico frontier territories of Santa Fe de Nuevo México and Alta California before settling in the Oregon Country. Young traded along the Santa Fe Trail, followed parts of the Old Spanish Trail west, established new trails, he moved north to the Willamette Valley. As a prominent and wealthy citizen in Oregon, his death was the impetus for the assemblies that several years established the Provisional Government of Oregon. Ewing Young was born in Tennessee to a farming family in 1799. In the early 1820s he had moved to Missouri the far western edge of the American frontier, not far from the border of the Spanish-controlled territories of present-day Texas, New Mexico and the Southwestern United States. While residing in Missouri he farmed on the Missouri River at Charitan. Under the Spanish colonial system, trade between Americans and the Spanish outpost at Santa Fe was prohibited, but with the end of the Mexican War of Independence Spanish authorities were removed from the area in 1821.
American traders operating out of St. Louis, were eager to test whether commercial activities in Santa Fe would now be allowed, a small group of Americans returned in December 1821 from a small trading foray. At age 18 Young sold the farm he had purchased and eagerly signed up to join a somewhat larger group bound for Santa Fe. In May 1822 this party departed, becoming the first overland wagon train to traverse the Santa Fe Trail. Young and the others found; the Spanish and Mexicans had not focused on trapping fur-bearing animals of the Southwest as demand was small within the Spanish trading system. Expeditions of the Hudson's Bay Company, the American Fur Company and others established the North American fur trade in response to demand for furs in American and European markets, the new trail opened up fresh hunting grounds. For the next nine years Young pioneered trapping in the region, dividing his time between Santa Fe and Missouri, he led many of the first American expeditions into the mountains and watercourses of the present-day states of New Mexico, Colorado and Arizona.
Young and his associates established a commercial route between Nuevo México and Missouri that exchanged Mexican furs and mules for American-produced trade goods. When they returned to Nuevo Mexico, they sold the American goods for silver coin. During the trapping expedition of 1827–1828, Young employed a teenaged Kit Carson. Despite tension that developed with Mexican authorities trying to restrict American activities, Young became a successful trapper and businessman, he set up a trading post in Pueblo de Taos in northern Nuevo Mexico, in the late 1820s. During his time in Mexico he was called Joachin John or Joaquin Jóven by fellow inhabitants. In the spring of 1830, Young led the first American trapping expedition to reach the Pacific Coast from Santa Fe, traveling via the Salt and Verde rivers cross-country to the Colorado River and on across the Mojave Desert following the trail marked three years before by Jedediah Smith arriving at Mission San Gabriel Arcángel, where they recuperated.
The group visited Mission San Fernando Rey de España on their way north into California's great Central Valley via its southern San Joaquin Valley section. Once there, the group moved north to the Sacramento Valley, where they encountered Peter Skene Ogden of the Hudson's Bay Company; the two groups jointly trapped the valley before the Americans set off for the Tule River. After a short trapping excursion there, the party encountered an official from the Mission San José, trying capture members of the mission Ohlone people. With the aid of eleven of Young's trappers the "fugitives" were taken back to the mission, where Young visited on 11 July. From here the Americans moved on to San Francisco Bay to trade their pelts. After this they went south to Pueblo de Los Angeles and back to Taos before the end of 1830. At the time of his return to Taos with the proceeds of this expedition, Young was established as one of the wealthiest Americans in Mexican territory. Over the next few years and his group continued traveling to Alta California to trap and trade.
In 1834 in San Diego, Young encountered Hall J. Kelley, the great promoter of the Oregon Country from Boston. Kelley invited Ewing Young to accompany him north to Oregon. After re-thinking, Young agreed to travel with Kelley and they set out in July 1834, with a group including Webley John Hauxhurst and Joseph Gale, both prominent figures in the Willamette Valley, accompanying them. Young and Kelley arrived at the Hudson's Bay Company post Fort Vancouver on October 17, 1834, center of the Columbia District; the HBC was the preeminent economic force in the region's fur trade. At the time the Oregon Country was jointly occupied by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland and the United States of America. Young decided to settle permanently on the west bank of the Willamette River, near the mouth of Chehalem Creek, opposite Champoeg, his home is believed to be the first house built by European Americans on that side of the river. Dr. John McLoughlin of the HBC tried to discourage American settlers in the region.
The Mexican government of Alta California accused Young and his group of having stolen 200 horses when they left. The group denied this. McLoughlin blacklisted Young from doing business with the HBC. In 1836, Young secured a vat from Nathaniel Jarvis Wyeth's failed post on Wapato Island