The Siskiyou Mountains are a coastal mountain range in the northern Klamath Mountains in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the United States. They extend in an arc for approximately 100 miles from east of Crescent City, northeast along the side of the Klamath River into Josephine. The mountain range forms a barrier between the watersheds of the Klamath River to the south and the Rogue River to the north. These mountains are not the highest of the Klamath Mountains, but due to the relief so close to the Pacific Ocean and this leads to forests that grow with heavy vegetation. Diversity abounds because western canyons can receive over 100 inches of rain in winters while eastern areas are slightly more arid. Since the Siskiyous trend both north to south and east to west, they hold species that range from coastal, like Coast Redwood, to Cascadian, like Alaska Yellow-Cedar, much of the range is within the Rogue River – Siskiyou and Klamath national forests. The Pacific Crest Trail follows a portion of the ridge of the range, the Klamath-Siskiyou forests are noted for their high biodiversity.
The origin of the word siskiyou is not known, one version is that it is the Chinook Jargon word for bob-tailed horse. According to historian Richard Mackie, siskiyou was a Cree word for a bob-tailed horse, the Cree were in the area as part of McLeods Hudsons Bay Company expedition, and had been recruited far away in their homeland in eastern Canada. Still others attribute the name to a tribe of Native Americans. Natives speaking the Athapaskan Language lived along the Rogue River prior to 1850 and these settlements were primarily winter residences, and the people likely spent much of the summer in the mountains. Most early exploration of the came from the coast, beginning in 1775. He would be followed in 1791 and 1792 by other explorers like captain George Vancouver, James Baker, the Siskiyou Trail stretched from Californias Central Valley through the Siskiyous to Oregons Willamette Valley. As settlement increased with a variety of new incentives, tensions over relations with the natives increased, in the 1850s, following the Donation Land Claim Act, settlers came to the area to prospect for gold.
The new settlements grew enough for Jackson County to be founded, with its seat in Jacksonville, mines opened up as various claims were made. This led to the 1855 Rogue River Wars, which ended in 1856, the new population needed to be supported by an improved infrastructure. By 1859, the trail had been replaced by a toll road, a telegraph line was built over the summit in 1864. By the end of the 1870s, the first private lumber mills were established in the mountains had been established in some of the lower creeks, commercial orchards began to be planted in 1885
Devils Postpile National Monument
Devils Postpile National Monument is located near Mammoth Mountain in eastern California. The national monument protects Devils Postpile, a rock formation of columnar basalt. In addition, the John Muir Trail and Pacific Crest Trail merge into one trail as they pass through the monument, excluding a small developed area containing the monument headquarters, visitor center and a campground, the National Monument lies within the borders of the Ansel Adams Wilderness. The monument was once part of Yosemite National Park, but discovery of gold in 1905 near Mammoth Lakes prompted a change that left the Postpile on adjacent public land. Later, a proposal to build a dam called for blasting the Postpile into the river. Influential Californians, including John Muir, persuaded the government to stop the demolition and, in 1911. The flora and fauna at Devils Postpile are typical of the Sierra Nevada, dark-eyed juncos and white-crowned sparrows are common in the summer. The name Devils Postpile refers to a cliff of columnar basalt.
Radiometric dating indicates the formation was created by a flow at some time less than 100,000 years ago. Estimates of the thickness range from 400 feet to 600 feet. The lava that now makes up the Postpile was near the bottom of this mass, because of its great thickness, much of the mass of pooled lava cooled slowly and evenly, which is why the columns are so long and so symmetrical. Columnar jointing occurs when certain types of contract while cooling. A glacier removed much of this mass of rock and left a surface on top of the columns with very noticeable glacial striations. The Postpiles columns average 2 feet in diameter, the largest being 3.5 feet, together they look like tall posts stacked in a pile, hence the features name. If the lava had cooled perfectly evenly, all of the columns would be expected to be hexagonal, but some of the columns have different polygonal cross-sections due to variations in cooling. A survey of 400 of the Postpiles columns found that 44. 5% were 6-sided,37. 5% 5-sided,9. 5% 4-sided,8.
0% 7-sided, compared with other examples of columnar jointing, the Postpile has more hexagonal columns. Another feature that places the Postpile in a category is the lack of horizontal jointing. Several stones from the Devils Postpile can be seen at the entrance to the United States Geological Survey headquarters lot in Reston, although the basaltic columns are impressive, they are not unique
The Klamath Mountains are a rugged and lightly populated series of mountain ranges in northwestern California and southwestern Oregon in the western United States. As a consequence of the geology and soil types, the harbor several endemic or near-endemic trees. The mountains are home to a diverse array of fish and animal species, including black bears, large cats, eagles. Millions of acres in the mountains are managed by the United States Forest Service and they are a section of the larger Pacific Border province, which in turn is part of the Pacific Mountain System physiographic division. The northernmost and largest sub-range of the Klamath Mountains are the Siskiyou Mountains, a large portion of the Klamath Mountains is managed by the United States Forest Service. A 211-mile stretch of the Pacific Crest Trail passes through these mountains as well and this section of the PCT is known locally as The Big Bend and is the transition from the California Floristic Province to the Cascades. The Bigfoot Trail is a 400-mile trail through the Klamath Mountains from the Yolla Bolly-Middle Eel Wilderness to Crescent City, the rocks of the Klamath Mountains originated as island arcs and continental fragments in the Pacific Ocean.
The island masses consisted of rifted fragments of pre-existing continents and volcanic island masses created over subduction zones and these island masses contain rocks as old as 500 million years, dating to the early Paleozoic Era. A succession of eight island terranes moved eastward on the ancient Farallon plate, each accretion left a terrane of rock of a single age. During the accretion, subduction of the plate metamorphosed the overlying rock, produced by the metamorphism of basaltic oceanic rocks, and intrusive rocks of gabbroic to granodiorite composition are common rocks within the Klamath terranes. Subsequent lava flows from volcanoes in the Cascade Range and the erosion of the Oregon Coast Range to the north partially covered these rocks with basalt. These communities form the Klamath Mountains ecoregion, one of the principal plant communities in the Klamath Mountains is Mediterranean California Lower Montane Black Oak-Conifer Forest. The flowering plant Kalmiopsis leachiana, endemic to the Klamaths, is limited to the Siskiyou sub-range in Oregon, conifers A large concentration of diverse coniferous species of trees exists in these mountains.
The region has several plant communities, adapted to specific soil types. In 1969, Drs. John O. Sawyer and Dale Thornburgh discovered 17 species of conifers in 1 square mile around Little Duck Lake and they called this diverse area the Miracle Mile. In 2013 Richard Moore identified an 18th species, western juniper and this is now considered the richest assemblage of conifers per unit area in any temperate region on Earth. Californias northernmost stand of pine is found here along the South Fork of the Salmon River. The vast forested wildlands, coupled with a low rate of settlement in the rugged remote terrain
International Union for Conservation of Nature
The International Union for Conservation of Nature is an international organization working in the field of nature conservation and sustainable use of natural resources. It is involved in gathering and analysis, field projects, lobbying. IUCNs mission is to influence and assist societies throughout the world to conserve nature and to ensure that any use of resources is equitable. Over the past decades, IUCN has widened its focus beyond conservation ecology and now incorporates issues related to equality, poverty alleviation. Unlike other international NGOs, IUCN does not itself aim to mobilize the public in support of nature conservation and it tries to influence the actions of governments and other stakeholders by providing information and advice, and through lobbying and partnerships. The organization is best known to the public for compiling and publishing the IUCN Red List. IUCN has a membership of over 1200 governmental and non-governmental organizations, some 11,000 scientists and experts participate in the work of IUCN commissions on a voluntary basis.
It employs approximately 1000 full-time staff in more than 60 countries and its headquarters are in Gland, Switzerland. IUCN has observer and consultative status at the United Nations, and plays a role in the implementation of several conventions on nature conservation. It was involved in establishing the World Wide Fund for Nature, in the past, IUCN has been criticized for placing the interests of nature over those of indigenous peoples. In recent years, its relations with the business sector have caused controversy. It was previously called the International Union for Protection of Nature, establishment In 1947, the Swiss League for the Protection of Nature organised an international conference on the protection of nature in Brunnen. It is considered to be the first government-organized non-governmental organization, the initiative to set up the new organisation came from UNESCO and especially from its first Director General, the British biologist Julian Huxley. At the time of its founding IUPN was the international organisation focusing on the entire spectrum of nature conservation Early years.
Its secretariat was located in Brussels and its first work program focused on saving species and habitats and applying knowledge, advancing education, promoting international agreements and promoting conservation. Providing a solid base for conservation action was the heart of all activities. IUPN and UNESCO were closely associated and they jointly organized the 1949 Conference on Protection of Nature. In preparation for this conference a list of endangered species was drawn up for the first time
The coho salmon is a species of anadromous fish in the salmon family, one of the several species of Pacific salmon. Coho salmon are known as silver salmon or silvers. The scientific species name is based on the Russian common name kizhuch, during their ocean phase, coho salmon have silver sides and dark-blue backs. During their spawning phase, their jaws and teeth become hooked, after entering fresh water, they develop bright-red sides, bluish-green heads and backs, dark bellies and dark spots on their backs. Sexually maturing fish develop a light-pink or rose shading along the belly, mature adults have a pronounced red skin color with darker backs and average 28 inches and 7 to 11 pounds, occasionally reaching up to 36 pounds. They develop a large kype during spawning, mature females may be darker than males, with both showing a pronounced hook on the nose. The eggs hatch in the winter or early spring after six to seven weeks in the redd. Once hatched, they remain mostly immobile in the redd during the life stage.
Alevin no longer have the egg shell, or chorion. The alevin life stage is very sensitive to aquatic and sedimental contaminants, when the yolk sac is completely resorbed, the alevin leaves the redd. Young coho spend one to two years in their natal streams, often spending the first winter in off-channel sloughs. Smolts are generally 100–150 mm and as their parr marks fade, smolts migrate to the ocean from late March through July. Some fish leave fresh water in the spring, spend summer in brackish estuarine ponds, Coho salmon live in salt water for one to three years before returning to spawn. Some precocious males, known as jacks, return as two-year-old spawners, spawning males develop kypes, which are strongly hooked snouts and large teeth. Coho salmon have introduced in all the Great Lakes. The total North Pacific harvest of salmon in 2010 exceeded 6.3 million fish. This corresponds to some 21,000 tonnes in all, Coho salmon are the backbone of the Alaskan troll fishery, the majority are caught by the net fishery.
Coho salmon average 3. 5% by fish and 5. 9% by weight of the annual Alaska salmon harvest, the total North Pacific yields of the pink salmon, chum salmon and sockeye salmon are some 10–20 fold larger by weight
Pinnacles National Park
Pinnacles is managed by the National Park Service and the majority of the park is protected as wilderness. The national park is divided by the formations into East and West Divisions, connected by foot trails. The east side has shade and water, the west has high walls, the rock formations provide for spectacular pinnacles that attract rock climbers. The park features unusual talus caves that house at least thirteen species of bat, Pinnacles is most often visited in spring or fall because of the intense heat during the summer months. Park lands are prime habitat for prairie falcons, and are a site for California condors that have been hatched in captivity. Pinnacles National Monument was established in 1908 by U. S. President Theodore Roosevelt, Pinnacles National Park was created from the former Pinnacles National Monument by legislation passed by Congress in late 2012 and signed into law by President Barack Obama on January 10,2013. Native Americans in the Pinnacles region comprised the Chalon and Mutsun groups of the Ohlone people and these native people declined with the arrival of the Spanish in the 18th century, who brought novel diseases and changes to the natives way of life.
The last Chalon had died or departed from the area by 1810, from 1810 to 1865, when the first Anglo-American settlers arrived, the Pinnacles region was a wilderness without human use or habitation. The establishment of a Spanish mission at Soledad hastened the areas native depopulation through disease, archaeological surveys have found thirteen sites inhabited by Native Americans, twelve of which post-date the establishment of the missions. One site is believed to be about 2000 years old, by the 1880s the Pinnacles, known as the Palisades, were visited by picnickers from the surrounding communities who would explore the caves and camp. The first account of the Pinnacles region appeared in print in 1881, between 1889 and 1891, newspaper articles shifted from describing excursions to the Palisades to calling them the Pinnacles. Interest in the rose to the point that the Hollister Free Lance sent a reporter to the Pinnacles. Investors came from San Francisco to consider placing a hotel there. In 1894 a post office was established in Bear Valley, since there was at least one other Bear Valley in California, the post office was named Cook after Mrs.
Hains maiden name. In 1924 the post office was renamed Pinnacles, Schuyler Hain was a homesteader who arrived in the Pinnacles area in 1891 from Michigan, following his parents and eight siblings to Bear Valley. White, was a student at Stanford University, and White brought one of his professors to see the Pinnacles in 1893, dr. Gilbert was impressed by the scenery, and his comments inspired Hain to publicize the region. Hain led tours to Bear Valley and through the caves, advocating the preservation of the Pinnacles, Hains efforts resulted in a 1904 visit by Stanford president David Starr Jordan, who contacted Fresno Congressman James C. Jordan and Needham in turn influenced Gifford Pinchot to advocate the establishment of the Pinnacles Forest Reserve to President Theodore Roosevelt, Roosevelt proclaimed the establishment on July 8,1906
Death Valley National Park
Death Valley National Park is a national park in the United States. Straddling the border of California and Nevada, located east of the Sierra Nevada, the park protects the northwest corner of the Mojave Desert and contains a diverse desert environment of salt-flats, sand dunes, valleys and mountains. It is the largest national park in the lower 48 states and has declared an International Biosphere Reserve. Approximately 91% of the park is a wilderness area. It is the hottest and lowest of the parks in the United States. The second-lowest point in the Western Hemisphere is in Badwater Basin, the park is home to many species of plants and animals that have adapted to this harsh desert environment. Some examples include creosote bush, bighorn sheep and the Death Valley pupfish, several short-lived boom towns sprang up during the late 19th and early 20th centuries to mine gold and silver. The only long-term profitable ore to be mined was borax, which was transported out of the valley with twenty-mule teams, the valley became the subject of books, radio programs, television series, and movies.
Tourism blossomed in the 1920s, when resorts were built around Stovepipe Wells, Death Valley National Monument was declared in 1933 and the park was substantially expanded and became a national park in 1994. The natural environment of the area has been shaped largely by its geology, the valley itself is actually a graben. The oldest rocks are metamorphosed and at least 1.7 billion years old. Ancient, shallow seas deposited marine sediments until rifting opened the Pacific Ocean, additional sedimentation occurred until a subduction zone formed off the coast. This uplifted the region out of the sea and created a line of volcanoes, the crust started to pull apart, creating the current Basin and Range landform. Valleys filled with sediment and, during the wet times of glacial periods, with lakes, in 2013, Death Valley National Park was designated as a dark sky park by the International Dark-Sky Association. There are two valleys in the park, Death Valley and Panamint Valley. Both of these valleys were formed within the last few million years, the result of this shearing action is additional extension in the central part of Death Valley which causes a slight widening and more subsidence there.
Uplift of surrounding mountain ranges and subsidence of the floor are both occurring. The uplift on the Black Mountains is so fast that the fans there are small
National Park Service
It was created on August 25,1916, by Congress through the National Park Service Organic Act and is an agency of the United States Department of the Interior. As of 2014, the NPS employs 21,651 employees who oversee 417 units, the National Park Service celebrated its centennial in 2016. National parks and national monuments in the United States were originally individually managed under the auspices of the Department of the Interior, the movement for an independent agency to oversee these federal lands was spearheaded by business magnate and conservationist Stephen Mather, as well as J. Horace McFarland. With the help of journalist Robert Sterling Yard, Mather ran a publicity campaign for the Department of the Interior and they wrote numerous articles that praised the scenic and historic qualities of the parks and their possibilities for educational and recreational benefits. This campaign resulted in the creation of a National Park Service, Mather became the first director of the newly formed NPS.
On March 3,1933, President Herbert Hoover signed the Reorganization Act of 1933, the act would allow the President to reorganize the executive branch of the United States government. It wasnt until that summer when the new President, Franklin D. Roosevelt, President Roosevelt agreed and issued two Executive orders to make it happen. In 1951, Conrad Wirth became director of the National Park Service, the demand for parks after the end of the World War II had left the parks overburdened with demands that could not be met. In 1952, with the support of President Dwight D. Eisenhower, he began Mission 66, New parks were added to preserve unique resources and existing park facilities were upgraded and expanded. In 1966, as the Park Service turned 50 years old, emphasis began to turn from just saving great and wonderful scenery, Director George Hartzog began the process with the creation of the National Lakeshores and National Recreation Areas. Since its inception in 1916, the National Park Service has managed each of the United States national parks, Yellowstone National Park was the first national park in the United States.
In 1872, there was no government to manage it. Yosemite National Park began as a park, the land for the park was donated by the federal government to the state of California in 1864 for perpetual conservation. Yosemite was returned to federal ownership, at first, each national park was managed independently, with varying degrees of success. In Yellowstone, the staff was replaced by the U. S. Army in 1886. Due to the irregularities in managing these national treasures, Stephen Mather petitioned the government to improve the situation. In response, Secretary of the Interior Franklin K. Lane challenged him to lobby for creating a new agency, Mather was successful with the ratification of the National Park Service Organic Act in 1916. Later, the agency was given authority over other protected areas, the National Park System includes all properties managed by the National Park Service
Cupressus nootkatensis is a species of trees in the cypress family native to the coastal regions of northwestern North America. This species goes by common names including, Nootka cypress, yellow cypress, Alaska cypress, Nootka cedar, yellow cedar, Alaska cedar. However, this placement does not fit with the morphology and phenology of the cones, genetic evidence, published by Gadek et al. strongly supported its return to Cupressus and exclusion from Chamaecyparis. Published in 1864 but overlooked or ignored by subsequent authors. Little et al. therefore synonymised Xanthocyparis with Callitropsis, the name for these species under the ICBN when treated in a distinct genus. The name Xanthocyparis has now proposed for conservation, and the 2011 International Botanical Congress followed that recommendation. In 2010, Mao et al. performed a detailed molecular analysis. However, this is disputed, as the tree would compose a monophyletic subgenus, the argument that it warrants treatment as a monotypic genus is not without merit, in which case the correct name is Callitropsis nootkatensis.
Nootka cypress is native to the west coast of North America, from the Kenai Peninsula in Alaska and it is typically occurring on wet sites in mountains, often close to the tree line, but sometimes at lower altitudes. Cupressus nootkatensis is a tree growing up to 40 meters tall. The foliage is in flat sprays, with green, 3–5 mm long scale-leaves. The Caren Range on the west coast of British Columbia is home to the oldest Nootka Cypress specimens in the world, in Alaska, where the tree is primarily referred to as yellow cedar, extensive research has been conducted into large-scale die-offs of yellow cedar stands. These studies have concluded that the tree has depended upon heavy coastal snowpacks to insulate its shallow roots from cold Arctic winters, the impacts of climate change have resulted in thinner, less-persistent snowpacks, in turn causing increased susceptibility to freeze damage. This mortality has been observed over 7% of the species range, substantial future mortality is likely due to warming temperatures and decreasing snowpacks.
The U. S. Fish & Wildlife Service is reviewing whether to designate the species as threatened or endangered and this species has been considered to be one of the finest timber trees in the world and has been exported to China during the last century. The wood has been used for flooring, interior finish and shipbuilding The various physical properties of the make it an attractive material for both general construction and boat building. Due to its slow growth it is hard and, like other cypress woods it is durable, it offers good dimensional stability, and is resistant to weather, insects. It works easily with hand or machine tools, it turns and it can be fastened with glues and nails
Channel Islands National Park
Channel Islands National Park is a United States national park that consists of five of the eight Channel Islands off the coast of the U. S. state of California, in the Pacific Ocean. Although the islands are close to the shore of densely populated Southern California, the park covers 249,561 acres of which 79,019 acres are owned by the federal government. The Nature Conservancy owns and manages 76% of Santa Cruz Island, Channel Islands National Park is home to a wide variety of significant natural and cultural resources. It was designated a U. S. National Monument on April 26,1938, and it was promoted to a National Park on March 5,1980. Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary encompasses the waters six nautical miles around Channel Islands National Park, the Channel Islands were originally discovered in 1542 by the explorer Juan Rodríguez Cabrillo. In 1938 the Santa Barbara and Anacapa islands were designated a national monument, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and Santa Cruz islands were combined with the monument in 1980 to form modern-day Channel Islands National Park.
On January 28,1969 an oil rig belonging to Union Oil experienced a blow-out 6 miles off the coast of California, the resulting spill was, at the time, the largest oil spill to occur in United States territorial waters. Following the spill, tides carried the oil onto the beaches of the Anacapa, San Miguel, Santa Rosa and this spill had a large impact on native wildlife of the Channel Islands. Much of the seabird population was affected, with over an estimated 3,600 avians killed. Meanwhile, seals and other sea life died and washed ashore on both the islands and the mainland and this spill is the third largest oil spill in the United States, only surpassed by the Deepwater Horizon and the Exxon Valdez oil spills. It resulted in a 34,000 acres expansion of the Department of the Interior buffer zone in the channel, the islands within the park extend along the Southern California coast from Point Conception near Santa Barbara to San Pedro, a neighborhood of Los Angeles. Park headquarters and the Robert J.
Lagomarsino Visitor Center are located in the city of Ventura, only three mammals are endemic to the islands, one of which is the deer mouse which is known to carry the sin nombre hantavirus. The spotted skunk and Channel Islands fox are endemic, the island fence lizard is endemic to the Channel Islands. One hundred and forty-five of these species are unique to the islands, Marine life ranges from microscopic plankton to the endangered blue whale, the largest animal on earth. Archeological and cultural resources span a period of more than 10,000 years, the average annual visitation to the parks mainland visitor center was around 300,000 in the period from 2007 to 2016, with 364,807 visiting in 2016. The visitor center is located in the Ventura Harbor Village, the visitor center contains several exhibits that provide information regarding all five islands, native vegetation, marine life and cultural history. Also, visitors can enjoy a film, free of charge. The visitor center is open day, except Thanksgiving and Christmas, from 8, 30AM–5
Chamaecyparis lawsoniana, known as Port Orford cedar or Lawson cypress, is a species of conifer in the genus Chamaecyparis, family Cupressaceae. It is native to Oregon and northwestern California, and grows from sea level up to 1,500 m in the valleys of the Klamath Mountains, often along streams. It is a evergreen tree, maturing up to 197 ft tall or more, with trunks 4–7 ft in diameter, with feathery foliage in flat sprays. The leaves are scale-like, 1⁄8–3⁄16 inch long, with white markings on the underside. The foliage gives off a pungent scent, not unlike parsley. The seed cones are globose, 9⁄32–9⁄16 inch diameter, with 6-10 scales, green at first, maturing brown in early fall, the male cones are 1⁄8–5⁄32 inch long, dark red, turning brown after pollen release in early spring. The bark is reddish-brown, and fibrous to scaly in vertical strips, the USDA officially calls it by the name Port Orford cedar, as do most people in its native area, but some botanists prefer to use the name Lawson cypress instead.
The name Lawsons cypress is widely used in horticulture, the extinct Eocene species Chamaecyparis eureka, known from fossils found on Axel Heiberg Island in Canada, is noted to be very similar to Chamaecyparis pisifera and C. lawsoniana. Its lumber is known for its highly fragrant ginger aroma. Due to the straightness of its grain, it is one of the preferred woods for the manufacture of arrow shafts. It is considered an acceptable, though not ideal, wood for construction of aircraft, however, it is considered more than acceptable for use in stringed instruments. Its fine grain, good strength and tonal quality are regarded for soundboards in guitar making. Several hundred named cultivars of varying shape, growth rates. It thrives best in well-drained but moist soils and this disease is a problem for horticultural plantings in some parts of North America. The tree is killed, though less often, by other species of Phytophthora. Phytophthora lateralis infection begins when mycelium, from a germinated spore, the infection spreads through the inner bark and cambium around the base of the tree.
Spread up the trunk is generally limited, infected tissue dies and effectively girdles the tree. Large trees are likely to be infected than small trees due to larger root areas
The Klamath River flows 263 miles through Oregon and northern California in the United States, emptying into the Pacific Ocean. By average discharge, the Klamath is the second largest river in California after the Sacramento River and it drains an extensive watershed of almost 16,000 square miles that stretches from the arid country of south-central Oregon to the temperate rainforest of the Pacific coast. Unlike most rivers, the Klamath begins in the desert and flows toward the mountains – carving its way through the rugged Cascade Range. The watershed is known for this peculiar geography, and the Klamath has been called a river upside down by National Geographic magazine, the Klamath is the most important North American river south of the Columbia River for anadromous fish migration. Its salmon and rainbow trout have adapted to high water temperatures. The numerous fish were a source of food for Native Americans. Within several decades of settlement, native peoples were forced into reservations.
During the latter days of the California Gold Rush, increasing numbers of miners working the Klamath River and its tributaries. Conflict and introduced diseases left indigenous tribes with only 10% of their original population, steamboats operated briefly on the large lakes of the upper basin, contributing to the growth of towns such as Klamath Falls, before they were replaced by railroads in the late 19th century. In the 19th and 20th centuries, the basin became a productive agricultural region. In the 1960s, the Klamath River was targeted by much larger, one of these projects, the Klamath Diversion, would have reversed the entire flow of the Klamath River to supply farms and urban areas in central and southern California. Today, the Klamath is a recreational river as well as an important source of water for agriculture. It includes many of the longest free-flowing stretches of river in California, however and diversions in the upper basin have often caused water quality issues in the lower half of the river.
Environmental groups and native tribes have proposed changes to water use in the Klamath Basin. The proposal has been endorsed by the U. S. Department of the Interior but has not been authorized by the United States Congress. Upper Klamath Lake, filling a valley at the foot of the eastern slope of the southern High Cascades, is the source of the Klamath River. Its headstreams, begin over 100 miles away—as far as Crater Lake National Park, the Klamath River issues from Klamath Lake at Klamath Falls as a short 1-mile stream known as the Link River, which flows into 18-mile long Lake Ewauna, formed by Keno Dam. Below the dam the river flows west, passing the mostly dry Lower Klamath Lake bed, the Klamath River enters California, where it passes through three more hydroelectric plants and turns south near the town of Hornbrook towards Mount Shasta