House of Representatives of the Philippines
The House of Representatives of the Philippines, is the lower house of the Congress of the Philippines. It is often informally called Congress, Members of the House are officially styled as Representative and sometimes informally called Congressmen/Congresswomen and are elected to a three-year term. They can be re-elected, but cannot serve more than three consecutive terms, around eighty percent of congressmen are district representatives, representing a particular geographical area. There are 234 legislative districts in the country, each composed of about 250,000 people, there are party-list representatives elected through the party-list system who constitute not more than twenty percent of the total number of representatives. The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker, currently Pantaleon Alvarez of Davao del Norte, the official headquarters of the House of Representatives is at the Batasang Pambansa located in the Batasan Hills in Quezon City in Metro Manila. The building is simply called Batasan and the word has become a metonym to refer to the House of Representatives.
At the beginning of American colonial rule, from March 16,1900, william Howard Taft was chosen to be the first American civilian Governor-General and the first leader of this Philippine Commission, which subsequently became known as the Taft Commission. This bicameral legislature was inaugurated in October 1907, under the leadership of Speaker Sergio Osmeña and Floor Leader Manuel L. Quezon, the Rules of the 59th United States Congress was substantially adopted as the Rules of the Philippine Legislature. It is this body, founded as the Philippine Assembly, that would continue in one form or another, in 1916, the Jones Act, officially the Philippine Autonomy Act, changed the legislative system. The Philippine Commission was abolished and a new fully elected, bicameral Philippine Legislature consisting of a House of Representatives, the legislative system was changed again in 1935. The 1935 Constitution established a unicameral National Assembly, but in 1940, through an amendment to the 1935 Constitution, a bicameral Congress of the Philippines consisting of a House of Representatives and a Senate was adopted.
The Liberal bloc of the Nacionalistas permanently split from their ranks and these two will contest all of the elections in what appeared to be a two-party system. This set up continued until President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law, the 1987 Constitution restored the presidential system of government together with a bicameral Congress of the Philippines. Corazon Aquino who nominally had no party, supported the Laban ng Demokratikong Pilipino, with the victory of Fidel V. This meant the restoration of Lakas-NUCD as the top party in the chamber, the same would happen when Benigno Aquino won in 2010, which returned the Liberals into power. The presiding officer is the Speaker, the members of the House of Representatives who are its officers are ex officio members of all of the committees and has a vote. The Speaker is the head of the House of Representatives, the speaker is elected by majority of all the members of the house, including vacant seats. The speaker is elected at the convening of each Congress
Cities of the Philippines
A city is one of the units of local government in the Philippines. As of December 12,2015, there are 145 cities, Cities are entitled to at least one representative in the Philippine House of Representatives if its population reaches 250,000. They are allowed to use a common seal, only an Act of Congress can create or amend a city charter, and with this city charter Congress confers on a city certain powers that regular municipalities or even other cities may not have. A citys local government is headed by an elected by popular vote. The vice mayor serves as the officer of the Sangguniang Panlungsod. Upon receiving their charters, cities receive a full complement of executive departments to serve their constituents. Some departments are established on a basis, depending on the needs of the city. Source, Local Government Code of 1991, like municipalities, are composed of barangays, which can range from urban neighborhoods, to rural communities. Barangays are sometimes grouped into officially defined administrative districts, examples of such are the cities of Manila, Davao and Samal.
Some cities such as Caloocan and Pasay even have a level between the district and barangay levels, called a zone. However, geographic districts and zones are not political units, there are no elected city government officials in these city-specific administrative levels, rather they only serve to make city planning, statistics-gathering other administrative tasks easier and more convenient. Cities are classified according to annual income based on the previous four calendar years. There are currently 33 highly urbanized cities in the Philippines,16 of which are located in Metro Manila, Component Cities, Cities which do not meet the preceding requirements are deemed part of the province in which they are geographically located. If a component city is located along the boundaries of two or more provinces, it shall be considered part of the province of which it used to be a municipality, majority of the remaining cities are considered component cities. The five exceptions are listed below, independent Component Cities, Cities of this type have charters that explicitly prohibit their residents to vote for provincial officials.
These cities are considered independent from the province in which they are geographically located, there are five such cities, Dagupan, Naga and Santiago. There are 38 independent cities in the Philippines, all of which are classified as highly urbanized or independent component cities. Some independent cities are still grouped with their provinces for the purposes of representation in the Congress of the Philippines
The Sandiganbayan is a special appellate collegial court in the Philippines. The special court was established by Presidential Decree No,1486, as subsequently modified by Presidential Decree No.1606 and by Republic Acts numbered 7975 and 8249. It is equal in rank to the Court of Appeals, and consists of fourteen Associate Justices, the Sandiganbayan is housed in the Centennial Building, Commonwealth Avenue, National Government Center, Quezon City, Metro Manila
Politics of the Philippines
This system revolves around three separate and sovereign yet interdependent branches, the legislative branch, the executive branch, and the judicial branch. Executive power is exercised by the government under the leadership of the president, legislative power is vested in both the government and the two-chamber Congress, the Senate and the House of Representatives. Judicial power is vested in the courts with the Supreme Court of the Philippines as the highest judicial body, Elections are administered by an independent Commission on Elections every three years starting 1102. Held every second Monday of May, the winners in the elections take office on the following June 30, local government is produced by local government units from the provinces, cities and barangays. While the most regions do not have power, and exist merely for administration purposes. While local government units enjoy autonomy, much of their budget is derived from allocations from the national government, the upper house, the Senate, is composed of 24 senators elected via the plurality-at-large voting with the country as one at-large district.
The senators elect amongst themselves a Senate President, the lower house is the House of Representatives, currently composed of 292 representatives, with no more than 20% elected via party-list system, with the rest elected from legislative districts. The House of Representatives is headed by the Speaker, each bill needs the consent of both houses in order to be submitted to the president for his signature. If the president vetoes the bill, Congress can override the veto with a two-thirds supermajority, Congress decisions are mostly via majority vote, except for voting on constitutional amendments and other matters. Each house has its own inherent power, with the Senate given the power to vote on treaties, the constitution provides Congress with impeachment powers, with the House of Representatives having the power to impeach, and the Senate having the power to try the impeached official. The party of the president controls the House of Representatives. From 1907 to 1941, the Nacionalistas operated under a dominant-party system, during World War II, the Japanese-sponsored Second Philippine Republic forced all the existing parties to merge into the KALIBAPI that controlled the party as a one-party state.
From 1945 to 1972, the Philippines was under a two-party system, with the Nacionalistas and their offshoots Liberals alternating power, the political climate ushered in a multi-party system which persists into this day. Executive power is vested to the President, in practice however, the president, who is both the head of state and head of government, is directly elected to a single six-year term via first past the post. In case of death, resignation or incapacitation, the Vice President acts as the president until the expiration of the term, the Vice President is elected separately from the president, and may be of differing political parties. While the vice president has no powers aside from acting as president when the latter is unable to do so. The cabinet is composed of the heads of the executive departments, which provide services to the people. The president is the commander in chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, the president is given several military powers, although once exercised, Congress is able to prolong or end it
Vice President of the Philippines
The Vice President of the Philippines is the second-highest executive official of the government of the Philippines, after the President. The Vice President currently holds office at the Quezon City Reception House in Quezon City, the text of the 1987 Constitution refers to the person and office of the Vice-President, with a dash connecting the two words. However, the person and office is referred to today without the dash. The first known vice president claiming to be part of a government was Mariano Trías and he was elected during the elections of the Tejeros Convention, and was elected vice president of the Supreme Council that oversaw negotiations for the Biak na Bato pact in 1897. This Supreme Council had no sovereignty, did not govern any state and this council was replaced later, with no such position existing during the countrys declaration of independence in 1898, which had a dictatorial government. Officially, the countrys first actual republic was founded in 1899, trias instead served in the cabinets of Apolinario Mabini and Pedro Paterno, as finance minister and war minister, respectively.
Trias is not considered a Philippine Vice President as the Supreme Council did not proclaim any sovereign state, the 1935 Constitution of the Philippines established the position of Vice President, and may be appointed by the President to a cabinet position. The first person elected to the position of Vice President under the constitution was Sergio Osmeña, prior to independence in 1946, that cabinet portfolio was Secretary of Public Instruction, which had once been reserved only for the Vice Governor-General. Vice President Osmena held that position from 1935–1939, and a portfolio in the War Cabinet during World War II. After independence, the cabinet position became that of Secretary of Foreign Affairs. Vice President Fernando Lopez declined the Foreign Affairs portfolio when he became Quirinos Vice President in 1949, gloria Macapagal-Arroyo served as Secretary of Social Welfare and Development. Arturo Tolentino was officially proclaimed Vice President-elect by the Regular Batasang Pambansa in 1986, within a week after Tolentinos oath, the People Power Revolution resulted in the collapse of the Marcos regime.
On February 25,1986 Corazon Aquino and Salvador H. Laurel were sworn in as President, the office of Vice President was abolished and not included in the original version of the 1973 Constitution. It was, reinstated in subsequent amendments, just before the elections in 1986 that led to the People Power Revolution that installed Corazon Aquino into the Presidency. The Vice President is elected in the manner as, but separately from. Both the President and the Vice President are elected by plurality vote where the candidate who garners the highest number of votes, whether a majority or not. The Vice President is barred from serving more than two consecutive terms, the Vice President is first in the presidential line of succession. The Constitution provides several circumstances where the Vice President shall assume the Presidency or serve as acting President, in case of the death, permanent disability, removal from office, or resignation of the President, the Vice President shall assume the Presidency
Cabinet of the Philippines
The Cabinet of the Philippines consists of the heads of the largest part of the executive branch of the national government of the Philippines. Currently, it includes the secretaries of 20 executive departments and the heads of several other minor agencies and offices that are subordinate to the President of the Philippines. If the presidential appointees are approved, they are sworn into office, receive the title Secretary, and begin to function their duties. Article 7, Section 16 of the Constitution of the Philippines says that the President The men and women listed below form the cabinet and are the heads of the departments of the Philippines. They are listed in the order of precedence established by the government, all departments are listed by their present-day name with their English names on top and Filipino names at the bottom. Some officials have cabinet-level rank, but are not Secretaries of Executive Departments and they are the following, The foundation date of various departments vary, depending on whether their origin can be traced to the First Republic or during the American era.
Until the Tejeros Convention in 1897, government functions were conducted by the Katipunan, the convention decided to replace the Katipunan with a provisional revolutionary government. This was in turn replaced by the Biak na Bato Republic which in turn was disbanded because of the Pact of Biak na Bato, the Revolutionary movement was led in exile by the Hong Kong Junta. The Revolution resumed in May,1898 and resulted in what is considered the first actual government. Constitution of the First Republic explicitly stated the government ministries to be formed, Mabini Cabinet Apolinario Mabini - Foreign Affairs, Prime Minister. Mariano Trias - Finance Teodoro Sandico - Interior Baldomero Aguinaldo - National Defense Gracio Gonzaga - Welfare Paterno Cabinet Pedro Paterno - Prime Minister Leon Ma, the Executive power was wielded by the Governor-General of the Philippines. Among cabinet officials and Americans held various posts, except for that of Secretary of Public Instruction, which was reserved for an American, with autonomy achieved, the President of the Philippines appointed the cabinet members.
The existence of war resulted in the consolidation of cabinet portfolios, the war cabinet system was reorganized several sometimes. The Second Republic replaced the Philippine Executive Commission, Cabinet officials gave up the title of commissioners and became known as ministers. The Commonwealth of the Philippines was restored on Philippine soil in October,1944, in 1978, under the 1973 Constitution, the departments were renamed into ministries. In 1981, Martial Law was lifted, the regular Parliament convenes with Cesar Virata being voted Prime Minister, under her revolutionary powers, President Corazon Aquino abolished the system of government ministries and restored the department system. With the ratification of the 1987 Constitution, this became permanent. Executive departments of the Philippines List of female secretaries of the Philippines Official site of the Presidents Cabinet
Philippine general election, 2010
Elections for all positions in the Philippines above the barangay were held on May 10,2010. The elected president is Benigno Noynoy Aquino, the 15th President of the Philippines, the successor of vice-president Noli de Castro is Jejomar Binay, the 15th vice president of the Philippines. The legislators elected in the 2010 elections have joined the senators of the 2007 elections, the 2010 election was administered by the Commission on Elections in compliance with the Republic Act No. 9369, known as the Amended Computerization Act of 2007 and it was the first national computerized election in the history of the Philippines. Although there were cases of precinct count optical scan machine failures, despite the fact that some provinces have reported failure of elections, these have not surpassed the 0. 50% of the total number of PCOS machines, and most were replaced on time. Local elections were held in all provinces and municipalities for provincial governors, vice governors and board members, in 2004, Arroyo won the election and finished her 6-year term in 2010.
As election day approached, several politicians switched political parties in order to gain votes, many switches were controversial, with the ruling party Lakas Kampi CMD having the most defections, most of which went either to the Liberal Party or to the Nacionalista Party. Singson endorsed Villar, resigned from Lakas, but has not joined Villars Nacionalista Party, five days before the elections, petitions were made to postpone the elections due to technical malfunctions with the electronic voting machines. On May 7,2010, the Supreme Court rejected the petitions, several cities and provinces encountered several problems, postponing the election. In Caloocan, voting was delayed as the box of ballots delivered to clustered precinct 599 in the citys Pajo district contained ballots for a precinct in Sampaloc. Prior to the end of the filing of certificates of candidacy, before she was killed, Mangudadatus wife blamed provincial governor Andal Ampatuan Jr. as the culprit. On December 28,2009, a candidate for councilor died, in Sorsogon, Julio Esquivias, a Nacionalista candidate for councilor in the town of Casiguran, died due to a gunshot wound after he was shot by an unidentified gunman.
In a command conference by the Armed Forces of the Philippines, Philippine National Police, worsening private armed violence was a serious security concern which had the capacity to undermine the 2010 elections. Before election day, a bomb exploded at 1,20 a. m. in Ampatuan, in Conception, armed men fired at the Liberal Party headquarters. During election day, three bombs exploded at a polling precinct at Pakpak elementary school in Marawi City, Lanao del Sur, No casualties or injuries were reported. Another bomb exploded in Zamboanga Sibugay, killing three people, two bombs exploded at Mindanao State University where several polling precinct were clustered. An NK2 grenade exploded at Shariff Aguak, Maguindanao, on the same day, at 12, 00nn, a shooting incident happened in the same area between the rival candidates. As of 1, 30pm fourteen casualties were reported due to election-related violence, at 2, 25pm, a shooting incident in a barangay in Maguindanao caused the local cancellation of the elections
Ombudsman of the Philippines
Under the 1987 Philippine Constitution and the Ombudsman Act of 1989, the Office of the Ombudsman independently monitors all three branches of the government for political corruption. After an investigation, the Ombudsman files charges at the Sandiganbayan, the Office of the Ombudsman predates the 1987 Constitution. There have been several offices established under various presidents of the Philippines whose duties are now subsumed under the Office of the Ombudsman, President Elpidio Quirino established the Integrity Board in 1950, President Ramon Magsaysay, the Presidential Complaints and Action Commission in 1957, President Carlos P. In 1969, the Office of the Citizens Counselor was created by the Republic Act No.6028 and it was primarily designed to conduct fact-finding investigations and make recommendations to Congress and the President. The office was not at all implemented, subsequently Marcos created the Complaints and Investigation Office in 1970 and the Presidential Administrative Assistance Committee in 1971.
In the martial law-era 1973 Philippine Constitution, provided for the establishment of a court called the Sandiganbayan. On June 11,1978, during martial law, dictator President Ferdinand Marcos created by decree the office of the Tanodbayan. The Tanodbayan was not independent but served at the pleasure of the president, following the passage of the 1987 Constitution, the Ombudsman Act of 1989 was passed to define the roles and structure of the Office. The Ombudsman and its subordinates are appointed by the President of the Philippines from a list submitted by the Judicial, the Ombudsman can be removed from office only through impeachment
Court of Appeals of the Philippines
The Court of Appeals of the Philippines is the Philippines second-highest judicial court, just after the Supreme Court. The court consists of 69 Associate Justices and 1 Presiding Justice, under RA9282, which elevated the CTA to the same level of the CA, CTA en banc decisions are now subject to review by the Supreme Court instead of the CA. The Court of Appeals building is located at Maria Orosa Street and it had exclusive appellate jurisdiction of all cases not falling under the original and exclusive appellate jurisdiction of the 7-man Supreme Court. Its decisions in cases were final, except when the Supreme Court upon petition for certiorari on questions of law required that the case be certified to it for review. It had original jurisdiction to issue writs of mandamus, injunction, habeas corpus, the Court sat either en banc or in two divisions, one of 6 and another of 5 Judges. The appellate Judges had the same qualifications as those provided by the Constitution for Supreme Court Justices, in March 1938, the appellate Judges were named Justices and their number increased from 11 to 15, with three divisions of 5 under Commonwealth Act No.259.
On December 24,1941, the membership of the Court was further increased to 19 Justices under Executive Order No.395, the Court functioned during the Japanese occupation, 1941-44. But in March 1945, due to conditions at the time. The end of World War II restored the democratic processes in the country, on October 4,1946, Republic Act No.52 was passed recreating the Court with a Presiding Justice and fourteen Associate Justices. They composed 5 divisions of 3 Justices each, on August 23,1956, the Court membership was expanded to 18 Justices per Republic Act No.1605. The number was hiked to 24 Justices as decreed by Republic Act No.5204 approved on June 15,1968. Ten years later, the swelling of its dockets called for a much bigger Court of 45 Justices under Presidential Decree No.1482 of June 10,1978. Then came the Judiciary Reorganization on January 17,1983 through Executive Order No.864 of President Marcos, the Court was renamed Intermediate Appellate Court and its membership enlarged to 51 Justices.
However, only thirty-seven Justices were appointed, on July 28,1986, President Aquino issued Executive Order No.33 restoring the original name of the Court of Appeals with a Presiding Justice and fifty Associate Justices. No.7902 was passed expanding the jurisdiction of the Court effective March 18,1995, No.8246 created six more divisions in the Court, thereby increasing its membership from 51 to 69 Justices. These additional divisions -3 for Visayas and 3 for Mindanao paved the way for the appellate courts regionalization, the CA in the Visayas sits in Cebu City while Cagayan de Oro City is home to the CA for Mindanao. Briccio Joseph Boholst, president of IBP — Cebu City Chapter, opposed the abolition of the CA in Cebu City, on February 1,2011, the Court celebrated its 75th Anniversary. On July 26,2007, Fire hits CA main building, from the room of Associate Justice Edgardo Sundiam at the fourth floor
Provinces of the Philippines
The provinces of the Philippines are the primary political and administrative divisions of the Philippines. There are 81 provinces at present, further subdivided into component cities and municipalities, the National Capital Region, as well as independent cities, are independent of any provincial government. Each province is governed by a legislature called the Sangguniang Panlalawigan. The provinces are grouped into 18 regions based on geographical, fifteen of these regions are designated with numbers corresponding to their geographic location in order from north to south. The Cordillera Administrative Region, National Capital Region, Negros Island Region, each province is a member of the League of Provinces of the Philippines, an organization which aims to address issues affecting provincial and metropolitan government administrations. A provincial government is autonomous of other provinces within the Republic, each province is governed by two main elected branches of the government and legislative.
Judicial affairs are separated from provincial governance and are administered by the Supreme Court of the Philippines, the provincial governor is chief executive and head of each province. The vice governor acts as the president for each Sangguniáng Panlalawigan, every SP is composed of regularly elected members from provincial districts, as well as ex officio members. The number of regularly elected SP members allotted to each province is determined by its income class, first- and second-class provinces are provided ten regular SP members, third- and fourth-class provinces have eight, while fifth- and sixth-class provinces have six. Exceptions are provinces with more than five congressional districts, such as Cavite with 14 regularly elected SP members, every SP has designated seats for ex officio members, given to the respective local presidents of the Association of Barangay Captains, Philippine Councilors League, and Sangguniáng Kabataan. The vice governor and regular members of an SP are elected by the voters within the province, ex officio members are elected by members of their respective organisations.
National intrusion into the affairs of each provincial government is limited by the Philippine Constitution, the President of the Philippines however coordinates with provincial administrators through the Department of the Interior and Local Government. For purposes of representation, each province is guaranteed its own congressional district. One congressional representative represents each district in the House of Representatives, senatorial representation is elected at an at-large basis and not apportioned through territory-based districts. Those classified as highly urbanized or independent component cities are independent from the province. Local government units classified as component cities and municipalities are under the jurisdiction of the provincial government, the provincial government does not have direct relations with individual barangays. Supervision over a government is the mandate of the mayor. Provinces are classified according to annual income based on the previous 4 calendar years