Giresun Province is a province of Turkey on the Black Sea coast. Its adjacent provinces are Trabzon to the east, Gümüşhane to the southeast, Erzincan to the south, Sivas to the southwest, Ordu to the west; the provincial capital is Giresun. Giresun is its lower areas, near the Black Sea coast, it is Turkey's largest producer of hazelnuts. Forests and pasture cover the high mountainous regions, in places there is mining of copper, zinc and other metals; the mountain villages are remote, with little else in the way of infrastructure. The hillsides are too steep for most forms of agriculture, as a result, cornbread is the traditional meal, as wheat cannot be grown; the climate is typical of this stretch of the Black Sea coast, i.e. wet. Local flora includes bilberries. Giresun province is divided into 16 districts: Due to the dense forestry in Giresun, woodwork is among the common handcrafts in the region; some small wooden handcrafts peculiar to the city are churns, külek, spoons. One of the oldest handcrafts in the city is weaving.
Wool, linen threads and similar raw marerials are spun in hand looms to produce various local clothes and bags. Strong threads and knitted threads are produced in hand looms; some of the dishes peculiar to the city are corn soup, cabbage soup, cabbage leaves stuffed with a meat filling, black cabbage dish, pilaf with anchovy, pilaf with cabbage, kuymak Kümbet, Karagöl and Bektaş are areas of attractive mountain pasture in the district of Dereli, where people can enjoy walks and picnics. Annual folklore festivals are held here in summer. Rahşan Ecevit, wife of former Turkish Prime Minister, Bülent Ecevit, born to a Şebinkarahisar family Hayrettin Erkmen, former foreign minister Harun Karadeniz and student activist leader of the 1968 generation İdris Küçükömer and thinker Topal Osman and commander in the Turkish War of Independence Mustafa Suphi, founder of the Communist Party of Turkey Naim Tirali and politician Hasan Âli Yücel, poet and politician, former minister of education, born to a Görele family Kadir Çelik, TV producer and presenter Hulki Cevizoğlu, journalist, TV presenter and producer, specialises in political debate Bedri Rahmi Eyüboğlu, painter and poet Hamit Görele, painter Ergin Günçe, poet İlyas İlbey, husband of Yasemin Yalçın Şafak Karaman, minor celebrity and TV presenter, born to a Tirebolu family Fatih Kırtorun and poet Salih Memecan, cartoonist of Sabah newspaper Fethi Naci and critic Aziz Nesin and journalist Yaman Okay and film director Öztürk Serengil, well-known film actor, father of Seren Serengil, grew up in Giresun Ahmet Yalçınkaya, poet İlker Yasin, Kanal Ds football commentator Furkan ÇELİK, Develispor is Footballer.
Giresun province shares the folk music of the Black Sea region and is the birthplace of: Picoğlu Osman, folk musician, considered to be one of the best kemençe players Katip Şadi, folk musician, kemençe playerOther musicians include: Ozan Arif, lyricist, balladeer of the extreme right MHP Bahadır Aydoğan, Arabesk style singer Mustafa Küçük, folk-arabesk musician Gökhan Semiz, member of the pop music group Group Vitamin. It is the story of a young man from Istanbul; the folk song "Giresun üstünde vapur bağrıyor" has been recorded by a number of artists including Ismail Hakkı Demircioğlu, tells of a wounded soldier dying in Giresun. "Giresun'un içinde" has been sung by Musa Eroğlu, Selda Bağcan and Fuat Saka, who sang "Lazutlar," which means corn in the local dialect and is a kind of Cider with Rosie rural idyll in verse. Ahmet Kaya sang "Mican," a ballad about a local bandit in the mountains. List of populated places in Giresun Province All about Giresun and its hinterland Giresun Kültür Local news Local information website Giresun
Electoral system of Turkey
The Electoral system of Turkey varies for general and local elections that take place in Turkey every four years, five years and five years respectively. Turkey has been a multi-party democracy since 1950, with the first democratic election held on 14 May 1950 leading to the end of the single-party rule established in 1923; the current electoral system for electing Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly has a 10% election threshold, the highest of any country. A brief summary of the electoral systems used for each type of election is as follows: General elections: The D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system, to elect 600 Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly from 87 electoral districts that elect different numbers of MPs depending on their populations. Local elections: Metropolitan and District Mayors and Provincial Councillors, neighbourhood presidents and their village councils elected through a First-past-the-post system, with the winning candidate in each municipality elected by a simple majority.
Presidential elections: A Two-round system, with the top two candidates contesting a run-off election two weeks after the initial election should no candidate win at least 50%+1 of the popular vote. Turkey elects 600 Members of Parliament to the Grand National Assembly using the D'Hondt method, a party-list proportional representation system. In order to return MPs to parliament, a party needs to gain more than 10% of the vote nationwide, meaning that parties may win the most votes in certain areas but not win any MPs due to a low result overall; the parliamentary threshold of 10% has been subject to intense scrutiny by opposition members, since all votes cast for parties polling under 10% are spoilt and allow the parties overcoming the national threshold to win more seats than correspond to their share of votes. E.g. in the 2002 general election the AKP won 34.28% of the vote but won nearly two-thirds of the seats. The parliamentary threshold does not apply to independents, meaning that Kurdish nationalist politicians who poll in the south-east but are not able to win 10% of the overall vote stand as independents rather than as a party candidate.
This was the case in the 2007 and 2011 general election, where the Kurdish Democratic Society Party and the Peace and Democracy Party fielded independent candidates respectively. The main criticism of the current system is the high 10% threshold necessary to gain seats. In January 2015, the CHP renewed their parliamentary proposals to lower the threshold to 3% and proposed no changes to the proportional representation system, though the AKP are against lowering the threshold without wider electoral reform. In July 2013, the AKP prepared new proposals, named the'narrow district system', to change the proportional representation system into either a first-past-the-post system or create smaller constituencies which elect a fewer number of MPs. Under these proposals, the threshold would fall from 10% to either 7 or 8% while Turkey would be split into 129 electoral districts rather than the existing 85. İstanbul itself would have been split into 17 or 20 districts. The system will benefit the largest party as well as parties that are the strongest in certain regions, meaning that the AKP and Kurdish nationalist Peace and Democracy Party would make the biggest gains.
The two main opposition parties CHP and MHP do not have a substantial number of electoral strongholds, meaning that they would be negatively impacted by a narrow-district system. Proposals by the AKP to create a full first-past-the-post system with 550 single-member constituencies were unveiled in December 2014, though any change in electoral law would have to be passed by parliament at least a year before the election; the AKP's proposals for reform have raised concerns about gerrymandering. Turkey is split into 87 electoral districts, which elect a certain number of Members to the Grand National Assembly of Turkey; the Grand National Assembly has a total of 600 seats, which each electoral district allocated a certain number of MPs in proportion to their population. The Supreme Electoral Council of Turkey conducts population reviews of each district before the election and can increase or decrease a district's number of seats according to their electorate. In all but four cases, electoral districts share the same name and borders of the 81 Provinces of Turkey.
The exceptions are İzmir, İstanbul and Ankara. Provinces electing between 19 and 36 MPs are split into two electoral districts, while any province electing above 36 MPs are divided into three; as the country's four largest provinces, İzmir and Bursa are divided into two subdistricts while Ankara and İstanbul is divided into three. The distribution of elected MPs per electoral district is shown below. In 2018, total MPs are increased from 550 to 600. Due to this increase, several districts had more MPs. Ankara and Bursa divided into one more electoral district due to this increase. However, Bayburt is represented with one less MP in 2018, making it the only district with a single MP. A total of eight electoral districts had their number of MPs adjusted since the 2011 general election by the electoral council, as listed below; the two electoral districts of Ankara had their boundaries changed. The number of voters in each province was announced on 17 May 2015. In total, there are 53,741,838 voters in the provinces, which corresponds to 97,712 voters for each MP.
However, because of the electoral system, this was not distributed to the provinces. In İzmir, where voters per MP was the highest, 118,669 votes corresponded to an MP, whereas in Bayburt, 27,089 voters were represented by an MP. Two factors caused this more than fourfold disparity. Namely, the electoral l
The Hittites were an Anatolian people who played an important role in establishing an empire centered on Hattusa in north-central Anatolia around 1600 BC. This empire reached its height during the mid-14th century BC under Suppiluliuma I, when it encompassed an area that included most of Anatolia as well as parts of the northern Levant and Upper Mesopotamia. Between the 15th and 13th centuries BC, the Empire of Hattusa, conventionally called the Hittite Empire, came into conflict with the Egyptian Empire, Middle Assyrian Empire and the empire of the Mitanni for control of the Near East; the Assyrians emerged as the dominant power and annexed much of the Hittite empire, while the remainder was sacked by Phrygian newcomers to the region. After c. 1180 BC, during the Bronze Age collapse, the Hittites splintered into several independent "Neo-Hittite" city-states, some of which survived until the 8th century BC before succumbing to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. The Hittite language was a distinct member of the Anatolian branch of the Indo-European language family, along with the related Luwian language, is the oldest attested Indo-European language.
Hittites referred to their native language as nešili "in the language of Nesa" but called their native land as Kingdom of Hattusa. The conventional name "Hittites" is due to their initial identification with the Biblical Hittites in 19th century archaeology. Despite their use of the name Hattusa for their state, the Hittites should be distinguished from the Hattians, an earlier people who inhabited the region of Hattusa and spoke an unrelated language known as Hattic; the history of the Hittite civilization is known from cuneiform texts found in the area of their kingdom, from diplomatic and commercial correspondence found in various archives in Assyria, Babylonia and the Middle East, the decipherment of, a key event in the history of Indo-European linguistics. The Hittite military made successful use of chariots, although belonging to the Bronze Age, the Hittites were the forerunners of the Iron Age, developing the manufacture of iron artifacts from as early as the 18th century BC; the Hittites were the first of the Indo-European people to make use of iron.
Due to the widespread availability of iron ore, this allowed them to create weapons that were much stronger and cheaper. The Hittite empire fell victim to the Bronze Age Collapse around the beginning of the 12th century BC. Ethnic Hittite dynasties survived in small kingdoms scattered around modern Syria and Israel. Lacking a unifying continuity, their descendants are scattered and have merged into the modern populations of the Levant and Mesopotamia. During the 1920s, interest in the Hittites increased with the founding of the modern Republic of Turkey and attracted the attention of Turkish archaeologists such as Halet Çambel and Tahsin Özgüç. During this period, the new field of Hittitology influenced the naming of institutions, such as the state-owned Etibank, the foundation of the Museum of Anatolian Civilizations in Ankara, located 200 kilometers west of the Hittite capital and housing the most comprehensive exhibition of Hittite art and artifacts in the world. Before the archeological discoveries that revealed the Hittite civilization, the only source of information about the Hittites had been the Old Testament.
Francis William Newman expressed the critical view, common in the early 19th century, that, "no Hittite king could have compared in power to the King of Judah...". As the discoveries in the second half of the 19th century revealed the scale of the Hittite kingdom, Archibald Sayce asserted that, rather than being compared to Judah, the Anatolian civilization " worthy of comparison to the divided Kingdom of Egypt", was "infinitely more powerful than that of Judah". Sayce and other scholars noted that Judah and the Hittites were never enemies in the Hebrew texts. Uriah the Hittite was a captain in King David's army and counted as one of his "mighty men" in 1 Chronicles 11. French scholar Charles Texier found the first Hittite ruins in 1834 but did not identify them as Hittite; the first archaeological evidence for the Hittites appeared in tablets found at the karum of Kanesh, containing records of trade between Assyrian merchants and a certain "land of Hatti". Some names in the tablets were neither Hattic nor Assyrian, but Indo-European.
The script on a monument at Boğazkale by a "People of Hattusas" discovered by William Wright in 1884 was found to match peculiar hieroglyphic scripts from Aleppo and Hama in Northern Syria. In 1887, excavations at Amarna in Egypt uncovered the diplomatic correspondence of Pharaoh Amenhotep III and his son, Akhenaten. Two of the letters from a "kingdom of Kheta"—apparently located in the same general region as the Mesopotamian references to "land of Hatti"—were written in standard Akkadian cuneiform, but in an unknown language. Shortly after this, Sayce proposed that Hatti or Khatti in Anatolia was identical with the "kingdom of Kheta" mentioned in these Egyptian texts, as well as with the biblical Hittites. Others, such as Max Müller, agreed that Khatti was Kheta, but proposed connecting it with Biblical Kittim rather than with the Biblical Hittites. Sayce's identification came to be accepted over the course of the early 20th century.
An alum is a type of chemical compound a hydrated double sulfate salt of aluminium with the general formula XAl2·12H2O, where X is a monovalent cation such as potassium or ammonium. By itself, "alum" refers to potassium alum, with the formula KAl2·12H2O. Other alums are named after the monovalent ion, such as ammonium alum; the name "alum" is used, more for salts with the same formula and structure, except that aluminium is replaced by another trivalent metal ion like chromium, and/or sulfur is replaced by other chalcogen like selenium. The most common of these analogs is chrome alum KCr2·12H2O. In most industries, the name "alum" is used to refer to aluminium sulfate Al23·nH2O, used for most industrial flocculation. In medicine, "alum" may refer to aluminium hydroxide gel used as a vaccine adjuvant; the western desert of Egypt was a major source of alum substitutes in antiquity. These evaporites were FeAl24·22H2O, MgAl24·22H2O, NaAl2·6H2O, MgSO4·7H2O and Al23·17H2O; the production of potassium alum from alunite is archaeologically attested on the island Lesbos.
This site was abandoned in the 7th century but dates back at least to the 2nd century CE. Native alumen from the island of Melos appears to have been a mixture of alunogen with potassium alum and other minor sulfates. A detailed description of a substance called. By comparing Pliny's description with the account of stupteria given by Dioscorides, it is obvious the two are identical. Pliny informs us that a form of alumen was found in the earth, calls it salsugoterrae. Pliny wrote that different substances were distinguished by the name of alumen, but they were all characterised by a certain degree of astringency, were all employed in dyeing and medicine. Pliny says that there is another kind of alum that the Greeks call schiston, which "splits into filaments of a whitish colour", From the name schiston and the mode of formation, it appears that this kind was the salt that forms spontaneously on certain salty minerals, as alum slate and bituminous shale, consists chiefly of sulfates of iron and aluminium.
One kind of alumen was a liquid, apt to be adulterated. This property seems to characterize a solution of iron sulfate in water. Contamination with iron sulfate was disliked as this darkened and dulled dye colours. In some places the iron sulfate may have been lacking, so the salt would be white and would be suitable, according to Pliny, for dyeing bright colors. Pliny describes several other types of alumen but it is not clear as to what these minerals are; the alumen of the ancients was not always potassium alum, not an alkali aluminum sulfate. Alum and green vitriol both have sweetish and astringent taste, they a had overlapping uses. Therefore, through the Middle Ages and other writers do not seem to have discriminated the two salts from each other. In the writings of the alchemists we find the words misy and chalcanthum applied to either compound. In the early 1700s, Georg Ernst Stahl claimed that reacting sulfuric acid with limestone produced a sort of alum; the error was soon corrected by Johann Pott and Andreas Marggraf, who showed that the precipitate obtained when an alkali is poured into a solution of alum, namely alumina, is quite different from lime and chalk, is one of the ingredients in common clay.
Marggraf showed that perfect crystals with properties of alum can be obtained by dissolving alumina in sulfuric acid and adding potash or ammonia to the concentrated solution. In 1767, Torbern Bergman observed the need for potassium or ammonium sulfates to convert aluminium sulfate into alum, while sodium or calcium would not work; the composition of common alum was determined by Louis Vauquelin in 1797. As soon as Martin Klaproth discovered the presence of potassium in leucite and lepidolite, Vauquelin demonstrated that common alum is a double salt, composed of sulfuric acid and potash. In the same journal volume, Jean-Antoine Chaptal published the analysis of four different kinds of alum, Roman alum, Levant alum, British alum and alum manufactured by himself, confirming Vauquelin's result; some alums occur as the most important being alunite. The most important alums – potassium and ammonium – are produced industrially. Typical recipes involve combining the sulfate monovalent cation; the aluminium sulfate is obtained by treating minerals like alum schist and cryolite with sulfuric acid.
Aluminium-based alums are named by the monovalent cation. Unlike the other alkali metals, lithium does not form alums; the most important alums are Potassium alum, KAl2·12H2O called "potash alum" or "alum". Sodium alum, NaAl2·12H2O called "soda alum" or "SAS". Ammonium alum, NH4Al2·12H2O. Aluminium-based alums have a number of common chemical properties, they are soluble in water, have a sweetish taste, react acid to litmus, crystallize in regular octahedra. In alums each metal ion is surrounded by six water molecules; when heated, they liquefy, if the heating is continued, the water of crystallization is driven off, the salt froths and swells, at last an amorphous powder remains. They are acidic. Alums crystallize in one of three different
Silver is a chemical element with symbol Ag and atomic number 47. A soft, lustrous transition metal, it exhibits the highest electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity, reflectivity of any metal; the metal is found in the Earth's crust in the pure, free elemental form, as an alloy with gold and other metals, in minerals such as argentite and chlorargyrite. Most silver is produced as a byproduct of copper, gold and zinc refining. Silver has long been valued as a precious metal. Silver metal is used in many bullion coins, sometimes alongside gold: while it is more abundant than gold, it is much less abundant as a native metal, its purity is measured on a per-mille basis. As one of the seven metals of antiquity, silver has had an enduring role in most human cultures. Other than in currency and as an investment medium, silver is used in solar panels, water filtration, ornaments, high-value tableware and utensils, in electrical contacts and conductors, in specialized mirrors, window coatings, in catalysis of chemical reactions, as a colorant in stained glass and in specialised confectionery.
Its compounds are used in X-ray film. Dilute solutions of silver nitrate and other silver compounds are used as disinfectants and microbiocides, added to bandages and wound-dressings and other medical instruments. Silver is similar in its physical and chemical properties to its two vertical neighbours in group 11 of the periodic table and gold, its 47 electrons are arranged in the configuration 4d105s1 to copper and gold. This distinctive electron configuration, with a single electron in the highest occupied s subshell over a filled d subshell, accounts for many of the singular properties of metallic silver. Silver is an soft and malleable transition metal, though it is less malleable than gold. Silver crystallizes in a face-centered cubic lattice with bulk coordination number 12, where only the single 5s electron is delocalized to copper and gold. Unlike metals with incomplete d-shells, metallic bonds in silver are lacking a covalent character and are weak; this observation explains the low high ductility of single crystals of silver.
Silver has a brilliant white metallic luster that can take a high polish, and, so characteristic that the name of the metal itself has become a colour name. Unlike copper and gold, the energy required to excite an electron from the filled d band to the s-p conduction band in silver is large enough that it no longer corresponds to absorption in the visible region of the spectrum, but rather in the ultraviolet. Protected silver has greater optical reflectivity than aluminium at all wavelengths longer than ~450 nm. At wavelengths shorter than 450 nm, silver's reflectivity is inferior to that of aluminium and drops to zero near 310 nm. High electrical and thermal conductivity is common to the elements in group 11, because their single s electron is free and does not interact with the filled d subshell, as such interactions lower electron mobility; the electrical conductivity of silver is the greatest of all metals, greater than copper, but it is not used for this property because of the higher cost.
An exception is in radio-frequency engineering at VHF and higher frequencies where silver plating improves electrical conductivity because those currents tend to flow on the surface of conductors rather than through the interior. During World War II in the US, 13540 tons of silver were used in electromagnets for enriching uranium because of the wartime shortage of copper. Pure silver has the highest thermal conductivity of any metal, although the conductivity of carbon and superfluid helium-4 are higher. Silver has the lowest contact resistance of any metal. Silver forms alloys with copper and gold, as well as zinc. Zinc-silver alloys with low zinc concentration may be considered as face-centred cubic solid solutions of zinc in silver, as the structure of the silver is unchanged while the electron concentration rises as more zinc is added. Increasing the electron concentration further leads to body-centred cubic, complex cubic, hexagonal close-packed phases. Occurring silver is composed of two stable isotopes, 107Ag and 109Ag, with 107Ag being more abundant.
This equal abundance is rare in the periodic table. The atomic weight is 107.8682 u. Both isotopes of silver are produced in stars via the s-process, as well as in supernovas via the r-process. Twenty-eight radioisotopes have been characterized, the most stable being 105Ag with a half-life of 41.29 days, 111Ag with a half-life of 7.45 days, 112Ag with a half-life of 3.13 hours. Silver has numerous nuclear isomers, the most stable being 108mAg, 110mAg and 106mAg. All of the remaining radioactive isotopes have half-lives of less than an hour, the majority of these have half-lives of less than three minutes. Isotopes of silver range in relative atomic mass from 92.950 u
Gürün is a town and a district of Sivas Province of Turkey. The mayor is Nami Çiftçi. World Surface - Gürün, Turkey Panian, Karnig. Goodbye, Antoura: A Memoir of the Armenian Genocide. Translated by Simon Beugekian. Stanford: Stanford University Press, 2015
The Vilayet of Sivas was a first-level administrative division of the Ottoman Empire, was one of the Six Armenian vilayets. The vilayet was bordered by Erzurum Vilayet to the east, Mamuretülaziz Vilayet to the south-east, the Trebizond Vilayet to the north and Ankara Vilayet to the west. At the beginning of the 20th century it had an area of 32,308 square miles, while the preliminary results of the first Ottoman census of 1885 gave the population as 996,126; the accuracy of the population figures ranges from "approximate" to "merely conjectural" depending on the region from which they were gathered. For the early history of the area see Rûm Eyalet; the Vilayet of Sivas was created in 1867 when eyalets were replaced with vilayets under the "Vilayet Law" and was dissolved in 1922 by Atatürk's reorganization. From 1913 to 1916, Ahmed Muammer was the Vali of the vilayet, he has been accused of being complicit in actions against the Armenian population. Sanjaks of the Vilayet: Sanjak of Sivas Sanjak of Amasya Sanjak of Karahisar-ı Şarki Sanjak of Tokad Not: Reşadiye was nahiya center in Hamidiye kaza of Sanjak of Karahisar-ı Şarki till 1906.
Wilson, Charles William. "Sivas". In Chisholm, Hugh. Encyclopædia Britannica. 25. Cambridge University Press. P. 163. Media related to Sivas Vilayet at Wikimedia Commons