Slam dunk

A slam dunk simply dunk, is a type of basketball shot, performed when a player jumps in the air, controls the ball above the horizontal plane of the rim, scores by putting the ball directly through the basket with one or both hands above the rim. It is considered a type of field goal; such a shot was known as a "dunk shot" until the term "slam dunk" was coined by former Los Angeles Lakers announcer Chick Hearn. The slam dunk is the highest percentage shot and a crowd-pleaser. Thus, the maneuver is extracted from the basketball game and showcased in slam dunk contests such as the NBA Slam Dunk Contest held during the annual NBA All-Star Weekend; the first incarnation of the NBA Slam Dunk Contest was held during the half-time of the 1976 American Basketball Association All-Star Game. Dunking was banned in the NCAA from 1967 to 1976. Many people have attributed this to the dominance of the then-college phenomenon Lew Alcindor. Many others have attributed the ban as having racial motivations, as at the time most of the prominent dunkers in college basketball were African-American, the ban took place less than a year after a Texas Western team with an all-black starting lineup beat an all-white Kentucky team to win the national championship.

Under head coach Guy Lewis, Houston made considerable use of the "stuff" shot on their way to the Final Four in 1967. The phrase "slam dunk" has entered popular usage in American English outside of its basketball meaning, to refer to a "sure thing": an action with a guaranteed outcome, or a impressive achievement; this is related to the high probability of success for a slam dunk versus other types of shots. Additionally, to "be dunked on" or to get "posterized" is sometimes popularly used to indicate that a person has been embarrassed by another, in reference to the embarrassment associated with unsuccessfully trying to prevent an opponent from making a dunk; this ascension to popular usage is reminiscent of, for example, the way that the baseball-inspired phrases "step up to the plate" and "he hit it out of the park," or American football-inspired phrases such as "victory formation" or "hail Mary" have entered popular North American vernacular. Joe Fortenberry, playing for the McPherson Globe Refiners, dunked the ball in 1936 in Madison Square Garden.

The feat was immortalized by Arthur Daley, Pulitzer Prize winning sports writer for The New York Times in an article in March 1936. He wrote his teammate, Willard Schmidt, instead of shooting up for a layup. During the 1940s and 1950s, 7-foot center and Olympic gold medalist Bob Kurland was dunking during games, yet defenders viewed the execution of a slam dunk as a personal affront. Satch Sanders, a career Boston Celtic from 1960 to 1973, said: " the old days, would run under you when you were in the air......trying to take people out of games so they couldn't play. It was an unwritten rule..." Still, by the late 1950s and early 1960s players such as Bill Russell and Wilt Chamberlain had incorporated the move into their offensive arsenal. At this time, dunking was a practice most used by the tallest and biggest men to show their reach and strength. Through the 1970s, players like David Thompson, Julius Erving and Darryl Dawkins popularized the move with more athletically executed dunks; this transformed dunking into the standard fare.

Dunk types reflect. They start with the basic one- or two-hand forward-facing dunk and go on through various levels of athleticism and intricacy. Discrete dunk types can be modified by appending other moves. At the onset of the jump, the ball is controlled by either one or both hands and once in the air is brought to chest level; the player will quickly thrust the ball downwards and extend their arms, bringing the ball below the waist. The ball is brought above the head and dunked with one or both hands; as a demonstration of athletic prowess, the ball may be held in the below-the-waist position for milliseconds longer, thus showcasing the player's hang time. Whether the result of a 180° spin or body angle at takeoff, the double clutch is performed with the player's back toward the rim. While this orientation is rather conducive to the double clutch motion, Spud Webb was known to perform the dunk while facing the basket. Additionally, Kenny "Sky" Walker, Tracy McGrady—in the 1989 and 2000 NBA Contests, respectively—and others, have performed 360° variation of the double clutch.

Circa 2007, independent slam dunker T-Dub performed the double clutch with a 540° spin which he concluded by hanging on the rim. A Tomahawk dunk can be performed with one or two hands, when two hands are used, it is called a backscratcher. During the jump, the ball is raised above, behind the player's head for a wind-up before slamming the ball down into the net at the apex of the jump. Due to the undemanding body mechanics involved in execution, the tomahawk is employed by players of all sizes and jumping abiliti

Subiya people

The Subiya call themselves Veekuhane and their language is called Chiikuhane. Chiikuhane or Subiya language is classified under Zone K.40 of Bantu languages. Baumbach classified it as a "Zone k42 Bantu language". Torrend and Colson classified Chiikuhane language under the Bantu Botatwe group. Bantu Botatwe share the distinctive root – tatwe for three, they include Subiya, Toka, Fwe, Shanjo, Totela and Lenje. In the Caprivi, Subiya has been classified together with Fwe and Mbalangwe as one group of languages. Subiya language has a complete grammar book and a textbook containing folklore and songs written in French and Subiya in 1896 and 1899 by the French Missionary Edouard Jacottet. Subiya language has a complete grammatical sketch written in English and Subiya in the 1960s by Daniel Matengu Shamukuni. Subiya is the dominant language of south-west Zambezia, along a portion of the Zambezi river south of Barotseland, in the lands lying between the Chobe-Linyanti river, known as the Ikuhane river.

The Canada Council Special Grant for Linguistics refers to Subiya as the people found west of Victoria Falls. Subiya is one of the most ancient of Bantu languages, more so than Tonga; the name Veekuhane has two meanings. The other meaning of Veekuhane is. From Mbalakalungu to Ngoma Gate, the river is known as Iteenge. Pretorius claims that the Subiya were called Batwa -a collection of small clans who lived under autonomous headmen on the islands of the Kafue flood plains, it is that it was while at Kafue flood plains in the early or around 15th century that they started to identify themselves as a tribe under the first chief Muniteenge Iteenge. Kruger, as cited by Likando and Ndana, claim that the Subiya reached the Upper Zambezi plains around 1440, whereas Masule suggests that they reached the Zambezi Valley in 1575 and settled at Ilulire near Senanga now in the Western Province of Zambia. Tlou& Campbell and McIntyre posit that the Subiya had established a powerful state of Iteenge by 1600 at Luchiindo on the Chobe River, westwards towards the Okavango Delta.

Around this period the Bayei lived in the Okavango Delta where they were joined by the Hambukushu who were fleeing the Lozi in Katima Mulilo and settled the upper reaches of the Okavango Delta. According to Pretorius, the Batwa were a collection of groups such as Fwe and Toka. However, this school of thought that Basubiya were called Batwa or are an offspring of the Batwa is doubtful; the Batwa are accepted as a San group or some ethnicities related to the Pigmies of the Congo forest. There are three theories. According to Pretorius, the name Subiya was given to Veekuhane in 1700 by the invading Aluyi under Chief Mwanambinyi. Subiya is said to be derived from the Aluyi word ‘subalala’ which means to ‘push a kingdom’ because the Veekuhane were active in governing and running the Aluyi kingdom, it was derived from the Aluyi phrase ‘subiyanokusubalalaumulonga’ meaning ‘the Subiya are trying to push the kingdom’. Shamukuni claims that the name Subiya was derived from ‘Subira’ which referred to their brownish complexion.

The name was given to them by neighbouring tribes as a nickname. According to Samunzala the Tonga addressed the Subiya as "uwe u musubila" meaning you light skinned one; this version is supported by Flint, who revealed that Lozi men valued Subiya women for their lighter skins and general good looks. Masule agrees with this version, but claims that the Subiya appeared light in complexion because they smeared their skins with red-brownish ochre; the Subiya lived between the confluence of the Chobe and the Zambezi rivers, along the northern banks of the Zambezi as far north as Nakabuunze and called this land Iteenge. The Subiya were politically and militarily strong, with a recognized line of chiefs dating back two and a half centuries and is one of the tribes of the Zambezi to have been mentioned by the early explorers and missionaries during the 18th century. Since the advent of colonialism and attainment of independence, the Subiya tribe has been split into three regions. Chobe is a Subiya word that appears in Subiya folklore written in 1896 which implies incest or bad omen because of an incest incident that occurred along a bushy section of the river.

Munitenge is the Subiya word for King/Chief/Kgosi Moolyi is the Subiya word for Queen

John Francis Cunningham (bishop)

John Francis Cunningham was an Irish-born prelate of the Roman Catholic Church. He served as Bishop of Concordia from 1898 until his death in 1919. John Cunningham was born in Irremore, County Kerry, received his early education in Listowel. After coming to the United States in 1860, he enrolled at St. Benedict's College in Atchison, Kansas, he completed his theological studies at St. Francis' Seminary in Milwaukee and was ordained to the priesthood by Bishop John Baptiste Miège, S. J. on August 8, 1865. Cunningham carried out his priestly ministry in the Diocese of Leavenworth, where was charged by Bishop Louis Mary Fink, O. S. B. with securing funds to pay off the remaining debt on the cathedral and with helping Kansan settlers during the depressed economy of the period. He was pastor of the Church of the Assumption in Topeka from 1877 until 1881, when he became vicar general, he served as rector of the cathedral. On May 14, 1898, Cunningham was appointed the second Bishop of Concordia by Pope Leo XIII.

He received his episcopal consecration on the following September 21 from Archbishop John Joseph Kain, with Bishops John Joseph Hennessy and Thomas Bonacum serving as co-consecrators, at Leavenworth. Described as the "Diocesan Builder," Cunningham erected 54 churches, 22 schools, three hospitals during his tenure, he dedicated the cathedral and laid the cornerstone for the Nazareth Motherhouse in 1902, founded Hays Catholic College and St. Joseph's Orphanage in addition to several rectories and convents. Cunningham died after an extended illness, aged 76, he was buried in the Nazareth Cemetery at Concordia. Helen's Family Trees