Slaughter-House Cases

The Slaughter-House Cases, 83 U. S. 36, was a U. S. Supreme Court decision that held that the Privileges or Immunities Clause of the Fourteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution only protects the legal rights that are associated with federal citizenship, not those that pertain to state citizenship; the decision consolidated two similar cases. Seeking to improve sanitary conditions, the Louisiana legislature and the city of New Orleans had established a corporation charged with regulating the slaughterhouse industry. Members of the Butchers' Benevolent Association challenged the constitutionality of the corporation, claiming that it violated the Fourteenth Amendment; that amendment had been ratified in the aftermath of the American Civil War with the primary intention of protecting civil rights of millions of newly emancipated freedmen in the Southern United States, but the butchers argued that the amendment protected their right to "sustain their lives through labor." In the majority opinion written by Associate Justice Samuel Freeman Miller, the Court held to a narrower interpretation of the Fourteenth Amendment than the plaintiffs urged, ruling that it did not restrict the police powers exercised by Louisiana because the Privileges or Immunities Clause protected only those rights guaranteed by the United States, not individual states.

In effect, the clause was interpreted to convey limited protection pertinent to a small minority of rights, such as the right to seek federal office. In a dissenting opinion, Associate Justice Stephen J. Field wrote that Miller's opinion rendered the Fourteenth Amendment a "vain and idle enactment." Though the decision in the Slaughter-House Cases minimized the impact of the Privileges or Immunities Clause on state law, the Supreme Court would strike down state laws on the basis of other clauses in the Fourteenth Amendment, including the Due Process Clause and the Equal Protection Clause. One writer described New Orleans in the mid-nineteenth century as plagued by "intestines and portions of putrefied animal matter lodged " whenever the tide from the Mississippi River was low. A mile and a half upstream from the city, 1,000 butchers gutted more than 300,000 animals per year. Animal entrails, dung and urine contaminated New Orleans's drinking water, implicated in cholera outbreaks among the population.

To try to control the problem, a New Orleans grand jury recommended that the slaughterhouses be moved south, but since many of the slaughterhouses were outside city limits, the grand jury's recommendations carried no weight. The city appealed to the state legislature; as a result, in 1869, the Louisiana legislature passed "An Act to Protect the Health of the City of New Orleans, to Locate the Stock Landings and Slaughter Houses, to incorporate the Crescent City Livestock Landing and Slaughter-House Company," which allowed the city of New Orleans to create a corporation that centralized all slaughterhouse operations in the city. At the time, New York City, San Francisco, Boston and Philadelphia had similar provisions to confine butchers to areas in order to keep offal from contaminating the water supply; the legislature chartered a private corporation, the Crescent City Live-Stock Landing and Slaughter-House Company, to run a Grand Slaughterhouse at the southern part of the city, opposite the Mississippi River.

Crescent City would not slaughter beef itself but act as a franchise corporation, by renting out space to other butchers in the city for a fee, under a designated maximum. The statute granted "sole and exclusive privilege of conducting and carrying on the livestock landing and slaughterhouse business within the limits and privilege granted by the act, that all such animals shall be landed at the stock landings and slaughtered at the slaughterhouses of the company, nowhere else. Penalties are enacted for infractions of this provision, prices fixed for the maximum charges of the company for each steamboat and for each animal landed"; the exclusivity would last for a period of 25 years. All other slaughterhouses would be closed up, forcing butchers to slaughter within the operation set up by Crescent City; the statute forbade Crescent City from favoring one butcher over another by promising harsh penalties for refusal to sell space to any butcher. All animals on the premises would be inspected by an officer appointed by the governor of the state.

Over 400 members of the Butchers' Benevolent Association joined together to sue to stop Crescent City's takeover of the slaughterhouse industry. In the background of his majority opinion, Supreme Court Justice Samuel Freeman Miller reiterated the concerns of the butchers: This statute is denounced not only as creating a monopoly and conferring odious and exclusive privileges upon a small number of persons at the expense of the great body of the community of New Orleans, but it is asserted that it deprives a large and meritorious class of citizens—the whole of the butchers of the city—of the right to exercise their trade, the business to which they have been trained and on which they depend for the support of themselves and their families, that the unrestricted exercise of the business of butchering is necessary to the daily subsistence of the population of the city; the lower courts had found in favor of Crescent City in all cases. Six cases were appealed to the Supreme Court; the butchers based their claims on the due process, privileges or immunities, equal protection clauses of the Fourteenth Amendment, ratified by the states five years earlier.

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Chris Brubeck

Christopher Brubeck is an American musician and composer, both in jazz and classical music. As a musician, he plays electric bass, bass trombone, piano; the son of noted jazz pianist and composer Dave Brubeck, in 1972 he joined his father and brothers Darius and Daniel in The New Brubeck Quartet. He formed The Brubeck Brothers Quartet with his brothers. Chris Brubeck has been touring for about 30 years with guitarist Joel Brown and singer and harmonica virtuoso Peter Madcat Ruth as a group called "Triple Play", a jazz band in a swinging Louisiana style. Known as a member of "New Heavenly Blue", Chris participated and recorded as a keyboardist/trombonist/guitarist in "Educated Homegrown" in 1970. In 1999, Chris Brubeck and his brother Daniel Brubeck joined with other musicians to form The Brubeck Brothers Quartet. While they have performed with various other musicians, as of 2018, the quartet includes Mike DeMicco on guitar, Chuck Lamb on piano, Daniel Brubeck on drums, Chris Brubeck on electric bass and bass trombone.

The quartet performs in jazz venues and with symphony orchestras around the world The quartet released its fifth album since 2001 in the spring of 2018. In 2003, Chris played his first "Concerto for Bass Trombone and Orchestra" with the Czech national Symphony Orchestra in Prague. A year he composed his own concerto titled, The Prague Concerto for Bass Trombone and Orchestra. Many of his classical compositions still contain strong hints of the jazz influence of his father; when Chris Brubeck was born, Dave Brubeck wrote for him the composition "Crazy Chris". In 1982, after Chris and his first wife Noreen had their son Ben, Dave Brubeck dedicated to his first grandchild the composition "Benjamin Christopher David Brubeck". Chris Brubeck married his second and current wife, Tish Brubeck. Across Your Dreams: Frederica von Stade Sings Brubeck, with Edward Arron, Frank Brown, Joel Brown, Dan Brubeck, Bill Crofut, Jenny Elkus and Msrk Vinci, Telarc, 1996 Chris Brubeck biography at his website Chris Brubeck biography at his agency Brubeck - official website for the musical Brubeck Family--- Dave, Darius, Dan & Matt Chris Brubeck at AllMusic The Brubeck Brothers at AllMusicInterviews"The Son Also Rises: Chris Brubeck, the new Gershwin?"

- late 2003 interview by Dr. Judith Schlesinger at All About Jazz

Mishkat al-Masabih

Mishkat al-Masabih is an expanded version of Al-Baghawi's Masabih al-Sunnah by Muḥammad ibn ʻAbd Allāh Khatib Al-Tabrizi. Khatib Al-Tabrizi died 741 AH rendered this version of the original text more accessible to those not having an advanced knowledge of the science of hadith, it contains between 4434 and 5945 hadith, divided into 29 books and is considered by Sunni scholars an important writing. Al-Tabrizi added 1511 hadith to the hadith contained in the collection Masabih al-Sunnah. Al-Baghawi classified many hadith as authentic. Al-Tabrizi expounded on the labels he placed on the re-classified many of them, he added a third section to Masabih al-Sunnah, divided in two parts by Al-Baghawi. Al-Baghawi did not mention the isnad of the hadith he collected, Al-Tabrizi mentions the source from where the hadith is found making the text more reliable. An example of a hadith from Mishkat al-Masabih is as follows: "He is not a perfect believer, who goes to bed full and knows that his neighbour is hungry."

Many commentries of the book has been published worldwide. The commentary of Husayn ibn `Abd Allah ibn Muhammad al-Tibi Mirqat al Mafatih Sharh Mishkat al-masabih' is a multi-volume work, authored by 17th century Islamic scholar Mulla Ali al-Qari "Mirat ul Manajih Sharh Mishkat al-Masabih", is an urdu explanation authored by'Hakeem ul ummat Mufti Ahmad Yaar Khan Naeemi'19 various books on explanation of Mishkat Al-Masabih are available in English, Urdu and Bangla at Australian Islamic Library Mishkat-Ul-Masabih, Published: Kitab Bhavan List of Sunni books Kutub al-Sittah Sahih Muslim Jami al-Tirmidhi Sunan Abu Dawood Jami' at-Tirmidhi Either: Sunan ibn Majah, Muwatta Malik The Book of Hadith: Sayings of the Prophet Muhammad from the Mishkat Al Masabih