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Slaughterhouse

A slaughterhouse called abattoir, is a facility where animals are slaughtered, most to provide food for humans. Slaughterhouses supply meat, which becomes the responsibility of a packaging facility. Slaughterhouses that produce meat, not intended to be eaten by humans are sometimes referred to as knacker's yards or knackeries; this is where animals are slaughtered that are not fit for human consumption or that can no longer work on a farm, such as retired work horses. Slaughtering animals on a large scale poses significant problems in terms of logistics, animal welfare, the environment, the process must meet public health requirements. Due to public aversion in many cultures, determining where to build slaughterhouses is a matter of some consideration. Animal rights groups raise concerns about the methods of transport to and from slaughterhouses, preparation prior to slaughter, animal herding, the killing itself; until modern times, the slaughter of animals took place in a haphazard and unregulated manner in diverse places.

Early maps of London show numerous stockyards in the periphery of the city, where slaughter occurred in the open air. A term for such open-air slaughterhouses was shambles, there are streets named "The Shambles" in some English and Irish towns which got their name from having been the site on which butchers killed and prepared animals for consumption. Fishamble Street, Dublin was a fish-shambles; the slaughterhouse emerged as a coherent institution in the nineteenth century. A combination of health and social concerns, exacerbated by the rapid urbanisation experienced during the Industrial Revolution, led social reformers to call for the isolation and regulation of animal slaughter; as well as the concerns raised regarding hygiene and disease, there were criticisms of the practice on the grounds that the effect that killing had, both on the butchers and the observers, "educate the men in the practice of violence and cruelty, so that they seem to have no restraint on the use of it." An additional motivation for eliminating private slaughter was to impose a careful system of regulation for the "morally dangerous" task of putting animals to death.

As a result of this tension, meat markets within the city were closed and abattoirs built outside city limits. An early framework for the establishment of public slaughterhouses was put in place in Paris in 1810, under the reign of the Emperor Napoleon. Five areas were set aside on the outskirts of the city and the feudal privileges of the guilds were curtailed; as the meat requirements of the growing number of residents in London expanded, the meat markets both within the city and beyond attracted increasing levels of public disapproval. Meat had been traded at Smithfield Market as early as the 10th century. By 1726, it was regarded as "by Daniel Defoe. By the middle of the 19th century, in the course of a single year 220,000 head of cattle and 1,500,000 sheep would be "violently forced into an area of five acres, in the heart of London, through its narrowest and most crowded thoroughfares". By the early 19th century, pamphlets were being circulated arguing in favour of the removal of the livestock market and its relocation outside of the city due to the poor hygienic conditions as well as the brutal treatment of the cattle.

In 1843, the Farmer's Magazine published a petition signed by bankers, aldermen and local residents against the expansion of the livestock market. An Act of Parliament was passed in 1852. Under its provisions, a new cattle-market was constructed in Islington; the new Metropolitan Cattle Market was opened in 1855, West Smithfield was left as waste ground for about a decade, until the construction of the new market began in the 1860s under the authority of the 1860 Metropolitan Meat and Poultry Market Act. The market was designed by architect Sir Horace Jones and was completed in 1868. A cut and cover railway tunnel was constructed beneath the market to create a triangular junction with the railway between Blackfriars and Kings Cross; this allowed animals to be transported into the slaughterhouse by train and the subsequent transfer of animal carcasses to the Cold Store building, or direct to the meat market via lifts. At the same time, the first large and centralized slaughterhouse in Paris was constructed in 1867 under the orders of Napoleon III at the Parc de la Villette and influenced the subsequent development of the institution throughout Europe.

These slaughterhouses were regulated by law to ensure good standards of hygiene, the prevention of the spread of disease and the minimization of needless animal cruelty. The slaughterhouse had to be equipped with a specialized water supply system to clean the operating area of blood and offal. Veterinary scientists, notably George Fleming and John Gamgee, campaigned for stringent levels of inspection to ensure that epizootics such as rinderpest would not be able to spread. By 1874, three meat inspectors were appointed for the London area, the Public Health Act 1875 required local authorities to provide central slaughterhouses, yet the appointment of slaughterhouse inspectors and the establishment of centralised abattoirs took place much earlier in the British colonies, such as the colonies of New South Wales and Victoria. In Victoria, for example, the Melbourne Abattoirs Act 1850 "confined the slaughtering of animals to prescribed public abattoirs, while at the same time prohibiting the killing of sheep, lamb

Faith Edith Smith

Faith Edith Smith was a librarian on the Education Committee of the American Library Association. Faith Edith Smith was born on October 10, 1873, in Aurora, the daughter of William B. Smith and Mary Margaret Ferner. Mary Margaret Ferner was born on September 4, 1844, in Ohio, died on March 9, 1920, the daughter of George Ferner and Catherine Weyand/Weyhandt, they had two children, Faith Edith Smith and Edwin Justus Smith, born November 1, 1875 and died August 17, 1934. Smith attended Aurora High School and obtained a Ph. B. at Northwestern University, where she joined the University Women's Club. While at College, Smith was the president of the Young Women's Christian Association from 1894 to 1895 and assistant at Northwestern University Library from 1896 to 1898, she was a graduate student in French and in History and won the Alumni Merit Award in 1896. From 1898 to 1900 she was a student at New York State Library School, where again she was assistant at the Library from 1898 to 1900, obtained a B. L. S.

Faith Edith Smith was the principal of the Philosophy and Religion Department at Los Angeles Public Library. Smith was on the Education Committee of the American Library Association and was a member of the California Library Association. Smith was a member of the Philosophical Union. In 1922, Smith co-edited Best Books of 1921 Selected for a Small Public Library. Faith Edith Smith started as librarian at Sedalia, Missouri, in 1900, lived at 219 Clark St. Aurora, she moved to California, in 1917 and lived at 5007 Townsend Ave. Los Angeles, California. Smith died on March 5, 1957, is buried at Spring Lake Cemetery, Aurora

Boris Batursky

Boris Solomonovich Batursky was a Russian social democrat and trade union activist. He was a writer. Batursky was born Boris Solomonovich Tsetlin into a Jewish family in Vitebsk, he was educated as a lawyer. He was a social democrat and a member of the Russian Social Democratic Labour Party from 1900, he was a member of the Central Committee of the RSDLP and a member of the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions. During World War I, he was a member of the Organizational Committee of the RSDLP. During this time, his views changed from protectionism to internationalism, he was part of the Mensheviks. He took part in working to solve the workers problems at the All-Russian Meeting of Soviets of Workers'and Soldiers' Deputies, he was a member of the Council of the Russian Republic, which the Bolsheviks called "a criminal adventure". On 2 November 1917, he withdrew from the Central Committee of the RSDLP together with another 13 members due to a majority decision to enter into negotiations with the Bolsheviks, but soon returned to the Central Committee after the termination of negotiations on 10 November.

He was one of the founders of The Worker's Banner. He supported Alexander Potresov, who considered it permissible to use any means to overthrow the Smolny Autocrats. In January 1918, he was sent as a delegate of the First All-Russian Congress of Trade Unions by the Samara Union of Trade and Industrial Employees, he founded the group Unity and Independence for the Trade Union Movement, while he was a member of various similar groups in Petrograd. He criticized the center-left majority of the Central Committee of the RSDLP for reconciliation with the Bolsheviks, he withdrew from party work and left for Vitebsk. At the end of 1920, he was imprisoned, he soon was released from prison two days before his death. He died on 5 December 1920 in Vitebsk. On the day of his funeral, a strike and protest of workers took place. Batursky had four brothers, all members of the RSDLP, five sisters, he married née Gertsenberg. Mensheviks Russian Social Democratic Labour Party Батурский Борис Соломонович Батурский Борис Соломонович