click links in text for more info
SUMMARY / RELATED TOPICS

Sloatsburg, New York

Sloatsburg is a village in the town of Ramapo in Rockland County, New York, United States. Located east of Orange County, it is at the southern entrance to Harriman State Park; the population was 3,039 at the 2010 census. The village is named after an early European landowner; the land that would become the village of Sloatsburg was part of the hunting grounds of the Minsi band of the Leni Lenape Indians, whose people occupied much of the mid-Atlantic area at the time of European encounter. The area was the site of a major Indian path through the Ramapo Mountains; the path was improved as the New York to Albany road and, in 1800, the Orange Turnpike. It remains an important thoroughfare today as the New York State Thruway, New York State Route 17 and the Norfolk Southern Railway line run along its route. Wynant Van Gelder, an ethnic Dutch colonist, purchased the area from the Minsi in 1738. In 1747, he gave it to Isaac Van Deusen; when his daughter Marritge Van Deusen married Stephen Sloat, Isaac gave the couple the land in 1763.

They built a stone house on the property and operated a tavern, a regular stop on the New York-to-Albany stage route. During the American Revolution, the Sloat House was headquarters for American troops stationed in the Ramapo Pass; the house is a private residence, listed on the National Register of Historic Places. There he established Sloat's Tavern, which became a regular stop on the New York to Albany stage route. Sloatsburg Pothat, was named after the Sloat family. During the American Revolutionary War, the stage route became an important military route and the Ramapo pass an important strategic point, occupied by American troops throughout the war. George Washington traveled through the area several times and stayed in Sloat's Tavern at least once, on June 6, 1779. After the war, the Sloats added a cotton mill. One of the sons, Jacob Sloat, was a gifted mechanic, he opened a mill in 1815 for making cotton cloth. He turned to making cotton twine after patenting a process for dressing it in 1840.

At peak, he produced around 8,000 pounds of twine per week. The family operated the mill until the Civil War, it was one of numerous mills near New York City. The mill ceased operations in 1878. In the early 19th century, Abram Dater built an iron forge on the Ramapo River, a grist mill and a saw mill soon followed. Between 1836 and 1841, the Erie Railroad built a line through Sloatsburg, resulting in a major increase in the population and prosperity of the village. After the Civil War, the village prospered until the great flood of 1903 destroyed most of the factories in the town. First built close to the river for its water power, many were never rebuilt. During Prohibition, Sloatsburg's rural setting and proximity to New York City made it an attractive location for stills and bootlegging. In 1929, with a population of 1,559, Sloatsburg was incorporated as a village, with David Henion elected as the first mayor; the rise of the automobile early in the 20th century had a profound impact on the area.

Prior to construction of the New York State Thruway and the Palisades Parkway in the 1950s, Sloatsburg was cut in half by automobile traffic, which could back up for miles in the 1940s and 1950s on the Orange Turnpike. Over the Fourth of July weekend in 1952, the backup extended for 8 miles. Sloatsburg is located at 41°09′43″N 74°11′16″W. According to the United States Census Bureau, the village has a total area of 2.5 square miles, of which 2.5 square miles is land and 0.04 square miles, or 1,54%, is water. The western part of the village borders Orange County; as of the census of 2000, there were 3,117 people, 1,046 households, 826 families residing in the village. The population density was 1,162.0 people per square mile. There were 1,078 housing units at an average density of 401.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the village was 90.95% White, 3.53% African American, 0.45% Native American, 2.50% Asian, 0.10% Pacific Islander, 0.93% from other races, 1.54% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 5.58% of the population.

There were 1,046 households out of which 38.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 63.6% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.0% were non-families. 15.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 5.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.91 and the average family size was 3.27. In the village, the population was spread out with 26.1% under the age of 18, 7.0% from 18 to 24, 31.1% from 25 to 44, 24.2% from 45 to 64, 11.6% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 37 years. For every 100 females, there were 99.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.3 males. The median income for a household in the village was $70,721, the median income for a family was $78,529. Males had a median income of $51,549 versus $39,464 for females; the per capita income for the village was $27,180. About 0.8% of families and 3.0% of the population were below the poverty line, including 1.5% of those under age 18 and 3.4% of those age 65 or over.

Sloatsburg lies within the Suffern Central School District. Sloatsburg Elementary School serves the village, students in grades 6-8 are zoned to Suffern Middle School, older students are zon

Armstrong Air and Space Museum

The Armstrong Air and Space Museum is a museum in Wapakoneta, United States, the hometown of Neil Armstrong, first man to set foot on the Moon. The museum chronicles Ohio's contributions to the history of space flight. Among the items on display are an F5D Skylancer, the Gemini 8 spacecraft in which Armstrong flew, Apollo 11 artifacts and a Moon rock. In the museum's Astro-theater, multimedia presentations of the sights and sounds of space unfold against a starry background; the Armstrong Museum is located just west of Interstate 75 at exit 111 in Wapakoneta. The museum is operated by the Ohio Historical Society and had no formal relationship with Armstrong prior to his death; the museum is a component of the National Aviation Heritage Area. Neil Armstrong was born on August 5, 1930 on his grandparents' farm, in Auglaize County, near Wapakoneta, he had a sister, a brother, Dean. His parents were Viola Armstrong, they raised their family in the small town of Wapakoneta. At the time of Neil Armstrong's first step onto the Moon Ohio Governor James Rhodes proposed to build a museum in Armstrong's hometown of Wapakoneta in his honor.

The museum was to honor "all Ohioans who have attempted to defy gravity."Today, exhibits detail the feats of the Wright Brothers and Ohioan astronaut John Glenn. Through Governor Rhodes, the State of Ohio pledged $500,000 dependent on local matching funds. A total of $528,313.55 was raised by Wapakoneta residents and other interested parties, including school children who held fund-raising drives." Groundbreaking took place in 1970. The design was unique with earth mounded around the steel-reinforced concrete building, giving the building the semblance of being underground." Its distinguishing feature is a large globe dome. On July 20, 1972, three years after the historic Moon landing, the museum held its grand opening, honored by the attendance of Armstrong and of Tricia Nixon Cox, standing in for her father, Richard M. Nixon, President of the United States."Late at night on July 28, 2017, a solid gold replica of an Apollo Lunar Module was stolen. The museum features many one-of-a-kind artifacts, including the Gemini 8 spacecraft, Neil Armstrong's Gemini and Apollo spacesuits, a lunar sample - the NASA term for a Moon rock.

The museum is home to two full-size aircraft, including the airplane in which Neil Armstrong learned to fly. The museum is designed for the experiential learner. There are seven interactive exhibits, ten audio/visual elements, three simulators. Visitors can practice landing the Lunar Module and Space Shuttle or docking the Gemini spacecraft, just as Neil Armstrong did in 1966. United States Astronaut Hall of Fame Official Site Ohio History Connection page for museum C-SPAN School Bus visit to the Armstrong Air and Space Museum, November 5, 1998

Civitas Popthensis

Civitas Popthensis was an ancient Roman-Berber city located in the present-day Henchir Kssiba area in the municipality of Ouled Moumen in Souk Ahras Province, Algeria. The word "civitas" is derived from the Latin civis, meaning that the city was a politically autonomous city-state; the history of the site goes back to the Numidian periods. The findings in the ruins of the ancient city testifies of a cultural diversity of the city influenced as well by Berbers, Carthaginians and by Romans; the inscriptions that have been found are in three ancient languages, Latin and Punic. Epigraphy reflects particular local cults to Ba'al Mercury; the "Civitas Popthensis" was a big village at the centre of an opulent agricultural land with cereal, olive growing, as many presses and livestock have been found in and out of the city. Not far from major trade routes, the city organized the local exchanges between the people of the plain and those of the mountains. Civitas Popthensis was located at the foot of the "Alpes Numidicae" and near the present border between Tunisia and Algeria Its period of maximum prosperity seems to be at the beginning of the 3rd century, under emperor Septimius Severus.

From the area ruins and the evaluation of the flow of water, Julien Guey, a French archeologist, estimated the population of the agglomeration around 10,000 and 12,000 inhabitants. Civitas Popthensis had huge Roman baths and a Roman theater. Paul Monciaux found a Christian epitaph of the beginning on the fifth century, that shows the importance of Christianity in the city when was under the influence of Saint'Augustine. Christianity remained dominant until the arrival of the Arabs, who destroyed the city at the end of the seventh century; however the history of the city is still not explored. The exact name of the ancient city remained unknown until 1917 where the finding of an official inscription commemorating the building of a temple to Saturn, helped prove that this city was the "Civitas Popthensis". Excavations in the 1930s resulted in the foreground the religious history of the city by finding a sacred area and 47 steles dedicated to Saturn. Excavations carried out by Julien Guey in the thermal baths in 1936 allowed to find many Latin inscriptions.

The baths included well-preserved latrines. In 1930, an epitaph dedicated to a cleric named Rogatianus was discovered in the necropolis of the city. Laffi, Umberto. Colonie e municipi nello Stato romano Ed. di Storia e Letteratura. Roma, 2007 ISBN 8884983509 Mommsen, Theodore; the Provinces of the Roman Empire Section: Roman Africa. Barnes & Noble. New York, 1996 Smyth Vereker, Charles. Scenes in the Sunny South: Including the Atlas Mountains and the Oases of the Sahara in Algeria. Volume 2. Publisher Longmans and Company. University of Wisconsin. Madison,1871 Cirta Mauretania Caesariensis Caesarea Auzia Rapidum Chullu Milevum

Henry Denne

Henry Denne was a Church of England clergyman and controversialist a prominent General Baptist. He is identified as the son of David Denne of Kent, educated at Latton, Essex under his uncle, Thomas Denne, he matriculated as a sizar at Sidney Sussex College, Cambridge in 1621, graduating B. A. in 1625 and M. A. 1628. In 1630 he was ordained by Theophilus Feild, Bishop of St David's, soon afterwards became curate of Pirton, Hertfordshire, a preaching position he held for more than ten years. In 1641 he was one of the ministers selected by the committee of the House of Commons for preferment; this sermon was subsequently published as "The Doctrine and Conversation of John Baptist". Soon after the outbreak of the First English Civil War Denne became convinced of the unscriptural nature of the baptism of infants, publicly professing himself a baptist was received by immersion in 1643, when he joined the congregation at the meeting-house in Bell Alley, London, he helped to lead it along with General Baptists Thomas Lambe and Samuel Oates, who "preached universal grace, the Arminian tenets".

He preached both there and in the country. He was considered as a "great Arminian" by Thomas Edwards, his change of opinion brought persecution, in 1644 he was apprehended in Cambridgeshire, by order of the "committee" for that county, for preaching against infant baptism. After he had lain in Cambridge gaol for some time, his case, through the intercession of some friends, was referred to a committee of the House, he was sent to London, where he was confined in Lord Petre's house in Aldersgate Street until, his case having been investigated, the committee ordered his release. Among his fellow-prisoners was Dr Daniel Featley, the opponent of the baptists, whose book, The Dippers Dipt was brought to Denne's notice; as soon as he was released he challenged Featley to a disputation. Featley, pleading the danger of publicly disputing without a licence, declined to continue with it. Denne wrote The Foundation of Children's Baptism discovered and rased. Shortly after his release Denne obtained the living of Eltisley in Cambridgeshire, though opposed to both presbyterians and prelatists, managed to retain it for several years.

The committee of the county endeavoured to prevent his preaching at St Ives, but on being interrupted he left the building, going into a neighbouring churchyard preached from under a tree to a large congregation. In June 1646 he was apprehended by the magistrates at Spalding for baptising in the river, but was released, he was, persecuted by the neighbouring ministers, he resigned his living and became a soldier in the parliamentary army. At the conclusion of the civil war he again became a preacher. In 1658 he held a public dispute, lasting two days, concerning infant baptism with Peter Gunning in St Clement Danes. Although a partisan, his views were moderate: by some he was reproached for being an antinomian, by others as an Arminian. Besides the works mentioned, he wrote: "The Man of Sin discovered, whom the Lord will destroy with the brightness of His Coming", 1645. "The Drag-Net of the Kingdom of Heaven. "The Levellers' Design discovered", 1649. "A Contention for Truth. "The Quaker no Papist, in answer to The Quaker Disarmed", 1659.

"An Epistle recommended to all Prisons in this Nation. To such as chuse Restraint rather than the Violation of their Consciences, wherein is maintained: The Lawfulness of an Oath. With the most material Objections answered", 1660. "Grace and Truth" Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Henry, General Baptist minister and religious controversialist by T. L. Underwood; this article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain: "Denne, Henry". Dictionary of National Biography. London: Smith, Elder & Co. 1885–1900. Campbell, Kenneth L.. Windows into Men's Souls: Religious Nonconformity in Tudor and Early Stuart England. Plymouth: Lexington Books. Henry Denne Biographical Information Henry Denne Collected Writings

Leroy Cook

Leroy Cook is a former American football linebacker in the National Football League for the Dallas Cowboys. He was a two-time All-America selection. Cook attended Abbeville High School, where he played basketball, he accepted a football scholarship from the University of Alabama. He worked his way into the defensive line rotation as a sophomore, despite injuring his foot in an offseason motorcycle accident, he earned consensus All-American honors in 1975 and was a First-team All-American 1974. As a freshman, in 1972, Cook made 16 caused two fumbles. In 1973, he made 18 again was credited with two caused fumbles. In 1974, his first as an All-America he made 81 tackles with six of those being sacks, he was credited with two more forced fumbles and blocked three kicks In 1975, he made 85 tackles, with 9 of those sacks and caused a career-high 4 fumbles. He was named SEC Player of the Year by the Atlanta Touchdown Club, he served as team defensive captain that season. He was National Defensive Player of the Week following the University of Tennessee game in 1975, a 30-7 Tide win.

He was Defensive MVP of the 1975 Orange Bowl. Cook was selected to the Tide's Team of the Decade of the 1970s, and he was chosen to Sports Illustrated's All-Time University of Alabama team. Cook ended his career with 200 tackles with 27 for 15 sacks, he forced 10 fumbles in 4-years. He blocked three kicks. A right knee wrecked during a freak incident in his final Iron Bowl led to the untimely end of his football career and whispers of "what might have been" regarding one of the greatest players in Alabama football history. Cook was thought of as being a first to third round talent, but on November 29, 1975, after a 28-0 win against the University of Auburn when Bob Baumhower slapped Cook's left shoulder pad from behind in a celebratory manner, Cook's right knee snapped and suffered a torn ligament, he sat out of most practices in the weeks leading to the Sugar Bowl against Penn State. He started the game but had to leave after his knee gave out in the first series and caused further damage to the original injury.

With his future sports career in doubt, Cook ended up being selected in the tenth round of the 1976 NFL Draft by the Dallas Cowboys, who gambled he could recover. Because he played in college as a stand-up defensive end, he was drafted to play as an outside linebacker, he was placed on injured reserve to rehab his injury during 1976 season. Cook attempted to make the team in 1977, however, he was cut in July 22 and never signed another professional contract. Cook returned to Alabama, worked at O'Neal Steel in Birmingham; the ballad of Leroy Cook, Alabama's forgotten football superstar

Day of the Little Candles

Little Candles Day is one of the most observed traditional holidays in Colombia. It is celebrated on December 7, on the eve of the Immaculate Conception, a public holiday in Colombia; this day is the unofficial start of the Christmas season in the country. On this night, people place candles and paper lanterns on windowsills, porches, streets and squares. On December 8 it is customary for houses to hoist a white flag with the image of the Virgin Mary all day, they hold numerous events, from firework shows to competitions. The celebration of the Night of the Little Candles dates to December 7, 1854, when Pope Pius IX defined as dogma the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary, published in his Apostolic constitution Ineffabilis Deus. In anticipation of this decision, people lit candles and paper lanterns to show their support and belief in this idea. In Colombia, as in many places all over the world, this announcement was observed by lighting candles; the Catholic Church of Colombia kept alive the celebration and made an annual tradition of lighting candles the night of December 7.

Some places celebrate the night of the little candles several nights before December 8 in the Paisa region. This is believed to derive from a hanukkah tradition since a large number of paisas are from Jewish descent; this can be affirmed with the beginning of the Novenas in which thru the 16th of December families gather and give aguinaldos, presents, to each other, similar to the Hanukkah celebration. El Día de las Velitas is celebrated throughout Colombia, but traditions vary in each region and city. In the municipality of Quimbaya, in Quindío Department the most important cultural event is the Candles and Lanterns Festival, which began in 1982 and is held each year on 7 and 8 December; each of the neighborhoods in the township competes to produce the most spectacular lighting arrangements, many visitors come from throughout Colombia to admire the displays. The Quimbayan Christmas Panther is an indigenous figure recognized by native and mestizo communities in the Quindío Department of Colombia.

Belief in the Christmas Panther has developed throughout the history of the Quimbayan holiday known as the Alumbrado de Navidad, celebrated on the 7th of December in recognition of the Roman Catholic belief in the Immaculate Conception of the Blessed Virgin Mary. It is believed that the significance of the puma stems from the arrival of ethnically Spanish colonialists from Antioquia in the region during the 1850s; the colonialist's Catholic traditions of using candlelight to celebrate the Immaculate Conception was combined with belief of the local Quimbaya tribe in the effect that fire had in protecting against panther attacks as pumas and other local fauna are believed to fear fire. Thus, in an instance of religious syncretism, the Alumbrado de Navidad and the symbolism of the puma to native peoples were linked, it is still a common occurrence to display the symbol of the panther in conjunction with the lighting of candles on the night of December the 7th. Such religious syncretism is visible in the rural pueblos of Quindio where many residents claim full or partial descent from Quimbaya native peoples of the region.

In Bogotá, the Christmas decorations reach their peak on this day. Malls, museums and other public places have extended hours of operation. There are many shows that take place on this night, live nativity scenes, caroling events, among others. In the Caribbean region of Colombia, the lighting of candles and lanterns takes place on the early hours of December 8, before sunrise, instead of the night before. Devout Catholics wake up before light candles with their family members. Many people decide to stay up all night and party in celebration and light the candles sometime before they retreat to bed. Families meet to celebrate the day and along with lighting the candles, there is abundant food and drinks. An evening that brings extended families groups together to talk during the evening. In Cali, Valle del Cauca people walk along the Cali River, illuminated for the season. Novena Photos of the Night of Little Candles