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Slot machine

A slot machine, known variously as a fruit machine, the slots, poker machine/pokies, or slot, is a casino gambling machine that creates a game of chance for its customers. Slot machines are known pejoratively as one-armed bandits due to the large mechanical levers affixed to the sides of early mechanical machines and their ability to empty players' pockets and wallets as thieves would, its standard layout features a screen displaying three or more reels that "spin" when the game is activated. Some modern slot machines still include a lever as a skeuomorphic design trait to trigger play. However, the mechanics of early machines have since been superseded by random number generators—most are now operated using push-buttons and touchscreens. Slot machines include one or more currency detectors that validate the form of payment, whether coin, voucher, or token; the machine pays off according to the pattern of symbols displayed when the reels stop "spinning". Slot machines are the most popular gambling method in casinos and constitute about 70 percent of the average U.

S. casino's income. Digital technology has resulted in variations on the original slot machine concept. Since the player is playing a video game, manufacturers are able to offer more interactive elements such as advanced bonus rounds and more varied video graphics; the "slot machine" term derives from the slots on the machine for retrieving coins. "Fruit machine" comes from the traditional fruit images on the spinning reels such as lemons and cherries. Sittman and Pitt of Brooklyn, New York, developed a gambling machine in 1891, a precursor to the modern slot machine, it contained. This machine proved popular and soon many bars in the city had one or more of them. Players would insert a nickel and pull a lever, which would spin the drums and the cards they held, the player hoping for a good poker hand. There was no direct payout mechanism, so a pair of kings might get the player a free beer, whereas a royal flush could pay out cigars or drinks, the prizes wholly dependent on what was on offer at the local establishment.

To make the odds better for the house, two cards were removed from the deck: the ten of spades and the jack of hearts, which doubles the odds against winning a royal flush. The drums could be rearranged to further reduce a player's chance of winning. Due to the vast number of possible wins with the original poker card game, it proved impossible to come up with a way to make a machine capable of making an automatic payout for all possible winning combinations. Somewhere between 1887 and 1895, Charles Fey of San Francisco, devised a much simpler automatic mechanism with three spinning reels containing a total of five symbols: horseshoes, spades, a Liberty Bell; the bell gave the machine its name. By replacing ten cards with five symbols and using three reels instead of five drums, the complexity of reading a win was reduced, allowing Fey to devise an effective automatic payout mechanism. Three bells in a row produced ten nickels. Liberty Bell spawned a thriving mechanical gaming device industry.

When, after a few years, the use of these gambling devices was banned in his home state, Fey still could not keep up with demand for them elsewhere. The Liberty Bell machine was so popular; the first of these was a machine called the "Liberty Bell", produced by the manufacturer Herbert Mills in 1907. By 1908 lots of "bell" machines were installed in most cigar stores, bowling alleys and barber shops. Early machines, including an 1899 "Liberty Bell", are now part of the Nevada State Museum's Fey Collection; the first Liberty Bell machines produced by Mills used the same symbols on the reels as Charles Fey's original. Soon afterwards, another version was produced with patriotic symbols such as a flag and a wreath on the wheels. A similar machine, rechristened the Operator's Bell, was designed, for which an optional gum vending attachment was available; as the gum offered was fruit-flavored, fruit symbols were placed on the reels: lemons, cherries and plums. A bell was retained, a picture of a stick of Bell-Fruit Gum, the origin of the bar symbol, was present.

This set of symbols proved popular, so was used by the other companies that began to make their own slot machines: Caille, Watling and Pace. The payment of food prizes was a used technique to avoid laws against gambling in a number of states. For this reason, a number of gumball and other vending machines were regarded with mistrust by the courts; the two Iowa cases of State v. Ellis and State v. Striggles are both used in classes on criminal law to illustrate the concept of reliance upon authority as it relates to the axiomatic ignorantia juris non excusat. In these cases, a mint vending machine was declared to be a gambling device because the machine would, by internally manufactured chance give the next user a number of tokens exchangeable for more candy. Despite the display of the result of the next use on the machine, the courts ruled that "he machine appealed to the player's propensity to gamble, and, vice."In 1963, Bally developed the first electromechanical slot machine, called Money Honey (although earlier machines such as the High Hand draw poker machine by Bally had exhibited the basics of electromechanical construction as ea

Mad River Township, Clark County, Ohio

Mad River Township is one of the ten townships of Clark County, United States. The 2010 census reported 11,156 people living in the township, 8,741 of whom lived in the unincorporated portions of the township. Located in the southwestern part of the county, it borders the following townships: Springfield Township - northeast Green Township - east Miami Township, Greene County - southeast Bath Township, Greene County - southwest Bethel Township - northwestSeveral towns are located in Mad River Township: The village of Enon, in the center of the township Part of the city of Springfield, the county seat of Clark County, in the northeastern corner of the township The census-designated place of Green Meadows, in the center of the township The census-designated place of Holiday Valley, in the south of the township Mad River Township is named from the Mad River, which forms its western boundary. Statewide, the only other Mad River Township is located in Champaign County; the township is governed by a three-member board of trustees, who are elected in November of odd-numbered years to a four-year term beginning on the following January 1.

Two are elected in the year after the presidential election and one is elected in the year before it. There is an elected township fiscal officer, who serves a four-year term beginning on April 1 of the year after the election, held in November of the year before the presidential election. Vacancies in the fiscal officership or on the board of trustees are filled by the remaining trustees. County website

Retinoblastoma-like protein 1

Retinoblastoma-like 1 known as RBL1, is a protein that in humans is encoded by the RBL1 gene. The protein encoded by this gene is similar in sequence and function to the product of the retinoblastoma 1 gene; the RB1 gene product is a tumor suppressor protein that appears to be involved in cell cycle regulation, as it is phosphorylated in the S to M phase transition and is dephosphorylated in the G1 phase of the cell cycle. Both the RB1 protein and the product of this gene can form a complex with adenovirus E1A protein and SV40 Large T-antigen, with the SV40 large T-antigen binding only to the unphosphorylated form of each protein. In addition, both proteins can inhibit the transcription of cell cycle genes containing E2F binding sites in their promoters. Due to the sequence and biochemical similarities with the RB1 protein, it is thought that the protein encoded by this gene may be a tumor suppressor. Two transcript variants encoding different isoforms have been found for this gene. Retinoblastoma-like protein 1 has been shown to interact with: Pocket protein family This article incorporates text from the United States National Library of Medicine, in the public domain.

RBL1+protein,+human at the US National Library of Medicine Medical Subject Headings