Microsoft Encarta was a digital multimedia encyclopedia published by Microsoft Corporation from 1993 to 2009. Sold on CD-ROM or DVD, it was later available on the World Wide Web via an annual subscription – although many articles could be viewed free online with advertisements. By 2008, the complete English version, Encarta Premium, consisted of more than 62,000 articles, numerous photos and illustrations, music clips, interactive content, maps and homework tools. Microsoft published similar encyclopedias under the Encarta trademark in various languages, including German, Spanish, Italian and Japanese. Localized versions contained contents licensed from national sources and more or less content than the full English version. For example, the Dutch version had content from the Dutch Winkler Prins encyclopedia. In March 2009, Microsoft announced it was discontinuing both online versions; the MSN Encarta site was closed on October 31, 2009 in all countries except Japan, where it was closed on December 31, 2009.
Microsoft continued to operate the Encarta online dictionary until 2011. After the successes of Compton's Multimedia Encyclopedia and The New Grolier Multimedia Encyclopedia, Microsoft initiated Encarta, under the internal codename "Gandalf", by purchasing non-exclusive rights to the Funk & Wagnalls Encyclopedia, incorporating it into its first edition in 1993; the name Encarta was created for Microsoft by an advertising agency and launched in 1993 as a $395 product, although it soon dropped to $99, was bundled into the price of a new computer purchase. In the late 1990s, Microsoft added content from Collier's Encyclopedia and New Merit Scholar's Encyclopedia from Macmillan into Encarta after purchasing them, thus the final Microsoft Encarta can be considered the successor of the Funk and Wagnalls and New Merit Scholar encyclopedias. None of these successful encyclopedias remained in print for long after being merged into Encarta. Microsoft introduced several regional versions of Encarta translated into languages other than English.
For example, the Brazilian Portuguese version was introduced in 1999 and suspended in 2002. The Spanish version was somewhat smaller than the English one, at 42,000 articles. In 2000, the full Encarta content became available on the World Wide Web to subscribers, with a subset available for free to anyone. In July 2006, Websters Multimedia, a Bellevue, Washington subsidiary of London-based Websters International Publishers, took over maintenance of Encarta from Microsoft; the last version was Encarta Premium 2009, released in August 2008. Microsoft announced in April 2009 that it would cease to sell Microsoft Student and all editions of Encarta Premium software products worldwide by June 2009, citing changes in the way people seek information, in the traditional encyclopedia and reference material market, as the key reasons behind the termination. Updates for Encarta were offered until October 2009. Additionally, MSN Encarta web sites were discontinued around October 31, 2009, with the exception of Encarta Japan, discontinued on December 31, 2009.
Existing MSN Encarta Premium subscribers were refunded. The demise of Encarta was attributed to competition from the free and user-generated Wikipedia, from small beginnings in 2001, grew to be larger than Encarta, thanks to popularization by web search services like Google. By the time of the announcement of its closure in April 2009, Encarta had about 62,000 articles, most behind a paywall, while the English Wikipedia had over 2.8 million articles in open access. By the time of Encarta's closure in December 2009, the English Wikipedia had over 3.1 million articles. Encarta's standard edition included 50,000 articles, with additional images and sounds; the premium editions contained over 62,000 articles and other multimedia content, such as 25,000 pictures and illustrations, over 300 videos and animations, an interactive atlas with 1.8 million locations. Its articles were integrated with multimedia content and could include links to websites selected by its editors. Encarta's articles in general were less lengthy and more summarized than the printed version of Encyclopædia Britannica or the online Wikipedia.
Like most multimedia encyclopedias, Encarta's articles tended to provide an overview of the subject rather than an exhaustive coverage and can only be viewed one at a time. A sidebar could display alternative views, journals or original materials relevant to the topic. For example, when reading about computers, it featured annals since 1967 of the computer industry. Encarta supported closed captioning for the hearing impaired. A separate program, called Encarta Research Organizer was included in early versions for gathering and organizing information and constructing a Word document-based report. Versions included Encarta Researcher, a browser plugin to organize information from Encarta articles and web pages into research projects. Content copied from Encarta was appended with a copyright boilerplate message after the selection; the user interface allowed for viewing content with only images, sounds, animations, 360-degree views, virtual tours and tables or only interactives. Encarta was available for sale on 1 to 5 CD-ROMs or a DVD.
Some new PCs were shipped with an OEM edition of Encarta. Encarta 2000 and had "Map Treks", which were tours of geographic features and concepts. Microsoft had a separate product known as Encarta Africana, an encyclopedia of black history and culture, it was int
The German Hound is a breed of dog originating in Westphalia, a region of Germany. The German Hound is of the scenthound type, used for hunting both small game; the breed is referred to as the Deutsche Bracke in English, rather than by the translation of the name, German Hound. The German Hound is a small hound, 40 – 53 cm at the withers, with long, drooped ears and a long, narrow tail, it is distinguished by a long, somewhat narrow head, a rectangular body, described as "elegant". The coat has hard bristly, short fur tricolor, with white markings called Bracken marks - a white muzzle, legs and tip of the tail, a blaze on the head; the Bracke are an ancient type of hound. Their distinctive narrow heads and long ears set them apart from other types of hounds, may show influence of the Greyhound or the ancient Celtic hounds; the St. Hubert's Hound may have contributed to the Bracke's voice, the distinctive call made by the dogs while chasing game. Over a long period of time, Bracke developed into a variety of regional forms.
In 1896, the Deutschen Bracken Club, encompassing all of the local types of Bracke in northwest Germany, was formed in Olpe. The breeds were merged in 1900 as one breed and were designated Deutsche Bracke; this breed was called by a variety of old regional names such as "Olpe Bracke", "Sauerländer Bracke" and "Westphalian Bracke", other local types now blended into one breed. The only breeds of Bracke in the area today are the Westphalian Dachsbracke; the Westphalian Dachsbracke is a short-legged dog a cross of a Bracke with the Dachshund. Hunting with the Bracke in early times was done with hunters on horses following the hounds, as done by the ancient Celts chasing deer, modern-day fox hunters. Another sport, developed in the 16th century, did not require the expense of horses and big kennels, made use of firearms, called Brackade. Hounds hunting this way tenaciously follow the game while voicing cries that communicate to the hunter as to where the dog is and what type of game the dog is following.
Today, the Deutsche Bracke is used to hunt deer, but rabbits and fox. It is hunted singly as a leash hound, to hunt on smaller areas; the space needed to hunt a pack of hounds is described by the breed club as a minimum area of 1,000 ha. Related to the hunting with Bracke is the use of horns to communicate with the dogs, a custom, continued today; the German Hound was recognized by the Verband für das Deutsche Hundewesen through the Deutschen Bracken Club was formed in 1886 and continues today, oversees breeding and hunt testing, as well as preserving traditions of Bracke hunting. The German Hound was the first Bracke to be registered as a distinct breed, in 1900. and by the Fédération Cynologique Internationale as breed number 299 in Group 6, Section 1.3. Of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world, only the United Kennel Club in the US recognises the German Hound, in its Scenthound Group; the German Hound may be recognised by any of the many minor registries, rare breed groups, hunting clubs, internet registry businesses under its original name, discarded antique names, translations of the name, or variations on the name.
The German Hound is a hunting dog, seen outside its native country. Outside the home country, purchasers of dogs represented as German Hound should research the dog's background if it is registered with one of the minor clubs that require little to no documentation before accepting a dog or litter for registration; the term Bracke was used in German to mean the scenthounds. Brack is an old Low German word for a coastal marsh periodically inundated by storm surges with salt water-the English word brackish. In Europe, scenthounds are separated into running hounds or leash hounds The Bracke are used as running hounds, in packs, to hunt rabbits or foxes in a type of hunt called Brackade. No specific diseases or claims of extraordinary health have been documented for this breed. According to the original German breed club, although it is a hunting dog, it is affectionate and benefits from living with the family rather than in a kennel, it is a persistent tracking dog with a good sense of direction.
The German Hound is related to the Westfälische Dachsbracke and the Drever called the Swedish Dachsbracke. The Finnenbracke is from Finland; the Alpenländische Dachsbracke is in Austria, as is the Tiroler Bracke. Hunting dog Hound Scent hound
Egypt the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a country spanning the northeast corner of Africa and southwest corner of Asia by a land bridge formed by the Sinai Peninsula. Egypt is a Mediterranean country bordered by the Gaza Strip and Israel to the northeast, the Gulf of Aqaba and the Red Sea to the east, Sudan to the south, Libya to the west. Across the Gulf of Aqaba lies Jordan, across the Red Sea lies Saudi Arabia, across the Mediterranean lie Greece and Cyprus, although none share a land border with Egypt. Egypt has one of the longest histories of any country, tracing its heritage back to the 6th–4th millennia BCE. Considered a cradle of civilisation, Ancient Egypt saw some of the earliest developments of writing, urbanisation, organised religion and central government. Iconic monuments such as the Giza Necropolis and its Great Sphinx, as well the ruins of Memphis, Thebes and the Valley of the Kings, reflect this legacy and remain a significant focus of scientific and popular interest. Egypt's long and rich cultural heritage is an integral part of its national identity, which has endured, assimilated, various foreign influences, including Greek, Roman, Ottoman Turkish, Nubian.
Egypt was an early and important centre of Christianity, but was Islamised in the seventh century and remains a predominantly Muslim country, albeit with a significant Christian minority. From the 16th to the beginning of the 20th century, Egypt was ruled by foreign imperial powers: The Ottoman Empire and the British Empire. Modern Egypt dates back to 1922, when it gained nominal independence from the British Empire as a monarchy. However, British military occupation of Egypt continued, many Egyptians believed that the monarchy was an instrument of British colonialism. Following the 1952 revolution, Egypt expelled British soldiers and bureaucrats and ended British occupation, nationalized the British-held Suez Canal, exiled King Farouk and his family, declared itself a republic. In 1958 it merged with Syria to form the United Arab Republic, which dissolved in 1961. Throughout the second half of the 20th century, Egypt endured social and religious strife and political instability, fighting several armed conflicts with Israel in 1948, 1956, 1967 and 1973, occupying the Gaza Strip intermittently until 1967.
In 1978, Egypt signed the Camp David Accords withdrawing from the Gaza Strip and recognising Israel. The country continues to face challenges, from political unrest, including the recent 2011 revolution and its aftermath, to terrorism and economic underdevelopment. Egypt's current government is a presidential republic headed by President Abdel Fattah el-Sisi, described by a number of watchdogs as authoritarian. Islam is the official religion of Egypt and Arabic is its official language. With over 95 million inhabitants, Egypt is the most populous country in North Africa, the Middle East, the Arab world, the third-most populous in Africa, the fifteenth-most populous in the world; the great majority of its people live near the banks of the Nile River, an area of about 40,000 square kilometres, where the only arable land is found. The large regions of the Sahara desert, which constitute most of Egypt's territory, are sparsely inhabited. About half of Egypt's residents live in urban areas, with most spread across the densely populated centres of greater Cairo and other major cities in the Nile Delta.
The sovereign state of Egypt is a transcontinental country considered to be a regional power in North Africa, the Middle East and the Muslim world, a middle power worldwide. Egypt's economy is one of the largest and most diversified in the Middle East, is projected to become one of the largest in the world in the 21st century. In 2016, Egypt became Africa's second largest economy. Egypt is a founding member of the United Nations, Non-Aligned Movement, Arab League, African Union, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. "Miṣr" is the Classical Quranic Arabic and modern official name of Egypt, while "Maṣr" is the local pronunciation in Egyptian Arabic. The name is of Semitic origin, directly cognate with other Semitic words for Egypt such as the Hebrew "מִצְרַיִם"; the oldest attestation of this name for Egypt is the Akkadian "mi-iṣ-ru" related to miṣru/miṣirru/miṣaru, meaning "border" or "frontier". There is evidence of rock carvings in desert oases. In the 10th millennium BCE, a culture of hunter-gatherers and fishers was replaced by a grain-grinding culture.
Climate changes or overgrazing around 8000 BCE began to desiccate the pastoral lands of Egypt, forming the Sahara. Early tribal peoples migrated to the Nile River where they developed a settled agricultural economy and more centralised society. By about 6000 BCE, a Neolithic culture rooted in the Nile Valley. During the Neolithic era, several predynastic cultures developed independently in Upper and Lower Egypt; the Badarian culture and the successor Naqada series are regarded as precursors to dynastic Egypt. The earliest known Lower Egyptian site, predates the Badarian by about seven hundred years. Contemporaneous Lower Egyptian communities coexisted with their southern counterparts for more than two thousand years, remaining culturally distinct, but maintaining frequent contact through trade; the earliest known evidence of Egyptian hieroglyphic inscriptions appeared during the predynastic period on Naqada III pottery vessels, dated to about 3200 BCE. A unified kingdom was founded c. 3150 BCE
Algeria the People's Democratic Republic of Algeria, is a country in the Maghreb region of North Africa. The capital and most populous city is Algiers, located in the far north of the country on the Mediterranean coast. With an area of 2,381,741 square kilometres, Algeria is the tenth-largest country in the world, the world's largest Arab country, the largest in Africa. Algeria is bordered to the northeast by Tunisia, to the east by Libya, to the west by Morocco, to the southwest by the Western Saharan territory and Mali, to the southeast by Niger, to the north by the Mediterranean Sea; the country is a semi-presidential republic consisting of 1,541 communes. It has the highest human development index of all non-island African countries. Ancient Algeria has known many empires and dynasties, including ancient Numidians, Carthaginians, Vandals, Umayyads, Idrisid, Rustamid, Zirid, Almoravids, Spaniards and the French colonial empire. Berbers are the indigenous inhabitants of Algeria. Algeria is a middle power.
It supplies large amounts of natural gas to Europe, energy exports are the backbone of the economy. According to OPEC Algeria has the 16th largest oil reserves in the world and the second largest in Africa, while it has the 9th largest reserves of natural gas. Sonatrach, the national oil company, is the largest company in Africa. Algeria has one of the largest defence budget on the continent. Algeria is a member of the African Union, the Arab League, OPEC, the United Nations and is a founding member of the Arab Maghreb Union. On 2 April 2019, president Abdelaziz Bouteflika resigned after nearly 20 years in power, following pressure from the country’s army after mass protests against Bouteflika's campaign for a fifth term; the country's name derives from the city of Algiers. The city's name in turn derives from the Arabic al-Jazā'ir, a truncated form of the older Jazā'ir Banī Mazghanna, employed by medieval geographers such as al-Idrisi. In the region of Ain Hanech, early remnants of hominid occupation in North Africa were found.
Neanderthal tool makers produced hand axes in the Levalloisian and Mousterian styles similar to those in the Levant. Algeria was the site of the highest state of development of Middle Paleolithic Flake tool techniques. Tools of this era, starting about 30,000 BC, are called Aterian; the earliest blade industries in North Africa are called Iberomaurusian. This industry appears to have spread throughout the coastal regions of the Maghreb between 15,000 and 10,000 BC. Neolithic civilization developed in the Saharan and Mediterranean Maghreb as early as 11,000 BC or as late as between 6000 and 2000 BC; this life, richly depicted in the Tassili n'Ajjer paintings, predominated in Algeria until the classical period. The mixture of peoples of North Africa coalesced into a distinct native population that came to be called Berbers, who are the indigenous peoples of northern Africa. From their principal center of power at Carthage, the Carthaginians expanded and established small settlements along the North African coast.
These settlements served as market towns as well as anchorages. As Carthaginian power grew, its impact on the indigenous population increased dramatically. Berber civilization was at a stage in which agriculture, manufacturing and political organization supported several states. Trade links between Carthage and the Berbers in the interior grew, but territorial expansion resulted in the enslavement or military recruitment of some Berbers and in the extraction of tribute from others. By the early 4th century BC, Berbers formed the single largest element of the Carthaginian army. In the Revolt of the Mercenaries, Berber soldiers rebelled from 241 to 238 BC after being unpaid following the defeat of Carthage in the First Punic War, they succeeded in obtaining control of much of Carthage's North African territory, they minted coins bearing the name Libyan, used in Greek to describe natives of North Africa. The Carthaginian state declined because of successive defeats by the Romans in the Punic Wars.
In 146 BC the city of Carthage was destroyed. As Carthaginian power waned, the influence of Berber leaders in the hinterland grew. By the 2nd century BC, several large but loosely administered Berber kingdoms had emerged. Two of them were established behind the coastal areas controlled by Carthage. West of Numidia lay Mauretania, which extended across the Moulouya River in modern-day Morocco to the Atlantic Ocean; the high point of Berber civilization, unequaled until the coming of the Almohads and Almoravids more than a millennium was reached during the reign of Masinissa in the 2nd century BC. After Masinissa's death in 148 BC, the Berber kingdoms were reunited several times. Masinissa's line survived until 24 AD, when the remaining Berber territory was annexed to the Roman Empire. For several centuries Algeria was ruled by the Romans. Like the rest of No
The American Foxhound is a breed of dog, a cousin of the English Foxhound. They are scent hounds, bred to hunt foxes by scent. In 1650, Robert Brooke sailed from England to Crown Colony in North America with his pack of hunting dogs, which were the root of several strains of American Hounds. Dogs of this bloodline remained in the Brooke family for nearly 300 years. George Washington received French Foxhounds, Grand Bleu de Gascogne, as a gift from the Marquis de Lafayette. Many of the dogs Washington kept were descended from Brooke's, when crossed with the French hounds, helped to create the present day American Foxhound; the American Foxhound is known to have originated in the states of Maryland and Virginia, is the state dog of Virginia. Though there has long been a rumor that the new breed was used for hunting Indigenous peoples of the Americas, this is not true; the breed was developed by landed gentry purely for the sport of hunting foxes. With the importation of the red fox, Irish Foxhounds were added to the lines, to increase speed and stamina in the dog, qualities still prevalent in today's dogs.
One quality that the American Foxhound is famous for is its musical bay. This is one reason why this breed does not do well in city settings; the breed was first recognized by the American Kennel Club in 1886. Today, there are many different strains of American Foxhound, including Walker, Goodman, Trigg and Penn-Marydel. Though each strain looks different, they are all recognized as members of the same breed. Most show hounds are Walkers, many of the pack hounds are Penn-Marydel and hunters use a variety of strains to suit their hunting style and quarry. While standards call for the American Foxhound to be about 21–25 in tall to the withers, weigh anywhere between 55–71 lb, many of them are larger in structure, with males standing 26–29 in and females 25–28 in and smaller in weight between 45–65 lb; the legs of a Foxhound are straight-boned. The foxhound's chest is rather narrow, it has a long muzzle, a large, domed skull. The ears are low-set; the eyes are hazel or brown, are large and wide-set.
A close, hard hound coat of medium length, any color, though the combination of black and tan is prevalent. American Foxhounds do tend to shed a good amount of hair, but a weekly brushing will decrease shedding; the American Foxhound is rangier than its cousin, the English Foxhound. This breed is known to have a musical bark, called a bay, when it is hunting that can be heard for miles inherited from the Grand Bleu de Gascogne's signature howl. If competing in a dog show, some physical characteristics that judges would look for would be a domed skull, large ears, large eyes, straight muzzle, well laid-back shoulders, a moderately long back, fox-like feet, a curved tail. Though they are traditionally tri-colored they can be any color, they are one of the rarest breeds in the American Kennel Club. The American Foxhound has a docile and sweet demeanor. A typical dog is gentle and gets along with children and other animals. However, they may act reserved when around strangers; the American Foxhound is a active breed with high energy.
They do best in habitats where they have room to run. If they live in a suburban area such as a neighborhood, they should have a fenced in yard and be taken on multiple walks daily. Obedience training is essential for this breed due to their independence and natural instinct to follow a scent. A Foxhound who picks up a scent will follow it while ignoring commands; because of its strong hunting instinct, American Foxhounds should not be trusted off-leash. Most scent hounds are bred to give "voice," but the Foxhound does not make a good watchdog; this breed is not a breed that carries genetic disorders. However they can become overweight when overfed. A minor health risk in American Foxhounds is platelet disease; this comes from poorly functioning blood platelets and can result in excessive bleeding from minor bumps or cuts. The treatment is based on the severity of the disease. Owners will have their American Foxhounds undergo blood tests so that the condition can be caught early on. While dysplasia was unknown in Foxhounds, it is beginning to crop up along with some eye issues.
It is not typical or customary for Foxhound breeders to screen for any hereditary disorders at this time. The breed's lifespan is 10–12 years; the American Foxhound is an energetic breed. According to some veterinarians and trainers, it needs plenty of exercise, for example, a long walk followed by a game of fetch. English Foxhound Trigg Hound "July" 1858 The Original July Foxhound historical marker
The Afghan Hound is a hound, distinguished by its thick, silky coat and its tail with a ring curl at the end. The breed is selectively bred for its unique features in the cold mountains of Afghanistan, its local name is Tāžī Spay or Sag-e Tāzī. Other names for this breed areTāzī, Balkh Hound, Baluchi Hound, Barakzai Hound, Shalgar Hound, Kabul Hound, Galanday Hound or sometimes incorrectly African Hound; the Afghan Hound has been identified as a basal breed that predates the emergence of the modern breeds in the 19th Century. It is most related to the Saluki. Today's modern purebred Afghan Hound descends from dogs brought to Great Britain in the 1920s which King Amanullah of the Afghan Royal Family gave away as gifts; some had been kept as others as guardians. Although the breed is demonstrably ancient, verifiable written or visual records that tie today's Afghan Hound breed to specific Afghan owners or places are absent. There is much speculation about the breed's origin and possible connections with the ancient world among fanciers and in non-scientific breed books and breed websites.
Connections with other types and breeds from the same area may provide clues to the history. A name for a desert coursing Afghan hound, suggests a shared ancestry with the similar Tasy breed from the Caspian Sea area of Russia and Turkmenistan. Other types or breeds of similar appearance are the Taigan from the mountainous Tian Shan region on the Chinese border of Afghanistan, the Barakzay, or Kurram Valley Hound. There are at least 13 types known in Afghanistan, some are being developed into modern purebred breeds; as the lives of the peoples with whom these dogs developed change in the modern world these landrace types of dogs lose their use and disappear. Once out of Afghanistan, the history of the Afghan Hound breed became entwined with that of the earliest dog shows and the Kennel Club. Various sighthounds were brought to England in the 1800s by army officers returning from British India and Persia, were exhibited at dog shows, which were just becoming popular, under various names, such as Barukzy hounds.
They were called "Persian Greyhounds" by the English, in reference to their own indigenous sighthound. One dog in particular, was brought in 1907 from India by Captain Bariff, became the early ideal of breed type for what was still called the Persian Greyhound. Zardin was the basis of the writing of the first breed standard in 1912, but breeding of the dogs was stopped by World War I. Out of the longhaired sighthound types known in Afghanistan, two main strains make up the modern Afghan Hound breed; the first were a group of hounds brought to Scotland from Balochistan by Major and Mrs. G. Bell-Murray and Miss Jean C. Manson in 1920, are called the Bell-Murray strain; these dogs were of the lowland or steppe type called kalagh, are less coated. The second strain was a group of dogs from a kennel in Kabul owned by Mrs. Mary Amps, which she shipped to England in 1925, she and her husband came to Kabul after the Afghan war in 1919, the foundation sire of her kennel in Kabul was a dog that resembled Zardin.
Her Ghazni strain were the more coated mountain type. Most of the Afghans in the United States were developed from the Ghazni strain from England; the first Afghans in Australia were imported from the United States in 1934 of the Ghazni strain. The French breed club was formed in 1939; the mountain and steppe strains became mixed into the modern Afghan Hound breed, a new standard was written in 1948, still used today. The afghan hound can come with a much more "patterned" coat; this descends from the Bell-Murray's and the Ghazni lines, is displayed in much lighter feathering of coat, deeper saddle and much shorter hair on the face and neck. It is believed that these particular afghan hounds were a product of much hotter parts of the country; the spectacular beauty of Afghan Hound dogs caused them to become desirable showdogs and pets, they are recognised by all of the major kennel clubs in the English-speaking world. One of the Amps Ghazni, won BIS at Crufts in 1928 and 1930. An Afghan hound was featured on the cover of Life Magazine, November 26, 1945.
Afghan Hounds were the most popular in Australia in the 1970s…and won most of the major shows. An Afghan Hound won BIS at the 1996 World Dog Show in Budapest. Afghan hounds were BIS at the Westminster Kennel Club Dog Show in 1957 and again in 1983; that win marked the most recent win at Westminster for breeder-owner-handler, Chris Terrell. The Afghan Hound breed is no longer used for hunting, although it can be seen in the sport of lure coursing; the Afghan Hound is tall, standing in height 61–74 cm and weighing 20–27 kg. The coat may be any colour, but white markings on the head, are discouraged. A specimen may have facial hair; the mustache is called "mandarins." Some Afghan Hounds are white, but parti-color hounds are penalized in the AKC standard, but not by the FCI. The long, fine-textured coat requires considerable grooming; the long topknot and the shorter-haired saddle on the back of the dog are distinctive features of the Afghan Hound coat. The high hipbones and unique small ring on the end of the tail are characteristics of the breed.
The temperament of the typical Afghan Hound can be aloof and dignified
The Saluki is a standardised breed of dog, developed from sighthounds – dogs that hunt by sight rather than scent – used by nomadic tribes to run down game animals. The dog was bred in the Fertile Crescent; the modern breed is deep-chested and long-legged, similar dogs appear in medieval and ancient art. The breed is most related to the Afghan hound, a basal breed that predates the emergence of modern breeds in the 19th Century, the Saluki has been purebred both in the Middle East, including by royalty, since at least that era, in the West since the 1840s, though as a free-breeding landrace, similar dogs are common as feral animals in the Middle East. A related standardised breed is a variant of the same name. One suggested origin of the breed's name is ancient Sumerian salu-ki translating to'plunge-earth'. However, there is no evidence a breed existed or was referred to by the Sumerians with this name, nor is it certain what "plunge earth" might have meant in reference to dogs, it is suggestive of digging for burrowing prey animals, but there is a story see below) of dogs being thrown toward quarry animals by a camel-mounted hunter.
The name used for the modern breed could be derived from Saluqiyyah, the Arabic form of Seleucia, appearing in pre-Islamic Arabic poetry. However, this is disputed. British diplomat Terence Clark wrote that the Arabic word saluqi indicates'person or thing from a place named Saluq'. Arab tradition states that Saluq was an ancient town in Yemen not far from modern Ta'izz, the Arabs associate this town with the origin of the breed. However, the word saluqi might have been derived from reference to several other places: Saluq in Armenia, three towns called Saluqiyah. One has become modern Silifke, another is near Antioch, third is located near Baghdad. Baghdad eclipsed Ctesiphon, the capital of the Persian Empire, located some 30 km to the southeast. Ctesiphon itself had replaced and absorbed Seleucia, the first capital of the Seleucid Empire Regardless, the adjective saluqi may have been derived by the Arabs of the Arabian Peninsula from the similar-sounding word for Seleucid used in the Aramaic and Syriac languages spoken there by the various peoples of that part of Mesopotamia, but there is no irrefutable evidence.
Salukis are sighthounds – hunting by sight more than scent or sound – and run their quarry down to kill or retrieve it. The normal size range for the modern breed is 23–28 inches high at the withers and 35–65 pounds in weight. Female Salukis are smaller than males; the head is narrow with large eyes and drop ears. The tail of the breed is curved, it has the typical long-legged body of sighthounds. The coat comes in a variety of colors including white, fawn, grizzle/tan, black/tan, tri-color; the overall appearance of the Saluki is symmetry. Two coat types – smooth and "feathered" – are evident in the breed's gene pool; the latter variety has light fluffing on the back of the legs, thighs and sometimes the throat. The fur on both types is low-shedding when compared to other breeds. Salukis bred in the Middle East most have short hair. There is a type called "desert Saluki", which descends from bloodlines brought directly from the original region of the breed, it exists in the entire Middle Eastern region.
In Israel the type is known as the "Negev Saluki". The desert Saluki does not have influence of western lines and it tends to have a more primitive appearance, it has a broader skull, shorter muzzle and more compact body, broader chest, less angulations, shorter tail than the western equivalent. Some desert Salukis imported from the original region have cropped ears because this is a common tradition in countries such as Iran, Iraq and Syria. However, it is difficult to determine what desert Salukis are because when the dogs with "original" bloodlines have been bred in the western world for 4 to 5 generations, many people start to call them "western"; the type existed in the US in the 1980s and there has been breeding in France in the 1990s. The first desert Salukis in Finland were imported from Israel in February 2000. After that, more have been imported from countries such as Syria, Qatar, Turkey. In addition to their countries of born, they have for example Iranian, Moroccan and Saudi Arabian dogs in their background.
While the Greyhound is credited as being the fastest dog breed up to distances of around 800 metres, both the Saluki and Whippet breeds are thought to be faster over longer distances. In 1996, The Guinness Book of Records listed a Saluki as being the fastest dog, capable of reaching a speed of 68.8 km/h. Due to its padded feet being able to absorb the impact on its body, the Saluki has remarkable stamina when running; the ancestors of the modern Saluki breed were used for hunting by nomadic tribes. Typical quarry included the gazelle, hare and jackal. While hunting hares, Bedouin hunters would sometimes ride close to their quarry on a camel holding such a dog, which would be thrown towards the prey while at speed to give the dog a running start. Gazelle hunters used hawks to gouge out the eyes of the prey so that a saluki could bring down the blinded animal; the modern Saluki may seem reserved to strangers. The independent and aloof breed may be difficult to train, and