Eurovision Song Contest 2011
The Eurovision Song Contest 2011 was the 56th edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Düsseldorf, following Lena's win at the 2010 contest in Oslo, Norway with the song "Satellite"; the event was held at the Esprit Arena, with semi-finals held on 10 and 12 May, the final held on 14 May 2011. This was the first contest to take place outside the host nation's capital city since the 2004 contest in Istanbul. Forty-three countries participated in the contest, with those returning including Austria, which last participated in 2007. Italy returned to the Contest, marking its first participation since 1997. No country withdrew from the contest; the winner was Azerbaijan with the song "Running Scared" performed by Nikki. The runner-up was Italy, Sweden finished in third place. Italy and Germany were the only members of the "Big Five" to make it into the top 10, with the United Kingdom close behind at 11th place. 2010 Hosts Norway were eliminated in the first semi-final. Azerbaijan obtained its first victory in any Eurovision since its debut in 2008.
Azerbaijan won the viewers voting with Sweden in second place, Greece in third place. Italy won the jury voting, with Azerbaijan in Denmark in third place; this is the first time since the juries were reintroduced alongside the televoting in 2009 that the winner did not place first in the jury voting. The broadcast of the final won the Rose d'Or award for Best Live Event. Following Lena's win at the 2010 contest with the song "Satellite", Germany became host nation for the 2011 edition. Twenty-three cities submit official bids to the German broadcaster Norddeutscher Rundfunk, in order to be the host city for the 2011 contest. Eight of these cities continued to show interest in hosting the event including Berlin, Hanover, Gelsenkirchen, Düsseldorf, Cologne and Munich. NDR announced on 21 August 2010 that four of those cities had applied to host the 2011 Contest: Berlin, Hanover, Düsseldorf. Possible locations within the cities included the following:Key Host venue BerlinConcerns were raised about Berlin's bid concept which consisted of an inflatable tent to be built on Tempelhof's hangar area.
Decision makers at NDR doubted the venue's ability to provide advantageous acoustic conditions. Berlin's speaker Richard Meng neither confirmed nor denied that because, he stated, "secrecy about the bid concepts was promised to the NDR". DüsseldorfOn 24 September 2010, it was announced that Fortuna Düsseldorf football club had applied to the Deutsche Fußball Liga for permission to move its home matches to the Paul-Janes-Stadion if the Esprit Arena in Düsseldorf was awarded the 2011 Song Contest; this message indicated that talks with Düsseldorf to host the song contest in the Esprit Arena were at an advanced stage. The club announced on 6 October 2010 that it had obtained permission to move its games if necessary; the Neue Ruhr Zeitung newspaper reported on 12 December 2010 that Fortuna Düsseldorf were to be moved to the Paul-Janes-Stadion due to the contest. Fortuna Düsseldorf's training venue next to the Esprit Arena would be equipped with mobile stands from a Swiss event construction specialist, Nussli Group, creating 20,000 extra seats.
This decision was made. HamburgOn 2 October 2010 the Hamburger Abendblatt newspaper announced that Hamburg would be unable to host the 2011 Song Contest, because the city could no longer fulfil the required financial conditions; the Esprit Arena in Düsseldorf was announced by German broadcaster Norddeutscher Rundfunk as the venue for the 2011 Eurovision Song Contest on 12 October 2010. This was the first Eurovision Song Contest held in Germany since German reunification, with West Germany having hosted the contest in 1957 and 1983. Germany was the first member of the "Big Five" to host the Contest since the implementation of the rule in 2000 that permits the five largest contributors to the European Broadcasting Union – Germany, the United Kingdom and Italy – to qualify automatically for the final alongside the previous year's winner; that the stadium acquired a rental period of six weeks, in order to allow construction and dismantling work within the Esprit Arena to be carried out. The stadium accommodated a capacity of 38,000 for spectators during the Eurovision Song Contest.
Düsseldorf offered 23,000 hotel beds and 2,000 additional beds in the Düsseldorf surroundings and on ships on the River Rhine. The four countries that were part of the Big Four, along with the host of the contest, automatically qualify for a place in the final. Since Germany was both a "Big Four" country and the host for the 2011 contest, there was a vacant spot in the final. At a Reference Group meeting in Belgrade it was decided that the existing rules would remain in place, that the number of participants in the final would be lowered from twenty-five to twenty-four. On 31 December 2010, the official participation list was published by the EBU, which stipulated that with the return of Italy to the contest, this nation would become a member of the "Big Five"; this change permitted Italy automatic qualification into the finals, alongside France, the United Kingdom, host nation Germany, restoring the number of participants for the final to twenty-five nations. On 30 August 2010 it was announced that Svante Stockselius, Executive Supervisor of the Eurovision Song Contest, would be leaving his position on 31 December 2010.
On 26 Novemb
Eurovision Song Contest 2007
The Eurovision Song Contest 2007 was the 52nd edition of the annual Eurovision Song Contest. It took place in Helsinki, following Lordi's win at the 2006 contest in Athens, Greece with the song "Hard Rock Hallelujah"; the contest was held at the Hartwall Areena in Helsinki, Finland from 10 May to 12 May, staged by host broadcaster Yle. A budget of €13 million was presented for arranging the contest. Other bids to host the contest came from Espoo and Tampere; the hosts were Finnish television personality Jaana Pelkonen and Finnish musician, stage performer and actor Mikko Leppilampi. Krisse Salminen acted as guest host in the green room, reported from the crowds at the Senate Square. A record number of 42 countries participated; the European Broadcasting Union put aside its limit of 40 countries, which would have meant excluding some countries using a ranking order scheme. The winner was Serbia. After Lordi scored the first Eurovision victory with a hard rock song, several countries sent rock songs to the Contest rather than the soft pop and schlager styles more associated with Eurovision.
This trend continued at the 2009 Contests. Cyprus and Latvia entered songs in languages other than English. Although this happened with the Belgium 2003 entry, this was the first time the contest featured countries doing this with actual languages as opposed to an imaginary one. On 12 March 2007, the draws for the running order for the semi-final and voting procedure took place. A new feature allowed five wild-card countries from the semi-final and three countries from the final to choose their starting position; the heads of delegation chose the number they would take. In the semi-final, Andorra, Turkey and Latvia were able to choose their positions. In the final, Armenia and Germany were able to exercise this privilege. All countries opted for spots in the second half of both evenings. Shortly after the draw, the entries were approved by the EBU, ending the possibility of disqualification for the Israeli song; the United Kingdom chose their entry after the deadline because they were granted special dispensation from the EBU.
The contest saw some minor changes to the voting time-frame. The compilation summary video of all entries including phone numbers was shown twice; the voting process was the same as 2006 except there was fifteen minutes to vote, an increase of five minutes on the 2006 Contest. In the final, the results from each country were once again shown from one to seven points automatically on screen and only eight and twelve were read by the spokespeople. For the first time, the winner was awarded a promotion tour around Europe, visiting Denmark, Sweden, the Netherlands and Germany; the tour was held between 21 May. The event was sponsored by European communications group TeliaSonera, — as with several previous contests — Nobel Biocare. Apocalyptica were the interval act, played a medley of songs: Worlds Collide and Life Burns!, but without the usual lyrics. The official logo of the contest remained the same as 2006; the European Broadcasting Union and YLE announced that the theme for the 2007 contest would be "True Fantasy", which embraced Finland and "Finnishness" in terms of the polarities associated with the country.
The design agency Dog Design was responsible for the design of the visual theme of the contest which incorporated vibrant kaleidoscopic patterns formed from various symbols including exclamation marks and the letter F. The stage was in the shape of a traditional Finnish instrument. On 20 February 2007 a reworked official website for the contest was launched marking the first public exhibition of this year's theme. An official CD and DVD were released. An official fan book was released; the themes of the postcards were short stories happening in different Finnish places. Participating countries in a Eurovision Song Contest must be active members of the EBU. 42 countries submitted preliminary applications. Although in previous years the maximum number of participating countries was 40, the EBU allowed all 42 to participate in 2007; the Czech Republic, Serbia and Georgia all entered the contest for the first time in 2007. Monaco announced its withdrawal on 12 December 2006, the EBU announced the final lineup of 42 countries on 15 December 2006.
Evridiki returned to represent Cyprus, having represented the nation in 1992 and 1994. Eiríkur Hauksson represented Iceland in 1986 as part of the vocal trio ICY and he represented Norway in 1991 as part of the group Just 4 Fun. Karolina Gočeva represented Macedonia in 2002. Edsilia Rombley represented the Netherlands in 1998; the semi-final was held on 10 May 2007 at 21:00. 28 countries performed and all 42 participants voted. Countries qualified. Notes 1.^ Contained some words in French and Spanish. 2.^ Although the song was performed in English, the title and sentence in the lyrics "Ven a bailar conmigo" is in Spanish. The finalists were: the four automatic qualifiers France, Germany and the United Kingdom; the final was won by Serbia. Notes 3.^ Contained some words in English. 4.^ Song is in english but the title is in Greek. All countries participating in the contest were required to use televoting and/or S
Yugoslavia in the Eurovision Song Contest
Yugoslavia participated in the Eurovision Song Contest 27 times, debuting in 1961 and competing every year until its last appearance in 1992, with the exceptions of 1977–1980 and 1985. Yugoslavia hosted the 1990 contest. Ljiljana Petrović placed eighth. In 1962, Lola Novaković gave the country its first top five result; this would remain Yugoslavia's only top five result until 1983, when Danijel finished fourth with the song "Džuli". Novi Fosili finished fourth in 1987 with "Ja sam za ples". In 1989, the country achieved its only victory in the contest, when Riva won with the song "Rock Me"; the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia debuted in the Eurovision Song Contest in 1961 along with Spain and Finland. The national pre-selection organized by the Yugoslav broadcaster Yugoslav Radio Television was Jugovizija, it featured entries submitted by the subnational public broadcasting centers based in the capitals of each of the constituent republics of the Yugoslav federation: SR Bosnia and Herzegovina, SR Croatia, SR Macedonia, SR Montenegro, SR Serbia and SR Slovenia and the broadcasting services of the autonomous provinces within SR Serbia: SAP Kosovo and SAP Vojvodina.
The first to compete in 1961 were Belgrade and Zagreb, while the others joined in the following years. Yugoslavia was represented by a variety of artists from five of the eight Yugoslav federal units; these artists were from Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and Slovenia, with Macedonia and Kosovo never passing the national pre-selection. Croatia was the most successful constituent republic, as its performers won the national contest 13 out of the 26 times SFR Yugoslavia took part in the contest. From 1977 to 1980, in 1985, Yugoslavia did not participate in the contest. Yugoslavia won the Eurovision Song Contest 1989 with the song "Rock Me" by the group Riva. Following the rules of the contest, the Eurovision Song Contest 1990 took place in Zagreb, as the entry came from Croatia. During the process of breakup of SFR Yugoslavia in 1991, the former constituent republics of Croatia and Macedonia proclaimed independence and hence withdrew from Jugovizija, while the then-leaderships of Serbia and Montenegro agreed to maintain a close alliance.
On 28 March 1992, the republics that still constituted the fading and shrunken former Yugoslav federation took part in 1992's Jugovizija held in Belgrade. It included artists not only from Serbia and Montenegro, but from Bosnia and Herzegovina, although the latter declared independence on 1 March of that year. Among its candidates was Alma Čardžić; the winner of that pre-selection was "Ljubim te pesmama" performed by Extra Nena from Serbia. Before that year's ESC took place, on 28 April, a new federal state was formed consisting of Serbia and Montenegro called the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, represented by the mentioned Extra Nena in the Eurovision Song Contest 1992 held on 9 May. Yugoslavia was banned from participating in the Song Contest until 2004 due to UN sanctions during the Yugoslav Wars. After the dissolution of SFR Yugoslavia its former constituent republics proclaimed independence; the once subnational public radio and TV stations changed to national but under new names, including: RTV Slovenia, HRT, RTS, MKRTV and so on.
Since joining the EBU all of the ex-Yugoslav countries have participated in the Eurovision Song Contest: Slovenia, Croatia and Herzegovina, Montenegro and North Macedonia. Overall the results of the new republics have been mixed: Croatia had some top 10 finishes in the mid-1990s, the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina have enjoyed high scores in the 2000s, while the Republic of North Macedonia has never secured a top 10 result despite making it through to the final each year until 2008, in which it lost at the semi-final stage. In 2004, the State Union of Serbia and Montenegro debuted and came in 2nd and in 2007, Montenegro joined the contest but failed to qualify for the final, while Serbia won the Eurovision Song Contest the first time it entered as an independent nation. In 2013, no ex-Yugoslav country secured a spot in the final, as Bosnia and Herzegovina withdrew before the contest began; the following lists the 27 contestants that won the local competition and went on to participate in the Eurovision Song Contest.
Note that the selected entries of 1978–1980 and 1985 did not compete at the contest, as Yugoslavia did not participate during those years because of internal political reasons. Yugoslavia is one of the few countries that have sent all the songs in one of the official languages. Table key NOTES: 1 ^ Yugoslavia intended to enter the contest in 1985. However, due to the Contest being held on the national memorial day marking the fifth anniversary of former Yugoslav president Josip Broz Tito's death, broadcasting any musical program wasn't allowed and JRT was forced to withdraw. Between 1961 and 1991, Yugoslavia's voting history was as follows: Due to Croatia and Slovenia becoming independent countries in the breakup of Yugoslavia, in 1992 there was no Croatian or Slovene commentator. All conductors are listed by their republic flags. All but one conductor was Yugoslav. In all, Yugoslavia did not participate in five contests: from 1977 to 1980 and again in 1985, due to the Contest being held on Yugoslavia's national memorial day for Josip Broz Tito.
Slovenia the Republic of Slovenia, is a sovereign state located in southern Central Europe at a crossroads of important European cultural and trade routes. It is bordered by Italy to the west, Austria to the north, Hungary to the northeast, Croatia to the southeast, the Adriatic Sea to the southwest, it has a population of 2.07 million. One of the successor states of the former Yugoslavia, Slovenia is a parliamentary republic and a member of the United Nations, of the European Union, of NATO; the capital and largest city is Ljubljana. Slovenia has a mountainous terrain with a continental climate, with the exception of the Slovene Littoral, which has a sub-Mediterranean climate, of the northwest, which has an Alpine climate. Additionally, the Dinaric Alps and the Pannonian Plain meet on the territory of Slovenia; the country, marked by a significant biological diversity, is one of the most water-rich in Europe, with a dense river network, a rich aquifer system, significant karst underground watercourses.
Over half of the territory is covered by forest. The human settlement of Slovenia is uneven. Slovenia has been the crossroads of Slavic and Romance languages and cultures. Although the population is not homogeneous, Slovenes comprise the majority; the South Slavic language Slovene is the official language throughout the country. Slovenia is a secularized country, but Catholicism and Lutheranism have influenced its culture and identity; the economy of Slovenia is small and export-oriented and has been influenced by international conditions. It has been hurt by the Eurozone crisis which started in 2009; the main economic field is services, followed by construction. The current territory of Slovenia has formed part of many different states, including the Roman Empire, Byzantine Empire, Carolingian Empire and the Holy Roman Empire, the Habsburg Monarchy, the Republic of Venice, the French-administered Illyrian Provinces of Napoleon I, the Austrian Empire and Austria-Hungary. In October 1918 the Slovenes exercised self-determination for the first time by co-founding the State of Slovenes and Serbs.
In December 1918 they merged with the Kingdom of Serbia into the Kingdom of Serbs and Slovenes. During World War II Germany and Hungary occupied and annexed Slovenia, with a tiny area transferred to the Independent State of Croatia, a Nazi puppet state. In 1945 Slovenia became a founding member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia, renamed in 1963 as the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. In the first years after World War II this state was allied with the Eastern Bloc, but it never subscribed to the Warsaw Pact and in 1961 became one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement. In June 1991, after the introduction of multi-party representative democracy, Slovenia became the first republic that split from Yugoslavia and became an independent country. In 2004, it entered the European Union. Slovenia's name means the "Land of the Slavs" in Slovene and other South Slavic languages; the etymology of Slav itself remains uncertain. The reconstructed autonym *Slověninъ is derived from the word slovo denoting "people who speak," i. e. people who understand each other.
This is in contrast to the Slavic word denoting German people, namely *němьcь, meaning "silent, mute people". The word slovo and the related slava and slukh originate from the Proto-Indo-European root *ḱlew-, cognate with Ancient Greek κλέος, as in the name Pericles, Latin clueo, English loud; the modern Slovene state originates from the Slovene National Liberation Committee held on 19 February 1944. They named the state as Federal Slovenia, a unit within the Yugoslav federation. On 20 February 1946, Federal Slovenia was renamed the People's Republic of Slovenia, it retained this name until 9 April 1963, when its name was changed again, this time to Socialist Republic of Slovenia. On 8 March 1990, SR Slovenia removed the prefix "Socialist" from its name, becoming the Republic of Slovenia. Present-day Slovenia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. There is evidence of human habitation from around 250,000 years ago. A pierced cave bear bone, dating from 43100 ± 700 BP, found in 1995 in Divje Babe cave near Cerkno, is considered a kind of flute, the oldest musical instrument discovered in the world.
In the 1920s and 1930s, artifacts belonging to the Cro-Magnon, such as pierced bones, bone points, a needle were found by archaeologist Srečko Brodar in Potok Cave. In 2002, remains of pile dwellings over 4,500 years old were discovered in the Ljubljana Marshes, now protected as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, along with the Ljubljana Marshes Wooden Wheel, the oldest wooden wheel in the world, it shows that wooden wheels appeared simultaneously in Mesopotamia and Europe. In the transition period between the Bronze age to the Iron age, the Urnfield culture flourished. Archaeological remains dating from the Hallstatt period have been found in southeastern Slovenia, among them a number of situl
Darja Švajger is one of Slovenia's most popular singers best known internationally for having represented her country in the Eurovision Song Contest on two occasions. Music entered Darja's life. After finishing secondary school, she entered the College of Music and attended art classes in Graz, where she studied classical solo singing and jazz. In 1997, she graduated magna cum laude. During her studies she had started performing as a solo vocalist with various bands and symphony orchestras. Since 1992 she has been engaged in several projects of the Slovene National Theatre in Maribor. In 1993, the international jury of the Melodies of the Sea and the Sun pop music festival, held in Koper, awarded her first prize in the Slovenian section of the international category, her first album, In the Arms of the Night, soon followed. 1994: V objemu noči 1995: Prisluhni mi 1998: Trenutki 1999: Še tisoč let 2001: Plameni 2005: Najlepše uspešnice 2008: Moji obrazi 2013: Moji obrazi The year 1995 was of great importance to Darja.
She represented Slovenia in the Eurovision Song Contest in Dublin, performing the song Prisluhni mi by Primoc Peterca and Saso Fajon. The ballad achieved seventh place: Slovenia's best result to the contest. Darja won the 1996 Pop Singer of the Year awards in Slovenia. In the following years, she became active and her second album, was released in 1998. 1995: Prisluhni mi 1999: Še tisoč let / For a thousand years 2014: Sončen dan 2015: En svet In 1999, RTV, the national television broadcaster, chose Darja to represent the country in the Eurovision Song Contest held in Jerusalem. Peterca and Fajon again wrote a ballad for her, entitled For A Thousand Years; the composer stated that he had been inspired by the city of New York during his four-month stay there. RTV had high hopes and indeed the song was in first place during the first minutes of the voting: it got a 12 points high score from Ireland; the song scored a total of 50 points and was ranked 11th among the 23 entries. Slovenia in the Eurovision Song Contest The official site of the Slovenian National Broadcaster The official site of the Eurovision Song Contest
Radiotelevizija Slovenija – abbreviated to RTV Slovenija – is Slovenia's national public broadcasting organization. Based in the country's capital, Ljubljana, it has regional broadcasting centres in Koper and Maribor and correspondents around Slovenia and the world. RTV Slovenija's national radio services operate under the name Radio Slovenija, while the television division carries the name Televizija Slovenija or TV Slovenija; the names are sometimes Anglicized as TV Slovenia, respectively. There are three national and four regional radio services. RTV Slovenija finances the RTV Slovenia Symphony Orchestra and the RTV Slovenia Big Band; the legal foundation for the institution is the Radiotelevizija Slovenija Act. It is the only public nonprofit broadcasting organization in Slovenia to operate both radio and television stations; the law requires it to air radio and television services for the country's two indigenous linguistic minorities, which it does in collaboration with the regional broadcasting centres in Maribor and in Koper.
73% of RTV Slovenija's funding comes from television licence fees. Radio Ljubljana signed on the air for the first time on September 1, 1928, with experimental broadcasts. By October 28 the radio station had a scheduled programme. On April 11, 1941, the station's transmitter in Domžale was destroyed and the station was occupied by Italy. On April 1, 1949, the first TV laboratory was established in Ljubljana, but was separate from the radio station. However, the task of setting up a television service was assigned to Radio Ljubljana. Second radio program started in 1951. On November 11, 1958 the TV channel got a regular schedule, but it was shared by other Yugoslav republics, with TV Ljubljana getting around 30% of airtime. TV Ljubljana produced its first broadcast for Eurovision, showing ski jumping in Planica, in 1960; the color program broadcasting started in 1966. During that decade, the amount of programming produced for Slovenian audiences increased substantially. On April 15, 1968, the main evening newscast was broadcast in the Slovenian language for the first time.
It had originated in Belgrade and was produced in Serbo-Croatian. In 1970, the RTV Slovenia record label was established. In 1971, TV Koper/Capodistria, a subsidiary of RTV Ljubljana, was launched as the first bilingual TV station in Slovenia, serving the Italian community in Slovenia and Croatia. However, it enjoyed huge popularity in many parts of Italy. There, RAI still had a monopoly on television, so many Italians eagerly tuned into the new Yugoslav station, which broadcast in color. Private companies built transmitters and translators in various parts of Italy that made TV Koper-Capodistria available to millions of Italians; because the station used the PAL color standard, Italians bought PAL TV sets in large numbers, ending the hopes of the French government that Italy might adopt its SECAM system instead. With the advent of owned, purely commercial television in Italy, the station's popularity began to diminish. During the 1970s, TV Ljubljana's main service was gradually converted to color.
In 1984, teletext was introduced, whereas the digitalization started in 1986. In 1989, Radio Ljubljana started transmitting an RDS signal. At first, TV Ljubljana's second television network relayed programs from other Yugoslav television stations. In the late 1980s, the percentage of TV Ljubljana's own programs on the second network increased dramatically. A year before Slovenia's independence in 1991, the institution was renamed to Radiotelevizija Slovenija. On January 1, 1993, RTV Slovenija was admitted as a full active member of the European Broadcasting Union following the collapse of Yugoslavia, began participation in the Eurovision Song Contest. In the mid- to late 1990s, TV Slovenia began to face increased competition from Slovenia's commercial television stations. In 1995, RTV Slovenija published its first web page. Radio digitalization started in 1995, whereas the digitalization of television broadcasting started in 1999. In 1997, satellite broadcasting started via Hot Bird 3. In 2001, RTV Slovenija's Multimedia Centre was established to help introduce new technologies.
A new multimedia web portal was introduced in 2002. This portal includes regular news updates, broadcast archives, the live transmission on line of most services, both radio and television. RSS feeds were introduced in 2005; the public broadcaster referendum, 2005 was approved by a slight majority of voters, but the referendum saw a low turnout. On November 12, 2005 a law was passed stating that Radio-television Slovenia is "a public institution of special cultural and national importance..."In May 2008 TV Slovenia began airing a new TV channel, TV Slovenija 3, dedicated to live Parliament coverage. In August 2008 TV Slovenia broadcast their first HD event – Olympic Games 2008 on test DVB-T channel; the Slovenian public broadcaster law referendum, 2010 was rejected by voters. In 2011, analogue signal was abandoned; the 1994 Law on RTV Slovenia regulates public broadcasting. RTV Slovenia has a Supervisory Board; the law requires the public broadcaster to provide radio and TV pr