Crust punk is a form of music influenced by English punk rock and extreme metal. The style, which evolved in the early-1980s in England has songs with dark and pessimistic lyrics that linger on political and social ills; the term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo. Crust is defined by its "bassy" and "dirty" sound, it is played at a fast tempo with occasional slow sections. Vocals are guttural and may be grunted, growled or screamed. Crust punk takes cues from the anarcho-punk of Crass and Discharge and the heavy metal of bands like Venom, Hellhammer, Celtic Frost, Black Sabbath and Motörhead. While the term was first associated with Hellbastard, Amebix have been described as the originators of the style, along with Discharge and Antisect. Crust punk is a derivative form of anarcho-punk, mixed with metal riffs; the tempos are fast, but just short of thrashcore or grindcore. However, many groups confine themselves to a sludgy pace; the overall musical sound has been described as being "stripped down".
Drumming is done at high speed, with D-beats sometimes being used. Vocals in crust punk are shrieked or shouted, may be shared between two or more vocalists; the lyrical content of crust punk tends to be politically engaged. Crust punk songs are about nuclear war, animal rights, personal grievances, oppressive states and fascism. Amebix were interested in various forms of mysticism and Gnosticism. Malcolm "Scruff" Lewty and vocalist of Hellbastard, describes the distinction between metal and crust punk lyrics: Metal lyrics were so dumb, so far removed from daily life. Venom were going on about Satan... and bikes... and Satan... and women... and Satan! You know what? I never got up in the morning and said,'Fuck yeah! Satan! Let's go and meet my disciples from Hell!' I'd switch on the TV and know I was going to see hundreds of people dying because there'd been an earthquake in the third world... and all these people starving to death while military expenditure still increased... That was — and still is — the reality of it.
The whole heavy metal thing is just an escape from reality, into this other world of... well, bullshit basically. The initial inspiration for the crust punk scene came from the anarcho-punk of Crass and D-beat of Discharge. Swedish D-beat groups such as Crude SS, Skitslickers/Anti Cimex and Mob 47 and the Finnish Rattus were early influences. Amebix brought in influences from various post-punk bands, including Public Image Ltd. Bauhaus, Joy Division, Killing Joke; the early metal sound of Black Sabbath and Motörhead was a big influence on both Amebix and Antisect. Crust was founded by the bands Antisect; the term "crust" was coined by Hellbastard on their 1986 Ripper Crust demo. As punk historian Ian Glasper puts it,'Rippercrust' is regarded as the first time the word'crust' was used in the punk context, hence the specific starting point of the whole crust punk genre, although some would attribute that accolade to the likes of Disorder, Chaos UK, Amebix several years earlier. Malcolm "Scruff" Lewty and guitarist of the group, commented, A lot of people say we started the crust punk genre, but whatever.
If they wanna say that, I don't mind, but I'm no Malcolm McLaren, saying I invented something I didn't. Punk journalist Felix von Havoc contends that Doom, Excrement of War, Electro Hippies and Extreme Noise Terror were among the first bands to have the traditional UK "crust" sound. Additional subgenres of this style began to develop. Deviated Instinct, from Norwich, created "stenchcore", bringing "both the look and sound — dirty and metallic — to their natural conclusion". An anarcho-punk group, they began to take increasing influence from metal; as vocalist Julian "Leggo" Kilsby comments, We were much a part of the anarcho scene, to start with politically motivated... all the way through the band's existence although it got less obvious as time went by. But I never liked the straightforward'War is bad...' Lyrics that were so prevalent at the time, so as my writing skills improved I wanted to add more depth to our lyrics and make them more metaphorical. Extreme Noise Terror is credited with developing this style into grindcore.
However, Pete Hurley, the guitarist for the group, declared that he had no interest in being remembered as a pioneer of this style: "'grindcore' was a legendarily stupid term coined by a hyperactive kid from the West Midlands, it had nothing to do with us whatsoever. ENT were, — I suspect — always will be a hardcore punk band... not a grindcore band, a stenchcore band, a trampcore band, or any other sub-sub-sub-core genre-defining term you can come up with."American crust punk began in New York City in the mid-1980s, with the work of Nausea. The group emerged from the Lower East Side squat scene and New York hardcore, living with Roger Miret of Agnostic Front; the early work of Neurosis, from San Francisco borrowed from Amebix, inaugurated crust punk on the West Coast. Disrupt, Antischism, MISERY and Destroy were significant U. S. crust groups. An important American crust punk band was Aus Rotten from Pennsylvania. Crust punk flourished in Minneapolis, shepherded by the Profane Existence label.
In this period, the ethos of crust punk became codified, with vegetarianism and sometimes straight edge being prescribed by many of the figures in the scene. The powerviolence scene associated with Sl
Swans are an American experimental rock band formed in 1982 by singer and multi-instrumentalist Michael Gira. One of few acts to emerge from the New York City-based no wave scene and stay intact into the next decade, Swans have become recognized for an ever-changing sound, exploring genres such as noise rock, post-punk and post-rock, their music was known for its sonic brutality and misanthropic lyrics. Following the addition of singer and keyboardist Jarboe, who first appeared on the 1986 single "Time Is Money" and debuted as a songwriter on the 1987 album Children of God, Swans began to incorporate more melody and intricacy into their music. Jarboe remained the band's only constant member except Gira and semi-constant guitarist Norman Westberg until their dissolution in 1997. Since 1990, all Swans records have been released through Young God Records. In 2010, Gira re-formed the band without Jarboe, establishing a stable lineup of musicians which has toured worldwide and released several albums to critical acclaim.
This iteration of the group performed its last shows in November 2017, ending the tour in support of its final album The Glowing Man. Gira plans to reinvent Swans "with a revolving cast of contributors". Michael Gira has stated he took the moniker Swans as it described the sound he wanted best. Gira's summation of the name follows along the lines of: "Swans are majestic, beautiful looking creatures. With ugly temperaments."The earliest known lineup of Swans comprised Gira on bass guitar and vocals, Jonathan Kane on drums, Sue Hanel on guitar, Mojo on percussion and tape loops and either Thurston Moore, Dan Braun or Jon Tessler on the second bass guitar. Jon Tessler played percussion and tape loops. Hanel's only recordings with the group are on the compilation Body to Body, Job to Job, but the ambiguous personnel credits do not make it clear on which songs she performed. Kane stated that "Sue was the most fearsome guitarist we'd heard in New York, she was unbelievable."Hanel did not stay long in the group, by the time of their recording debut she had been replaced by Bob Pezzola.
This lineup of the group featured saxophonist Daniel Galli-Duani, who had played with Kane as the avant-garde duo Transmission. The debut EP, released on Labor, is markedly different from anything they would do later; the plodding tempos and distorted, detuned guitar work is reminiscent of such post-punk outfits as Joy Division. However, the minimal chord structures owe more to blues, while the jazz instrumentation and awkward time signatures are evidence of Swans' roots in the no wave scene of the late 1970s, which had more or less collapsed by the release of 1984's Cop. Kane compares Swans to blues icon Chester Burnett, a.k.a. Howlin' Wolf; some similarities worth noting—the music of early Swans was based on a single riff, played to hypnotic effect. Some of Burnett's songs—especially the songs penned by Burnett himself—have a similar structure and quality, their early music was typified by slow and grinding guitar noise, pounding drums, punctuated by Gira's morbid and violent lyrics barked or shouted.
Critics have described Swans' early recordings as "aggressive beyond words". Their first full-length release, featured driving, choppy rhythms and abrasive drums; the whole is reminiscent of earlier no wave bands, such as Mars, the work of Swans' contemporaries, like Sonic Youth's Confusion Is Sex and Kill Yr Idols. Filth was the first album to feature guitarist Norman Westberg, who would play a vital role in much of Swans' music and would feature on every subsequent studio album apart from Love of Life. Cop and the untitled Young God EP were both released in 1984 and re-released together on CD in 1992. Young God has been known by several names by one of its two A-sides, such as "I Crawled" or, notoriously, as "Raping a Slave"; this release is confused with their self-titled debut. The music continues in the same vein as Filth, is again vaguely reminiscent of heavy metal music played in extreme slow motion. Swans were, in this era, Gira on vocals, Westberg on guitar, Harry Crosby on bass guitar and Roli Mosimann on drums.
Gira's vocals had changed becoming more melodic, although the snarl still remained. Some of the songs on the EP "Young God" and "I Crawled", have an actual vocal melody, if rudimentary, hinting at the sounds of future releases. Young God is considered by many to be the best of their early releases for this reason. Godflesh frontman Justin Broadrick shared this impression of the group: One of the trademarks of Swans' early period was playing at painfully loud volumes during concerts leading to police stopping shows. Gira was notably confrontational with the audience, such as stepping on people's fingers resting on the stage, pulling people's hair and, physically assaulting anyone caught in the crowd headbanging; this lent a reputation to the name Swans, one of the contributing factors in Gira's retirement of the band in 1997. Since Swans' re-formation, Gira has made a point of maintaining the intensity of their live show, stating that it is at once "soul-uplifting and body-destroying", he has sometimes turned off the air conditioning before Swans performed and compared the experience to a Native American sweat lodge.
1986's Greed saw a new addition to the group with vocalist/keyboardist Jarboe joining the band. Her presence began a slow thawing in the overt energy of Swans' early work. Greed marked the i
Neurosis is an American avant-garde metal band from Oakland, California. It was formed in 1985 by guitarist Scott Kelly, bassist Dave Edwardson, drummer Jason Roeder as a hardcore punk band. Chad Salter joined as a second guitarist and appeared on the band's 1987 debut Pain of Mind before being replaced by Steve Von Till in 1989; the following year, the lineup further expanded to include a visual artist. Beginning with their third album Souls at Zero, Neurosis developed a unique musical style crucial to the emergence of the post-metal and sludge metal genres; the band's lineup stabilized in 1995 with the addition of Noah Landis, who replaced Simon McIlroy on keyboards and electronics. That same year they formed the experimental music group Tribes of Neurot and in 1999 the record label Neurot Recordings; as of 2018, they have released 12 studio albums, including a 2003 collaboration with Jarboe, garnered critical recognition. The BBC credited them with taking "heavy music to unimaginable spaces... metal's definitive response to the 21st century."
In late 1985, Scott Kelly, Dave Edwardson, Jason Roeder members of Violent Coercion, founded Neurosis as a hardcore punk outfit, inspired by British crust punk in the vein of Amebix and Crass. In 1986 Chad Salter was added on second guitar, in 1990, Simon McIlroy joined the band as a synthesizer/sampler. There have only been a few changes in the lineup of Neurosis' musicians since band's inception. In 1989 guitarist/vocalist Chad Salter was replaced by Steve Von Till, in 1995 Noah Landis, a childhood friend of Dave Edwardson, replaced Simon McIlroy as keyboardist. With The Word as Law, Neurosis began to transition from the hardcore punk of Pain of Mind to the more experimental sound of Souls at Zero, which would form the basis for post-metal and atmospheric sludge metal. Neurosis' signature sound came into full force with Enemy of the Sun, with The Quietus observing that "at the time few could have predicted this black hole of agonizingly precise metal riffs, unnerving backmasking, industrial folkisms and extensive sampling".
In 1996, Neurosis attracted mainstream attention with its Relapse Records debut, Through Silver in Blood and subsequent tour with Pantera. In 1999, Neurosis released Times of Grace, designed to be played synchronously with Grace, an album released by Neurosis' ambient side project, Tribes of Neurot. In the early 2000s, the band founded their own independent record label, Neurot Recordings, which, in addition to releasing material from Neurosis and its associated projects, signed several other artists. Beginning with A Sun That Never Sets, Neurosis began incorporating clean vocals and acoustic instrumentation with a growing folk music influence, more noted presence of classical string instruments as well as slower tempos and a more contemplative sound. Allmusic described this change as an "aesthetic sea change". 2004's The Eye of Every Storm expanded upon this change by incorporating more ambient textures into the mix and presenting a softer post-rock oriented sound. The band released their ninth studio album Given to the Rising on May 8, 2007 through Neurot Records.
On this album Neurosis re-incorporated a more aggressive approach into their music once again, the album was well received by critics. The band entered the studio in December 2011 to record the follow-up to Given to the Rising; the new album, entitled Honor Found in Decay, was released in late October 2012. The band performed at Roadburn 2016, with Brooklyn Vegan's Ian Cory writing that "once the house lights came up it was hard to justify watching anything else." This was part of their series of shows performed in celebration of their 30th anniversary as a band. On May 5, 2016 relapse Records confirmed they were reissuing A Sun That Never Sets and The Eye of Every Storm on vinyl on June 17 with new artwork, their eleventh studio album, titled Fires Within Fires, was released on September 23, 2016. From 1990 to 1993, Adam G. Kendall was recruited to perform live with the band. Following his departure from touring, Pete Inc. took over the job, although Kendall continued to contribute visuals for the band until as late as 1997.
Kendall shot the footage for the "Locust Star" video. Josh Graham took over live visuals in early 2000 as Pete wasn't "cutting the mustard", created album artwork for 2004's The Eye of Every Storm, 2007's Given to the Rising, 2012's Honor Found in Decay, as well as re-designs for the reissues of Souls at Zero and Enemy of the Sun. Graham and Neurosis amicably parted ways in late November 2012 via an announcement on the band website, he was not replaced and the band ceased to use live visual media. Experimental and psychedelic in nature, Neurosis' visual media have added to the reputation of their live performances. Many of the visuals for their tours supporting Through Silver in Blood are taken from Ken Russell's film Altered States. Other images are included in the enhanced portion of the Sovereign E. P, on the A Sun That Never Sets DVD video release; the majority of the DVD release was directed with an additional video by Chad Rullman. Neurosis emerged as a hardcore punk band, performing a blend of hardcore and heavy metal inspired by British punk and described as crust punk or crossover.
However their second album The Word as Law introduced some elements of avant-garde music and sludge metal, a genre, emerging as a fusion of hardcore and doom metal. Thereafter, the band developed a unique sound.
Crowbar (American band)
Crowbar is an American sludge metal band formed in New Orleans, Louisiana, in 1990. Through infusing a slow, low-keyed, brooding doom metal sound with the aggression of hardcore punk, they pioneered a style known as sludge metal alongside other bands of the New Orleans heavy metal scene such as Eyehategod, Soilent Green, Acid Bath, Down; the band dates back to 1988, when Kirk Windstein joined the New Orleans hardcore punk band ShellShock. He met Jimmy Bower, their drummer, they became friends; the band collapsed when Mike Hatch, their guitarist, committed suicide in late 1988. The band hence continued under the new name, Aftershock. Under that name they released a demo in mid-1989, renamed themselves again as Wrequiem, with their bassist Mike Savoie leaving the band and Todd Strange replacing him, they renamed themselves yet again in 1990 as The Slugs, released a demo in mid-1990, but the band collapsed. Windstein considered becoming the guitarist for New Orleans-based groove metal band Exhorder but he and Strange reformed their band, with Craig Nunenmacher as the drummer, replaced by Tommy Buckley from Soilent Green, Kevin Noonan returned on guitar.
The band renamed themselves Crowbar in mid-1991. Windstein has listed Celtic Frost as one of the band's early influences in terms of sound. Crowbar's debut studio album, Obedience Thru Suffering, was released in 1991, but failed to achieve significant sales or airplay. By 1993's self-titled album, personal friend Phil Anselmo produced the record, which led to national promotion on MTV's Headbanger's Ball. In addition, the videos for "All I Had" and "Existence is Punishment" were played on Beavis and Butt-head. Following this success the band went on to record music videos, embark on major tours with Pantera, record more albums, their stage antics, immortalized in the Pantera Home Video 3 and Crowbar's Like Broken Glass home video, became infamous. The band continued touring. In 1994, the Pantera video for the song "I'm Broken" showed Anselmo wearing a Crowbar / Eyehategod T-shirt. Original drummer Nunenmacher left the band in 1996 and was replaced by Bower from Down and Eyehategod, for their 1996 release Anselmo sang back up on a few tracks on Broken Glass.
In 2000, after recording and releasing Equilibrium with Sid Montz on drums, original drummer Nunenmacher rejoined the band, for the "Penchant For Violence Tour" with "the Brotherhood of Brewtality" Black Label Society and Sixty Watt Shaman. Halfway through the tour, Nunenmacher replaced BLS's drummer Phil Ondich and pulled double duty for the rest of the tour joining BLS permanently; the band continues to perform, borrowing members from New Orleans metal bands like Goatwhore and Acid Bath. In their recent 2005 release, Lifesblood for the Downtrodden, Pantera bassist Rex Brown lent his bass skills and keyboard playing. Down's producer, Warren Riker, assisted in production. In 2005, "Existence" appeared on the Beavis and Butt-Head: The Mike Judge Collection No. 3 DVD. On April 21, 2008, the albums Crowbar, Time Heals Nothing, the Live+1 EP were reissued in Europe with bonus and multimedia tracks; the band is known for covering other band's material and putting a heavy spin on it. Crowbar covers Gary Wright's "Dream Weaver" on their Equilibrium album, Iron Maiden's "Remember Tomorrow" on Odd Fellows Rest, Led Zeppelin's "No Quarter" on Crowbar.
On May 24, 2009, it was announced that Anselmo's Housecore Records would be re-releasing Crowbar's back catalog. In December 2009, Crowbar toured with Hatebreed, The Acacia Strain, The Casualties, Thy Will Be Done as part of the Stillborn Fest; as of September 2010, Crowbar is under contract with E1 Music in North America, Century Media in Europe, released their ninth studio album, Sever the Wicked Hand, on February 8, 2011. This date is the 6th anniversary of the release of their previous album, Lifesblood for the Downtrodden; the band embarked on a six date UK tour in January 2011. Bassist Pat Bruders left Crowbar in September 2013. Bruders explained, he tells Louder Than Hell, "It is better for all parties in Crowbar and in Down that I leave Crowbar. With Down's brutal tour schedule and overseas shows, it is better. There are no hard feelings with my bandmates of Crowbar." Bruders was replaced by Jeff Golden, who played with Six Feet Under, Thy Will Be Done and Goatwhore. Crowbar entered the studio in late 2013 to begin recording "Symmetry in Black", released in North America on May 27, 2014, via E1 Music.
In May 2016, bassist Jeff Golden announced on his Facebook page that he had been fired from the band. He joined Portland-based metal band Lord Dying. Shortly after Golden's departure, Windstein announced that founding bassist Todd Strange would return to the band. In July 2018, Strange had retired from touring, his final performance was at the Odd Fellows Rest 20th anniversary show on 4 August 2018 - Shane Wesley is his live replacement and had played on the summer European tour. Crowbar Live @ Free & Easy Festival 2015 Obedience thru Suffering Crowbar Time Heals Nothing Broken Glass Odd Fellows Rest Equilibrium Sonic Excess in its Purest Form Lifesblood for the Downtrodden (February 8, 2005, Candlelight
Stoner rock known as stoner metal or stoner doom, is a rock music fusion genre that combines elements of heavy metal and/or doom metal with psychedelic rock and acid rock. The name references cannabis consumption; the term desert rock is used interchangeably with the term "stoner rock" to describe this genre. Stoner rock is slow-to-mid tempo and features a distorted, groove-laden bass-heavy sound, melodic vocals, "retro" production; the genre emerged during the early 1990s and was pioneered foremost by Monster Magnet and the California bands Fu Manchu and Sleep. The descriptor "stoner rock" may originate from the title of the 1997 Roadrunner Records compilation Burn One Up! Music for Stoners. Desert rock is used interchangeably as a descriptor, was coined by a MeteorCity Records intern, around the time the label released the 1998 stoner rock compilation Welcome to MeteorCity. Due to the similarities between stoner and sludge metal, there is a crossover between the two genres; this hybrid has traits of both styles, but lacks stoner metal's laid back atmosphere and its usage of psychedelia.
Bands such as Weedeater, High on Fire and Electric Wizard creatively fuse both styles. The involvement of cannabis in the creation of "stoner rock/metal" can range between bands in the genre. Bands such as Sleep have involved the concept of cannabis to be part of the core of their albums and songs; the consumption of cannabis is common in the live performances of some stoner rock/metal bands, bands such as Electric Wizard are known to have concerts with the band members and the crowd participating in smoking cannabis. Dopesmoker by Sleep received controversy because the 60-minute song is about cannabis, which resulted in conflict with Sleep's record company; some members of the genre state that "stoner rock is a style, not life,", interpreted as the band members do not participate in smoking cannabis or are influenced by cannabis. However, the style of their music reflects the sound of "stoner rock/metal." Bands such as King Caravan and Sea of Green have come under terms with this statement. Matt Pike from the band High on Fire stated, "It's a strong scene, but I don't think any of the stoner rock bands want to be labeled as stoner rock...
I might use the word ` stoner' in my lyrics. I'd say I was crossover metal or progressive metal. It's kind of a tough thing to lump into a category, but I guess we get the stoner-rock label because of the whole pot thing." Like most subgenres of music, the origins of stoner rock are hard to pinpoint. Several known progenitors and signature songs are credited with helping to shape the genre. Blue Cheer is considered one of the pioneers of the style. According to critic Mark Deming, Blue Cheer's first album, Vincebus Eruptum, "is a glorious celebration of rock & roll primitivism run through enough Marshall amps to deafen an army," not unlike the heaviness of MC5's Kick Out the Jams and the Velvet Underground's White Light/White Heat. Rolling Stone claims, "What stoner rock delivers, slowed down and magnified, is the riff, the persistent legacy of Mississippi blues. Led Zeppelin and Black Sabbath were the first to make a monolith of it." Sir Lord Baltimore have been called "the godfathers of stoner rock" and Leaf Hound have been cited for influencing countless bands in the stoner rock movement, including Kyuss and Monster Magnet.
Buffalo's 1973 sophomore release Volcanic Rock has been "heralded as the first great stoner rock record," the song Sunrise "has since been shamelessly cannibalized for its parts by more stoner-rock bands than you can shake a bong at," and the songs Till My Death and The Prophet have been likened to stoner rock. Primevil's album Smokin' Bats at Campton's has been called a "touchstone" of stoner rock. Jim DeRogatis has said that stoner rock bands are "reaching back for inspiration to the psychedelic, proto-metallic jamming of bands like Cream, Black Sabbath, Deep Purple, Hawkwind."According to DeRogatis, the roots of stoner rock can be heard on Black Sabbath's Master of Reality, Hawkwind's 25 Years On 1973–1977 box set, the aforementioned Blue Cheer album, Deep Purple's Machine Head and Blue Öyster Cult's Workshop of the Telescopes. Black Sabbath's Master of Reality is cited as the first album of the genre, Martin Popoff states: "When'Sweet Leaf' kicks in, one witnesses the invention of stoner rock".
Allmusic summarizes this unique fusion as follows: "Stoner metal bands updated the long, mind-bending jams and ultra-heavy riffs of bands like Black Sabbath, Blue Cheer, Blue Öyster Cult, Hawkwind by filtering their psychedelia-tinged metal and acid rock through the buzzing sound of early Sub Pop–style grunge." However, Kyuss members Josh Homme and John Garcia have shrugged off the heavy metal influence, instead cite punk rock and hardcore punk the sludgy hardcore of Black Flag's album My War as influences. The doom metal band Trouble introduced acid rock elements on their 1990 self-titled album, which became more prominent on 1992's Manic Frustration; the British doom metal band Cathedral moved toward a psychedelic/stoner sound over the course of their first three releases, culminating in the critically acclaimed 1993 album The Ethereal Mirror. During this same period, heavy metal band White Zombie achieved multi-platinum success with their two major label albums expanding the heavy music audience with their groove-based, sample-laden "psychedelic horror" so
Industrial music is a genre of experimental music which draws on harsh, transgressive or provocative sounds and themes. AllMusic defines industrial music as the "most abrasive and aggressive fusion of rock and electronic music", "initially a blend of avant-garde electronics experiments and punk provocation"; the term was coined in the mid-1970s with the founding of Industrial Records by members of Throbbing Gristle and Monte Cazazza. While the genre name originated with Throbbing Gristle's emergence in the United Kingdom, concentrations of artists and labels vital to the genre emerged in Chicago; the first industrial artists experimented with noise and aesthetically controversial topics and visually, such as fascism, sexual perversion, the occult. Prominent industrial musicians include Throbbing Gristle, Monte Cazazza, SPK, Boyd Rice, Cabaret Voltaire, Z'EV. On Throbbing Gristle's 1977 debut album The Second Annual Report, they coined the slogan "industrial music for industrial people". Chicago-based independent label Wax Trax Records featured a heavy roster of industrial music acts.
The precursors that influenced the development of the genre included acts such as electronic music group Kraftwerk, experimental rock acts such as Pink Floyd and Frank Zappa, psychedelic rock artists such as Jimi Hendrix, composers such as John Cage. Musicians cite writers such as William S. Burroughs, philosophers such as Friedrich Nietzsche as influences. While the term was self-applied by a small coterie of groups and individuals associated with Industrial Records in the late 1970s, it was broadened to include artists influenced by the original movement or using an "industrial" aesthetic. A few years in the 1980s, artists on Chicago-based Wax Trax Records such as Front 242, KMFDM, Front Line Assembly and Sister Machine Gun gained prominence on the industrial music scene. Over time, the genre's influence blended with styles including ambient and rock. Electro-industrial music is a primary subgenre; the two other most notable hybrid genres are industrial rock and industrial metal, which include bands such as Nine Inch Nails and Ministry, both of which released platinum-selling albums in the 1990s.
These distinct genres are referred to as industrial. Industrial music drew from a broad range of predecessors. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the genre was first named in 1942 when The Musical Quarterly called Dmitri Shostakovich's 1927 Symphony No. 2 "the high tide of'industrial music'." In 1972 The New York Times described works by Ferde Grofé as a part of "his'industrial music' genre called on such instruments as four pairs of shoes, two brooms, a locomotive bell, a pneumatric drill and a compressed-air tank". Though these compositions are not directly tied to what the genre would become, they are early examples of music designed to mimic machinery noise and factory atmosphere. In his book Interrogation Machine: Laibach and NSK, Alexei Monroe argues that Kraftwerk were significant in the development of industrial music, as the "first successful artists to incorporate representations of industrial sounds into nonacademic electronic music." Industrial music was created by using mechanical and electric machinery, advanced synthesizers and electronic percussion as the technology developed.
Monroe argues for Suicide as an influential contemporary of the industrial musicians. Groups cited as inspirational by the founders of industrial music include The Velvet Underground, Joy Division, Martin Denny. Genesis P-Orridge of Throbbing Gristle had a cassette library including recordings by the Master Musicians of Jajouka, Charles Manson, William S. Burroughs. P-Orridge credited 1960s rock such as The Doors, Pearls Before Swine, The Fugs, Captain Beefheart, Frank Zappa in a 1979 interview. Chris Carter enjoyed and found inspiration in Pink Floyd and Tangerine Dream. Boyd Rice was influenced by the music of tiki culture. Z'EV cited Christopher Tree, John Coltrane, Miles Davis, Tim Buckley, Jimi Hendrix, Captain Beefheart, among others together with Tibetan, Javanese and African music as influential in his artistic life. Cabaret Voltaire cited Roxy Music as their initial forerunners, as well as Kraftwerk's Trans-Europe Express. Cabaret Voltaire recorded pieces reminiscent of musique concrète and composers such as Morton Subotnick.
Nurse with Wound cited a long list of obscure free improvisation and Krautrock as recommended listening. 23 Skidoo borrowed from Fela Kuti and Miles Davis's On the Corner. Many industrial groups, including Einstürzende Neubauten, took inspiration from world music. Many of the initial industrial musicians preferred to cite artists or thinkers, rather than musicians, as their inspiration. Simon Reynolds declares that "Being a Throbbing Gristle fan was like enrolling in a university course of cultural extremism." John Cage was an initial inspiration for Throbbing Gristle. SPK appreciated Jean Dubuffet, Marcel Duchamp, Jean Baudrillard, Michel Foucault, Walter Benjamin, Marshall McLuhan, Friedrich Nietzsche, Gilles Deleuze. Cabaret Voltaire took conceptual cues from Burroughs, J. G. Ballard, Tristan Tzara. Whitehouse and Nurse with Wound dedicated some of their work to the Marquis de Sade. Another influence on the industrial aesthetic was Lou Reed's Metal Machine Music. Pitchfork Music cites this album as "inspiring, in part, much of the contemporary avant-garde music scene—noise, in particular."
The album consists of g
Trouble is an American doom metal band from Aurora, formed in 1979 and considered one of the pioneers of the genre alongside Candlemass and Saint Vitus. The band created a distinct style taking influences of the British heavy metal bands Black Sabbath and Judas Priest, psychedelic rock of the 1970s. A critically acclaimed group, their first two albums, Psalm 9 and The Skull, are cited as landmarks of doom metal. To date, Trouble has released eight studio albums. Although the band never broke up, Trouble was plagued by extended inactivity after their original singer Eric Wagner left in 1997, he rejoined in 2000 before leaving again eight years later. The nucleus of the band had been vocalist Eric Wagner, guitarists Rick Wartell and Bruce Franklin, drummer Jeff Olson; the band is noted for the spiritual nature of their early lyrics. Trouble was formed in 1979 by Rick Wartell and was joined by guitarist Bruce Franklin, vocalist Eric Wagner, bassist Tim Ian Brown, drummer Jeff Olson. Ian Brown was replaced by Sean McAllister in 1983.
Drawing from Black Sabbath for inspiration, the band used gloomy down-tuned riffs and spiritual openly Bible-inspired lyrics, which led Metal Blade to market the band as "white metal" as opposed to black metal. "I was brought up Catholic", vocalist and primary lyric writer Wagner explains in the liner notes of Psalm 9 re-issue, "but you have to remember, back in the early 1980s, all the metal was kind of satanic, I did not get into that vibe." Wagner has implied that Metal Blade came up with the term in the first place, which the band rejected: "I think it was more like Metal Blade trying to be cute or something, with everything being called black metal, why not call us white metal, a bunch of crap." The band toured throughout the Midwest during the early 1980s. On February 5, 1983, the band recorded Trouble Live in Chicago. Drummer Jeff Olson mailed the cassette to Brian Slagel of Metal Blade Records and the band landed their first record deal. Trouble released their eponymous debut with Metal Blade Records in 1984.
The Skull followed in 1985 and reflected singer Wagner's struggles with substance abuse as well as growing turmoil within the group. This led to the replacement of bassist McAllister with Ron Holzner. Drummer Jeff Olson departed. Reports suggested that Olson had left the band to become a preacher, but he had decided to pursue studies at Berklee College of Music in Boston. Dennis Lesh was drafted as his replacement for 1987's Run to the Light. In comparison to earlier recordings, the critics thought Run to the Light was "disappointing". Ted Kirkpatrick played drums during the Run to the Light tour before he went to form his own band, Tourniquet in 1989. A three-year hiatus occurred before the band was snapped up by Rick Rubin's Def American Records for whom they recorded a second self-titled album in 1990 with Rubin producing. More experimental than previous efforts, the album expanded upon the group's tentative psychedelic notions within its traditional use of power chords; the group embarked on a year-long tour before returning to the studio.
In 1992 Manic Frustration was released, delving into Beatlesque psychedelia and featuring some of Trouble's most aggressive, energetic performances ever. But after the album failed to connect with a wider audience, the band was dropped by their record company, experiencing financial problems; the band issued Plastic Green Head through the Music for Nations label in 1995 with the return of founding drummer Jeff Olson. Though Trouble had gone on an extended hiatus after Wagner's departure, rumors of an eventual re-formation persisted. From 1997 to 2000, Wagner was replaced by former Exhorder singer Kyle Thomas, who played four public gigs with Trouble. On January 26, 2002, Franklin, Wartell and Olson performed a short set in Chicago where during their smoking rendition of Black Sabbaths' Children of The Grave with Scott Davidson sitting in on the drums, the P. A. left the crowd in a stunned uproar. Since that time, the band has played individual gigs throughout the Chicago area and headlined metal festivals in Europe and the U.
S. while working on a new album. A concert in Stockholm, Sweden in 2005 produced the live DVD "Trouble - Live in Stockholm" with members Eric Wagner, Rick Wartell, Bruce Franklin, Jeff Olson, Chuck Robinson. In February 2004, Dave Grohl of Nirvana and the Foo Fighters released a tribute album that paid homage to his metal roots. Entitled Probot, the disc featured various vocalists, including Eric Wagner, who sang on the track "My Tortured Soul". In the album's liner notes, Grohl wrote that buying Psalm 9 was like buying Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band. Holzner left the band soon after, to be replaced by Chuck Robinson, who played on the band's newest studio album, Simple Mind Condition, released in Europe on April 3, 2007 by Escapi Music; the band toured internationally in support of its release, but were not able to secure a U. S. release date for the album until over two years later. An unplugged album was released through the band's website and, more Escapi Music. In May, 2008, it was announced that Eric Wagner has left the band and had been replaced by Kory Clarke of Warrior Soul.
Jeff Olson announced his departure from the band in July 2008 to continue with his own band, Retro Grave. Olson's last s