Public transport modes include city buses, trolleybuses and passenger trains, rapid transit and ferries. Public transport between cities is dominated by airlines and intercity rail, high-speed rail networks are being developed in many parts of the world. Most public transport runs to a timetable, with the most frequent services running to a headway. Share taxis offer services in many parts of the world. Paratransit is sometimes used in areas of low demand and for people who need a door-to-door service, there are distinct differences in urban public transit between Asia, North America, and Europe. In Asia, mass transit operations are run by profit-driven privately owned and publicly traded mass transit. In North America, mass transit operations are run by municipal transit authorities. In Europe, mass transit operations are run by both state-owned and private companies. Public transport services can be profit-driven by use of pay-by-the-distance fares or funded by government subsidies in which flat rate fares are charged to each passenger.
Services can be profitable through high ridership numbers and high farebox recovery ratios, or can be regulated. Fully subsidized, zero-fare services operate in some towns and cities, for geographical and economic reasons, there are differences internationally regarding use and extent of public transport. It has 3,400 members from 92 countries, conveyances designed for public hire are as old as the first ferries, and the earliest public transport was water transport, on land people walked or rode an animal. Ferries appear in Greek mythology—corpses in ancient Greece were buried with a coin underneath their tongue to pay the ferryman Charon to take them to Hades, the omnibus was introduced to London in July 1829. The first passenger railway opened in 1806, it ran between Swansea and Mumbles in southwest Wales in the United Kingdom. In 1825 George Stephenson built the Locomotion for the Stockton and Darlington Railway in northeast England, the usability of different types of public transport, and its overall appeal, can be measured by seven criteria, although they overlap somewhat.
These are speed, safety, proximity, speed is calculated from total journey time including transfers. Proximity means how far passengers have to walk or otherwise travel before they can begin the public transport leg of their journey, timeliness is how long they have to wait for the vehicle. Directness records how far a journey using public transport deviates from the shortest route, an airline provides scheduled service with aircraft between airports
The S-train is a type of hybrid urban-suburban rail serving a metropolitan region. Some of the larger S-train systems provide service similar to transit systems. There is no definition of an S-train system. S-trains are, where they exist, the most local type of railway stopping at all existing stations inside and they are slower than mainline railways but usually serve as fast crosstown services within the city. Most S-train systems are built on older local railways, or in some cases parallel to an existing dual track railway. Most use existing local mainline railway trackage, but a few branches can be purpose built S-train lines, S-trains typically use overhead lines or a third rail for traction power. In Hamburg the S-trains use both the methods, depending on which line is powered. Busy S-train corridors sometimes have sections of exclusive trackage of their own, a good example of this is the part of Berlins S-Bahn, which is regarded as a tourist attraction and has a special name, Berliner Stadtbahn.
However, in more lightly used sections outside the city center, the S-trains stop at all stations, while other mainline trains only stop at the largest stations. S-trains are generally service the hinterland of a city, rather than connecting different cities. The S-Bahn Mitteldeutschland constitutes the main railway system for Leipzig but connects to Halle. The Rostock S-Bahn is an example of a smaller S-Bahn system, many of the larger S-train systems have central sections that individual suburban branches feed into, creating high frequency corridors. For instance, on weekdays, the section of the Copenhagen S-train has five services connecting to. Further out from the parts of a city the individual services branch off into lines with distances between stations can exceed 5 km, similar to commuter rail. This allows the S-train to serve a dual purpose, local transport within a city center. The rolling stock used in S-Trains reflect its hybrid purpose. The interior is designed for short journeys with provision for standing passengers but may have space allocated to larger.
Integration with other local transport for ticketing and easy interchange between lines or other system like metros is typical for S-trains
The Olsen Gang is a fictional Danish criminal gang in the eponymous comedy film series. The gangs leader is the genius and habitual offender Egon Olsen and his accomplices are Benny. The gang members are harmless, extremely rarely target ordinary citizens, a Norwegian version of the film series was made, in most cases based directly on the scripts for the Danish films. Later, starting in 1981, Sweden produced their own version, most of the films start with Egon coming out of jail and being enthusiastically welcomed by Benny and Kjeld. Plans are often two-step plans, where the first heist will get the equipment for the real, bennys main function in the heists, besides get-away-driver, is often as keeper of The Thing, a metal bottle opener used for manipulating most any machinery. Egon often serves time with lawyers or executives who provide him with the information he needs, Egon is a brilliant safecracker, operating manually, specializing in the fictive Franz Jäger brand. Egons plans often bring the gang into perilously close contact with white-collar criminals from the Danish business elite.
For example, in one episode some well-connected people try to make out of the so-called butter mountain. Egon Olsen learns about this from a lawyer who is serving time. But as always, Egon – after having succeeded with a genius plan – loses because he underestimates the power, for several movies the role of antagonist was filled by CEO Hallandsen of Hallandsen Inc. Egon is usually arrested in the end, for reasons, bad luck, some completely irrelevant crime. A recurring part of the films is making fun of danish authorities, superintendent Jensen to his younger colleague, inspector Holm, The only thing the police can do when the real big criminals come by is offer them protection. Jensen incredously uses the recurring exclamation Bagmændene. to reference the in-joke of powerful players moving outside of the law, in the early episodes and soft-erotica were more freely used than in ones, where said content was somewhat watered down to suit younger viewers. Later movies focused on the interplay between Jensen and Holm and Egon and Kjeld, with a frequent outburst of anger from either Olsen or superintendent Jensen.
Especially Olsens long list of slurs are famous, like social democrats, sop. scumbag. to name a few. The films differ a bit each other, but they follow a generally similar formula to the Danish films. The original, Danish films were popular in the former GDR, the film series has another character, Dynamite Harry, as the little brother of Benny Frandsen, which is featured on the Norwegian rendition of the episodes – is the demolition expert. Harry made an appearance in six Norwegian films, played by Harald Heide-Steen Jr and he appeared in two early Danish Olsen Gang films, played by Preben Kaas
Copenhagen, Danish, København, Hafnia) is the capital and most populous city of Denmark. Copenhagen has an population of 1,280,371. The Copenhagen metropolitan area has just over 2 million inhabitants, the city is situated on the eastern coast of the island of Zealand, another small portion of the city is located on Amager, and is separated from Malmö, Sweden, by the strait of Øresund. The Øresund Bridge connects the two cities by rail and road, originally a Viking fishing village founded in the 10th century, Copenhagen became the capital of Denmark in the early 15th century. Beginning in the 17th century it consolidated its position as a centre of power with its institutions, defences. After suffering from the effects of plague and fire in the 18th century and this included construction of the prestigious district of Frederiksstaden and founding of such cultural institutions as the Royal Theatre and the Royal Academy of Fine Arts. Later, following the Second World War, the Finger Plan fostered the development of housing, since the turn of the 21st century, Copenhagen has seen strong urban and cultural development, facilitated by investment in its institutions and infrastructure.
The city is the cultural and governmental centre of Denmark, Copenhagens economy has seen rapid developments in the service sector, especially through initiatives in information technology and clean technology. Since the completion of the Øresund Bridge, Copenhagen has become integrated with the Swedish province of Scania and its largest city, Malmö. With a number of connecting the various districts, the cityscape is characterized by parks, promenades. Copenhagen is home to the University of Copenhagen, the Technical University of Denmark, the University of Copenhagen, founded in 1479, is the oldest university in Denmark. Copenhagen is home to the FC København and Brøndby football clubs, the annual Copenhagen Marathon was established in 1980. Copenhagen is one of the most bicycle-friendly cities in the world, the Copenhagen Metro serves central Copenhagen while the Copenhagen S-train network connects central Copenhagen to its outlying boroughs. Serving roughly 2 million passengers a month, Copenhagen Airport, Kastrup, is the largest airport in the Nordic countries, the name of the city reflects its origin as a harbour and a place of commerce.
The original designation, from which the contemporary Danish name derives, was Køpmannæhafn, meaning merchants harbour, the literal English translation would be Chapmans haven. The English name for the city was adapted from its Low German name, the abbreviations Kbh. or Kbhvn are often used in Danish for København, and kbh. for københavnsk. The chemical element hafnium is named for Copenhagen, where it was discovered, the bacterium Hafnia is named after Copenhagen, Vagn Møller of the State Serum Institute in Copenhagen named it in 1954. Excavations in Pilestræde have led to the discovery of a well from the late 12th century, the remains of an ancient church, with graves dating to the 11th century, have been unearthed near where Strøget meets Rådhuspladsen
Langebro is a bascule bridge across the Inner Harbour of Copenhagen, connecting Zealandside H. C. Andersens Boulevard to Amagerside Amager Boulevard and it is one of only two bridges to carry motor vehicles across the harbour in central Copenhagen, the other being Knippelsbro. It was a structure with a drawbridge in the middle that allowed ships to pass. The bridge was built for the military but was open to civilian pedestrians. The bridge was refurbished several times, plans for a new Langebro were first presented in 1885 but not realized until 1903. The new bridge was located 400 ft to the south of the old one, Vestre Boulevard and it was a swing bridge resting on nine stone pillars. The swing bridge was used for both trams and the Amagerbanen railroad. With growing automobile traffic, the new bridge soon became outdated, the bridge was subject to sabotage on 23 March 1945. The temporary bridge was replaced by the current Langebro in 1954, Langebro is a play by Hans Christian Andersen, named for the bridge in Copenhagen.
Langebro is the name of Gasolins 1971 adaption of Joan Baezs version of Geordie, where the setting is shifted from London to Copenhagen and Langebro takes the place of London Bridge
Kalvebod Brygge is a waterfront area in the Vesterbro district of Copenhagen, Denmark. The name refers to a section of the Ring 2 ring road follows the waterfront from Langebro in the north to the H. C. Ørsted Power Station in the south, the area is dominated by office buildings, Tivoli Conference Center, several hotels and the shopping centre Fisketorvet. The northern part of the road, northeast of Bernstoffsgade, belongs to the Indre By district and it is bounded to the north by the small Rysensteen Quarter where the Copenhagen Police Headquarters is located. Both Kalvebod Brygge and the terrain, which separates the area from the rest of Vesterbro, are located on reclaimed land. The coast south of Copenhagen was formerly known as Kalvebod Beach, the first land reclamations took place as early as 1755 when the area just outside the West Ramparts Rysensten Bastion was used for establishment of lumberyards. A little further to the south, Copenhagens first gasworks, known as Vestre Gasværk, the railway was constructed on reclaimed land between 1897 and 1901. A new goods station was built on the grounds.
It was designed by DSBs head architect Heinrich Wenck and opened in 1901 and it was replaced by a modern goods station designed by Ole Hagen in 1968. The new railway obstructed the Western Gasworks access to the harbor, the Danish State Railways therefore agreed to building a new Gasworks Harbour on the east side of the railway as part of the project. The waterfront was redeveloped in the late 1990s, beginning from the north, the buildings along the quay are Nykredits Head Office, Copenhagen Marriott Hotel, The Engineers House and the Fisketorvet shopping centre. The Havneholmen mixed-use development was built on reclaimed land in front of Fisketorvet. In 2011, Nykredit expanded their headquarters with a new building, The Crystal, a new plaza was created in front of the building. The Kalvebod Wave was designed by JDS Architects and Klar and inaugurated in 2013 and it consists of an undulating wooden boardwalk which creates various new spaces for sitting and water-related activities. A masterplan competition for the part of the railway terrain along Kalvebod Brygge was won by Lundgaard & Tranberg.
The plan involves a greenway which will connect the area around Copenhagen Central Station to the South Harbour. Lundgaard & Tranberg has designed two buildings for SEB Bank & Pension, which, on the corner of Bernstoffsgade and Kalvebod Brygge, the surrounding landscape is designed by Stig L. Anderson. The greenway continues across the roof of the goods station
Det Ny Teater
Det Ny Teater is an established theatre in Copenhagen, first opened in 1908. It is based in a building which spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej in Copenhagens theatre district on the border between Vesterbro and Frederiksberg, with more than 12,000 m2 it is one of Denmarks largest theaters. It has two stages, the auditorium which seats more than 1,000 and Sceneriet, a smaller theatre established in the cellar in 1994. In March 1907, Bona commissioned the architect Lorenz Gudme to draw up a project and he had previously worked for Ove Petersen, who was responsible for both the Royal Theatre, in collaboration with Vilhelm Dahlerup, and the Dagmar Theatre. His proposal was accepted and the fundaments were laid on 14 August 1907, shortly after construction start, a disagreement occurred between Bona and Gudme who was ultimately fired from the project which was instead completed by Ludvig Andersen. When the theatre was inaugurated on 19 September 1908 it was the second largest theatre in the country, DKK1,200,000 and DKK600,000 for the site.
Lindstrøm himself left the theatre after just three years due to an insignificant debts, the director from 1944 to 1966 was Peer Gregaard and he dramatically changed the repertoire from with a combination of classics and contemporary Danish and European drama. During this era, Det Ny Teater came to challenge the Royal Danish Theatre as the theatrical stage in Denmark. Im the 1960s it became evident that it was difficult to operate theatres without subsidies, in 1991, when the theatre, by in a poor state of neglect, lost its support, it had to close indefinitely. The owners succeeded in raising funds for a thorough renovation, bent Mejding was the driving force behind the restoration of the theater, which he and Niels-Bo Valbro reopened as a venue for operetta and musicals with a production of Die Fledermaus in 1994. Since the theatre has produced a number of productions, the most successful of which and audience-wise, has been Phantom of the Opera. The theatre building spans a passage between Vesterbrogade and Gammel Kongevej and has a front on both sides.
The complex includes the surrounding buildings, the theatre was the first in Denmark to feature a revolving stage. Other state-of-the-art features were an advanced system in case of fire on stage. For the audience there were comfortable family boxes, an elegant marble staircase, the renovation in 1994 received the Europa Nostra award from the European Union. Since the renovation, the theatre has two stages, the large auditorium seats app.1,000 while the small one, built in the cellar in connection with the 1994 renovation, seats an audience of 250 to 300. The main repertoire is still musicals, the theatre plays host to a variety of other events and is available on hire
Teglholmen is a peninsula in the South Harbour of Copenhagen, located between Sluseholmen and Enghave Brygge. The former dockland area used to heavy industry. Today the area houses both a number of Danish and regional headquarters of multinational companies and residential developments. Teglholmen is home to Aalborg Universitys AAU Cph Campus as well as TV 2s activities in Copenhagen, Teglholmen takes its name from a tile works which established in the area in 1871, for many years supplying particularly Vesterbro with tiles. The next generation of companies to establish in the area were shipyards, from the middle of the 2000s, Teglholmen started to attract residential developments. In 2006, Odense-based TV2 collected its Copenhagen activities in a new house at Teglholmen. The residential areas at Teglholmen are created as a continuation of the district at Sluseholmen. Companies located at Teglholmen include Nokia, Ericsson and TV2, in 2011, a bridge connecting Teglholmen to Sluseholmen opened.
The bridge is designed by Danish architectural firm Hvidt & Mølgaard, since September 2009, Teglholmen has been served by Route 904 of the Copenhagen Harbour Buses
Copenhagen Harbour Baths
Copenhagen Harbour Baths is a system of recreational bathing facilities along the waterfront of Copenhagen, Denmark. There are currently four harbour baths, the first and best-known of which is located at Islands Brygge, the harbour baths serve as a supplement to the beaches around the city, such as the extensive urban beach at Amager Strandpark. In 2010 the Royal Danish Theatre established the temporary artificial Ophelia Beach on the Kvæsthusbroen pier next to the Royal Playhouse, for the swimming season of 2002, the harbour bath at Islands Brygge opened as the first harbour bath in town. In 2003 the harbour bath was towed to the side of the harbour and set up at Fisketorvet, while Islands Brygge got a new larger. In 2010 the third harbour bath opened at the Svanemølle Bay after several delays, the harbour baths are generally open all days of the week in the bathing season. In the event of unusually strong rains, sewage water may spill into the harbour and cause pollution with E. coli bacteria, such a closure normally lasts for a couple of days until tidal flux has changed all the water.
Water quality is being monitored and reported on a web site The harbour bath at Islands Brygge has a total of 5 pools. There are two dedicated to children, two 50-metre pools for swimming and a diving pool with three and five metre springboards. The project was completed in 2003 by JDS Architects and Bjarke Ingels Group, copencabana, or Harbour Bath Fisketorvet, lies next to the Fisketorvet Shopping Centre and Havneholmen in Vesterbro. It is a 650-square-meter complex with three pools and springboards of 1 metre,2 metres and 3 metres, Svanemølle Beach is located in Svanemølle Bay in Østerbro and was inaugurated on 20 June 2010. It provides 4,000 square metres of beach with family-friendly low waters, the newest venue, at Sluseholmen in South Harbour, was inaugurated on 16 December 2011. Round Christiansborg Open Water Swim Islands Brygge Goboat Check water quality
Future Systems was a London-based architectural and design practice, formerly headed by Directors Jan Kaplický and Amanda Levete. Future Systems was founded by Kaplický and David Nixon after working with Denys Lasdun, Norman Foster, Renzo Piano, the work of Future Systems can be classified within the British high-tech architects as either bionic architecture or amorphous, organic shapes sometimes referred to as blobitecture. Compared to his peers, Kaplicky was the avant-garde incarnate, relentlessly pursuing the new new thing, refusing to settle into some predictable, Future Systems proposals adapted construction methods from other professions, including the curved monocoque shell structures found in aircraft design, car design and boat building. In the 1990s the company moved from theoretical projects to fee-paying work with such as the spacecraft-like Media Centre at Lords Cricket Ground in London. For Lords, Kaplicky received the Stirling Prize, the Selfridges department store is a prime example of the early 21st century movement referred to as blobitecture, and has been compared to Peter Cooks Kunsthaus in Graz, Austria.
After Future Systems won the Stirling Prize, the firm received larger commissions including the Enzo Ferrari Museum in Modena, Italy, in 2008 Kaplický and Levete split the firm. 1979 Founded by Jan Kaplicky and David Nixon while working at Foster Associates,1989 Joined by Amanda Levete who arrives from Richard Rogers & Partners to become a partner. 1994 Completed the well received Hauer-King house in Islington,1999 Won the Stirling Prize for Lord’s Cricket Ground media centre. 2003 Completed the Selfridges building at the regenerated Bull Ring shopping centre in Birmingham,2007 Won the commission for the controversial Czech National Library. 2008 Split into two practices after Kaplicky and Levete officially separate as business partners,2008 Submits design of London Routemaster bus. 2008 Czech National Library project cancelled by Prague authorities,2009 Jan Kaplický dies on January 14,2009 in Prague, Czech Republic. A month the final few staff working for Kaplický/Future Systems in Levetes offices were let go, Future Systems, The Story of Tomorrow.
Archived from the original on 8 April 2007, interview with Jan Kaplicky-Future Systems by Alessandra Orlandoni- The Plan 008 January 2005 Article on the architecture of the new Bull Ring shopping centre Field, Marcus. Kaplický, Looking Back in Envy, 20th Century Art and Design Revisited, Wiley Academy, ISBN 0-470-84228-8 Pawley, STORIES OF HOUSES, House in Pembrokeshire, by Future Systems