Mayonnaise is a thick, creamy dressing often used as a condiment. It is an emulsion of oil, egg yolk, and either vinegar or lemon juice, with many options for embellishment with other herbs. Proteins and lecithin in the egg yolk serve as emulsifiers in both mayonnaise and hollandaise sauce, commercial egg-free alternatives are available for vegans and others who want to avoid animal products and cholesterol, or who are allergic to eggs. Mayonnaise varies in color, but is white, cream. It may range in texture from that of light cream to a thick gel, the word mayonnaise was not used for a dressing before the start of the 19th century. The earliest reference appears to be by Alexandre Viard, who never quite gives a recipe for the dressing itself. At that point, the sauce was made with aspic or jelly, in 1815, Louis Eustache Ude wrote, No 58. —Mayonnaise. Take three spoonfuls of Allemande, six ditto of aspic, and two of oil, add a little tarragon vinegar, that has not boiled, some pepper and salt, and minced ravigotte, or merely some parsley.
Then put in the members of fowl, or fillets of soles and your mayonnaise must be put to ice, neither are you to put the members into your sauce till it begins to freeze. Next dish your meat or fish, mask with the sauce before it be quite frozen, and garnish your dish with whatever you think proper, as beet root, nasturtiums, &c. In a 1820 work, Viard describes something like the more familiar emulsified version, This sauce is made to take in many ways, with raw egg yolks, with gelatine and this sauce is used for cold fish entrees, or salad of vegetables cooked in salt water. According to this version, the sauce was known as salsa mayonesa in Spanish and maonesa in Catalan. The Larousse Gastronomique suggests, Mayonnaise, in our view, is a corruption of moyeunaise, derived from the very old French word moyeu. It is highly probable that wherever olive oil existed, a preparation of oil and egg came about — particularly in the Mediterranean region. According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term mayonnaise was in use in English as early as 1823 in the journal of Lady Blessington, traditional mayonnaise is a mixture of egg, vinegar and spices.
Mayonnaise made in this fashion typically contains 70–80% fat, despite the high oil content relative to water, mayonnaise is an oil-in-water emulsion. This emulsion is formed by first mixing the eggs and mustard and this results in an emulsion consisting of a closely packed foam of oil droplets. By contrast, if the oil and aqueous phases are mixed all at once the result is a water-in-oil emulsion similar in viscosity to the oil from which it is made, oil may account for 75% or more of the total volume
A mushroom is the fleshy, spore-bearing fruiting body of a fungus, typically produced above ground on soil or on its food source. These gills produce microscopic spores that help the fungus spread across the ground or its occupant surface, by extension, the term mushroom can designate the entire fungus when in culture, the thallus of species forming the fruiting bodies called mushrooms, or the species itself. Identifying mushrooms requires an understanding of their macroscopic structure. Their spores, called basidiospores, are produced on the gills, at the microscopic level the basidiospores are shot off basidia and fall between the gills in the dead air space. As a result, for most mushrooms, if the cap is cut off and placed gill-side-down overnight, the color of the powdery print, called a spore print, is used to help classify mushrooms and can help to identify them. Spore print colors include white, black, purple-brown, pink and creamy, but almost never blue, green, or red. The presence of juices upon breaking, bruising reactions, tastes, shades of color, habit and smelling mushrooms carries its own hazards because of poisons and allergens.
Chemical tests are used for some genera. In general, identification to genus can often be accomplished in the using a local mushroom guide. However, over-mature specimens lose features and cease producing spores, many novices have mistaken humid water marks on paper for white spore prints, or discolored paper from oozing liquids on lamella edges for colored spored prints. Typical mushrooms are the bodies of members of the order Agaricales, whose type genus is Agaricus and type species is the field mushroom. Other mushrooms are not gilled, so the mushroom is loosely used. Some have pores underneath, others have spines, such as the mushroom and other tooth fungi. Mushroom has been used for polypores, jelly fungi, coral fungi, bracket fungi, thus, the term is more one of common application to macroscopic fungal fruiting bodies than one having precise taxonomic meaning. Approximately 14,000 species of mushrooms are described, the terms mushroom and toadstool go back centuries and were never precisely defined, nor was there consensus on application.
Between 1400 and 1600 AD, the terms mushrom, muscheron, mussheron, the term mushroom and its variations may have been derived from the French word mousseron in reference to moss. However, delineation between edible and poisonous fungi is not clear-cut, so a mushroom may be edible, cultural or social phobias of mushrooms and fungi may be related. The term fungophobia was coined by William Delisle Hay of England, the word toadstool has apparent analogies in Dutch paddestoel and German Krötenschwamm
Aspic is a dish in which ingredients are set into a gelatin made from a meat stock or consommé. Non-savory dishes, often made with commercial gelatin mixes without stock or consommé, are usually called gelatin salads, when cooled, stock that is made from meat congeals because of the natural gelatin found in the meat. The stock can be clarified with egg whites, and filled and flavored just before the aspic sets, almost any type of food can be set into aspics. Most common are meat pieces, fruits, or vegetables, aspics are usually served on cold plates so that the gel will not melt before being eaten. A meat jelly that includes cream is called a chaud-froid, nearly any type of meat can be used to make the gelatin, beef, chicken, turkey, or fish. The aspic may need additional gelatin in order to set properly, veal stock provides a great deal of gelatin, in making stock, veal is often included with other meat for that reason. Fish consommés usually have too little natural gelatin, so the stock may be double-cooked or supplemented.
Since fish gelatin melts at a lower temperature than gelatins of other meats, fish aspic is more delicate and fish stocks need gelatin to maintain a molded shape. Historically, meat aspics were made before fruit- and vegetable-flavored aspics or jellies, by the Middle Ages at the latest, cooks had discovered that a thickened meat broth could be made into a jelly. A detailed recipe for aspic is found in Le Viandier, written in or around 1375, in the early 19th century, Marie-Antoine Carême created chaud froid in France. Chaud froid means hot cold in French, referring to foods that were prepared hot, Aspic was used as a chaud froid sauce in many cold fish and poultry meals. The sauce added moisture and flavor to the food, Carême invented various types of aspic and ways of preparing it. Aspic, when used to hold meats, prevents them from becoming spoiled, the gelatin keeps out air and bacteria, keeping the cooked meat fresh. Aspic came into prominence in America in the early 20th century, by the 1950s, meat aspic was a popular dinner staple throughout the United States as were other gelatin-based dishes such as tomato aspic.
Cooks used to show off aesthetic skills by creating inventive aspics, Aspic can be referred as aspic gelée or aspic jelly. Aspic jelly may be colorless or contain various shades of amber, Aspic can be used to protect food from the air, to give food more flavor, or as a decoration. There are three types of textures, delicate and inedible. The sliceable aspic must be made in a terrine or in an aspic mold and it is firmer than the delicate aspic
A fish is any member of a group of animals that consist of all gill-bearing aquatic craniate animals that lack limbs with digits. They form a group to the tunicates, together forming the olfactores. Included in this definition are the living hagfish and cartilaginous, tetrapods emerged within lobe-finned fishes, so cladistically they are fish as well. However, traditionally fish are rendered obsolete or paraphyletic by excluding the tetrapods, because in this manner the term fish is defined negatively as a paraphyletic group, it is not considered a formal taxonomic grouping in systematic biology. The traditional term pisces is considered a typological, but not a phylogenetic classification, the earliest organisms that can be classified as fish were soft-bodied chordates that first appeared during the Cambrian period. Although they lacked a true spine, they possessed notochords which allowed them to be more agile than their invertebrate counterparts, fish would continue to evolve through the Paleozoic era, diversifying into a wide variety of forms.
Many fish of the Paleozoic developed external armor that protected them from predators, the first fish with jaws appeared in the Silurian period, after which many became formidable marine predators rather than just the prey of arthropods. Fish are abundant in most bodies of water and they can be found in nearly all aquatic environments, from high mountain streams to the abyssal and even hadal depths of the deepest oceans. With 33,100 described species, fish exhibit greater species diversity than any group of vertebrates. Fish are an important resource for humans worldwide, especially as food and subsistence fishers hunt fish in wild fisheries or farm them in ponds or in cages in the ocean. They are caught by fishers, kept as pets, raised by fishkeepers. Fish have had a role in culture through the ages, serving as deities, religious symbols, fish do not represent a monophyletic group, and therefore the evolution of fish is not studied as a single event. Early fish from the record are represented by a group of small, jawless.
Jawless fish lineages are mostly extinct, an extant clade, the lampreys may approximate ancient pre-jawed fish. The first jaws are found in Placodermi fossils, the diversity of jawed vertebrates may indicate the evolutionary advantage of a jawed mouth. It is unclear if the advantage of a hinged jaw is greater biting force, improved respiration, fish may have evolved from a creature similar to a coral-like sea squirt, whose larvae resemble primitive fish in important ways. The first ancestors of fish may have kept the form into adulthood. Fish are a group, that is, any clade containing all fish contains the tetrapods
Frikadeller are flat, pan-fried meatball of minced meat, often likened to the Danish version of meatballs. In Sweden, poached quenelles are called frikadeller and are served in soup. In Hungary, it is called fasírt and often accompanies the Hungarian stew type and they are pan-fried in pork fat or beef fat, or more commonly in modern times in butter, margarine or even vegetable oil. Another popular variation is fiskefrikadeller replacing the meat with fish as the main ingredient, as a main dish they are most often served with boiled white potatoes and gravy accompanied by pickled beetroot or cooked red cabbage. Alternatively they can be served with creamed, white cabbage, Frikadeller are a popular choice on the Smörgåsbord or Swedish lunch buffet, eaten on rugbrød with red cabbage or pickle slices. They can be served cold, sliced thinly as a base for open face sandwiches on rye bread, the combination of frikadeller and a cold potato salad is very popular at picnics or potlucks, due to the ease of transporting either component after cooking.
The origin of the word is uncertain, according to the Etymologisches Wörterbuch des Deutschen, it can be found end of the 17th century in German, and is related to the Italian frittatella, French fricandeau, and Latin frīgere. It may be derived from fricandeau de veau, a dish of sliced veal, in the Dictionnaire des dictionnaires fricadelle is defined as, In Belgium, a ball of minced, cooked meat and a separate word, fricadèle, is defined as fricandeau. And in Phillipss New World of Words Fricandoe, a sort of Scotch Collops made of slices of Veal, well larded. The Oxford English Dictionary defines fricandele as a form of fricandeau. The mixture is shaped into flat round patties and dipped in egg yolk before being deep fried. Other than mashed potato, cabe rawit, spring onion, peeled corn, another legacy of the Dutch colonial influence is the Frikkadels found in Sri Lanka. They are mostly found in lamprais, Frikadeller Recipe in the Wikibooks Cookbook Frikadeller Recipe South African recipe
Butter is a dairy product containing up to 80% butterfat which is solid when chilled and at room temperature in some regions and liquid when warmed. It is made by churning fresh or fermented cream or milk to separate the butterfat from the buttermilk. It is generally used as a spread on plain or toasted bread products and a condiment on cooked vegetables, as well as in cooking, such as baking, sauce making, Butter consists of butterfat, milk proteins and water, and in some types, added salt. Butter may be sold with added flavourings, such as garlic butter, most frequently made from cows milk, butter can be manufactured from the milk of other mammals, including sheep, goats and yaks. Salt such as salt and preservatives are sometimes added to butter. Rendering butter produces clarified butter or ghee, which is almost entirely butterfat, Butter is a water-in-oil emulsion resulting from an inversion of the cream, in a water-in-oil emulsion, the milk proteins are the emulsifiers. Butter remains a solid when refrigerated, but softens to a spreadable consistency at room temperature, the density of butter is 911 g/L.
It generally has a yellow color, but varies from deep yellow to nearly white. Its unmodified color is dependent on the feed and genetics but is commonly manipulated with food colorings in the commercial manufacturing process. The word butter derives from the Latin butyrum, which is the latinisation of the Greek βούτυρον and this may have been a construction meaning cow-cheese, from βοῦς, ox, cow + τυρός, cheese. Nevertheless, the earliest attested form of the stem, turos, is the Mycenaean Greek tu-ro. The root word persists in the name butyric acid, a found in rancid butter. In general use, the term refers to the spread dairy product when unqualified by other descriptors. The word commonly is used to describe puréed vegetable or seed and nut products such as peanut butter and it is often applied to spread fruit products such as apple butter. Fats such as butter and shea butter that remain solid at room temperature are known as butters. Unhomogenized milk and cream contain butterfat in microscopic globules and these globules are surrounded by membranes made of phospholipids and proteins, which prevent the fat in milk from pooling together into a single mass.
Butter is produced by agitating cream, which damages these membranes and allows the milk fats to conjoin, variations in the production method will create butters with different consistencies, mostly due to the butterfat composition in the finished product. Butter contains fat in three forms, free butterfat, butterfat crystals, and undamaged fat globules
Cabbage or headed cabbage is a leafy green or purple biennial plant, grown as an annual vegetable crop for its dense-leaved heads. It is descended from the cabbage, B. oleracea var. oleracea. Cabbage heads generally range from 0.5 to 4 kilograms, smooth-leafed firm-headed green cabbages are the most common, with smooth-leafed red and crinkle-leafed savoy cabbages of both colors seen more rarely. Under conditions of long sunlit days such as are found at high latitudes in summer. Some records are discussed at the end of the history section and it is difficult to trace the exact history of cabbage, but it was most likely domesticated somewhere in Europe before 1000 BC, although savoys were not developed until the 16th century. By the Middle Ages, it had become a prominent part of European cuisine, cabbage is prone to several nutrient deficiencies, as well as to multiple pests, and bacterial and fungal diseases. The Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations reports that production of cabbage.
Almost half of these crops were grown in China, where Chinese cabbage is the most popular Brassica vegetable, cabbages are prepared in many different ways for eating. They can be pickled, fermented for dishes such as sauerkraut, stewed, sautéed, cabbage is a good source of vitamin K, vitamin C and dietary fiber. Contaminated cabbage has been linked to cases of illness in humans. Cabbage is a member of the genus Brassica and the mustard family, several other cruciferous vegetables are considered cultivars of B. oleracea, including broccoli, collard greens, brussels sprouts and sprouting broccoli. All of these developed from the wild cabbage B. oleracea var. oleracea, the varietal epithet capitata is derived from the Latin word for having a head. B. oleracea and its derivatives have hundreds of names throughout the world. Cabbage was originally used to refer to forms of B. oleracea. A related species, Brassica rapa, is commonly named Chinese, napa or celery cabbage and it is a part of common names for several unrelated species.
These include cabbage bark or cabbage tree and cabbage palms, which include several genera of palms such as Mauritia, Roystonea oleracea, the original family name of brassicas was Cruciferae, which derived from the flower petal pattern thought by medieval Europeans to resemble a crucifix. The word brassica derives from bresic, a Celtic word for cabbage, many European and Asiatic names for cabbage are derived from the Celto-Slavic root cap or kap, meaning head. The late Middle English word cabbage derives from the word caboche and this in turn is a variant of the Old French caboce
An open sandwich, known as an open face/faced sandwich, bread baser, or tartine consists of a single slice of bread with one or more food items on top. During the Middle Ages, thin slabs of coarse bread called trenches or, in its French derivative, at the end of the meal, the food-soaked trencher was eaten by the diner, or perhaps fed to a dog or saved for beggars. Trenchers were as much the harbingers of open face sandwiches as they were of disposable crockery and these explanatory specifications reveal the Dutch belegd broodje, open-faced sandwich, was as yet unfamiliar in England. The American tongue toast is offered as an entrée for breakfast, lunch, in Finland the sandwich is called voileipä, and in Estonia similarly võileib, which means butter bread. This is typically complemented by some herbs and vegetables such as parsley, cold salad, thinly sliced cucumber, a condiment, such as mayonnaise, or mayonnaise-based dressing is often included in some form. An old traditional replacement for butter on a piece of bread with herring is pig fat, there are many variations associated with the smørrebrød/smørbrød/smörgås and there are even special stores, cafés and restaurants that specialize in them.
The Dutch and Flemish Uitsmijter consists of one or more slices of bread topped with fried eggs, the dish is often served as a hearty breakfast. Sweet toppings are commonly used for breakfast in the Netherlands and Belgium, e. g. sprinkles, vlokken, or muisjes, next to the more widespread peanut butter, jam, in Great Britain, open sandwiches are rare outside of Scandinavian delicatessens. However, this is not considered a sandwich, in North America an open faced sandwich may refer to a slice of bread topped with warm slices of roasted meat and gravy. Examples include a beef Manhattan, a hot sandwich in Canada. This is done in Scandinavian countries, where they eat open faced sandwiches with fried meat and fried fish. The term sandwich is used in reference to open-faced sandwiches. The open-faced sandwich has a history, originating between the 6th and 16th centuries, whereas the modern sandwich traces its roots to the Earl of Sandwich. In the court case in the United States of White City Shopping Ctr, L.
Rep.565, the judge ruled that a true sandwich must include at least two slices of bread. Dine with the Danes Video of Danish open-face sandwiches Czech Open sandwiches A History of Poland’s National Obsession with Open Sandwiches
Roast beef is a dish of beef which is roasted in an oven. Essentially prepared as a meal, the leftovers can be and are often served within sandwiches and sometimes are used to make hash. A traditional side dish to roast beef is Yorkshire pudding, Roast beef is a signature national dish of England and holds cultural meaning for the English dating back to the 1731 ballad The Roast Beef of Old England. The dish is so synonymous with England and its cooking methods from the 18th century that the French nickname for the English is les Rosbifs, translucent appearance is nothing to be alarmed about. Some prefer roast beef to be served rare or pink, meaning that the center of the joint is cooked so that it retains a reddish color, others prefer roast beef to be cooked medium or well done. The beef on weck sandwich is a tradition in western New York, Roast beef is sometimes served with horseradish or horseradish sauce. In Denmark it is used in open sandwiches, called smørrebrød. Roasting Beef The Roast Beef of Old England Roast Beef at Wikibook Cookbooks Media related to Roast beef at Wikimedia Commons
Bacon is a meat product usually prepared from pork and cured. It is first cured using large quantities of salt, either a brine or a dry packing, fresh bacon may be dried for weeks or months in cold air, or it may be boiled or smoked. Fresh and dried bacon are typically cooked before eating, often by frying, boiled bacon is ready to eat, as is some smoked bacon, but they may be cooked further before eating. Bacon is prepared from different cuts of meat. It can be made from side and back cuts of pork, a side cut has less fat than the belly. In the United States, the term implies belly bacon, with leaner cuts known as Canadian bacon, in the United Kingdom, loin bacon with some belly attached is known as back bacon, or rashers, and belly bacon is called streaky bacon. Bacon may be prepared from one of two distinct back cuts, which is almost pure fat, or pork loin, Bacon may be eaten smoked, fried, baked, or grilled. It is eaten on its own, as a side dish, Bacon is used for barding and larding roasts, especially game, including venison and pheasant.
The word is derived from the Old High German bacho, meaning buttock, ham or side of bacon, in Italy, this product is called pancetta and is usually cooked in small cubes or thinly sliced as part of an antipasto. Meat from other animals, such as beef, chicken, goat, or turkey, may be cut, cured, or otherwise prepared to resemble bacon, and may even be referred to as bacon. Such use is common in areas with significant Jewish and Muslim populations, the USDA defines bacon in the American way as the cured belly of a swine carcass, and other cuts and characteristics must be separately qualified. For safety, bacon may be treated to prevent trichinosis, caused by Trichinella, Bacon is distinguished from salt pork and ham by differences in the brine or dry packing. Bacon brine has added curing ingredients, most notably sodium nitrite, and occasionally potassium nitrate, flavourings such as brown sugar or maple syrup are used for some bacon products. Sodium polyphosphates, such as sodium triphosphate, may be added to make the easier to slice.
Today, a specifically for ham includes a large amount of sugar. Historically, the ham and bacon referred to different cuts of meat that were brined or packed identically. Bacon is cured through either a process of injecting with or soaking in brine or using plain salt. In America, bacon is cured and smoked, and different flavours can be achieved by using various types of wood, or rarely corn cobs
The lemon, Citrus limon Osbeck, is a species of small evergreen tree in the flowering plant family Rutaceae, native to Asia. The trees ellipsoidal yellow fruit is used for culinary and non-culinary purposes throughout the world, primarily for its juice, the pulp and rind are used in cooking and baking. The juice of the lemon is about 5% to 6% citric acid, the distinctive sour taste of lemon juice makes it a key ingredient in drinks and foods such as lemonade and lemon meringue pie. The origin of the lemon is unknown, though lemons are thought to have first grown in Assam, a study of the genetic origin of the lemon reported it to be hybrid between bitter orange and citron. Lemons entered Europe near southern Italy no than the second century AD, they were not widely cultivated. They were introduced to Persia and to Iraq and Egypt around 700 AD, the lemon was first recorded in literature in a 10th-century Arabic treatise on farming, and was used as an ornamental plant in early Islamic gardens.
It was distributed throughout the Arab world and the Mediterranean region between 1000 and 1150. The first substantial cultivation of lemons in Europe began in Genoa in the middle of the 15th century, the lemon was introduced to the Americas in 1493 when Christopher Columbus brought lemon seeds to Hispaniola on his voyages. Spanish conquest throughout the New World helped spread lemon seeds and it was mainly used as an ornamental plant and for medicine. In the 19th century, lemons were increasingly planted in Florida, in 1747, James Linds experiments on seamen suffering from scurvy involved adding lemon juice to their diets, though vitamin C was not yet known. The origin of the lemon may be Middle Eastern. The word draws from the Old French limon, Italian limone, from the Arabic laymūn or līmūn, and from the Persian līmūn, a term for citrus fruit. The Bonnie Brae is oblong, thin-skinned, and seedless, the Eureka grows year-round and abundantly. This is the common supermarket lemon, known as Four Seasons because of its ability to produce fruit and this variety is available as a plant to domestic customers.
There is a pink-fleshed Eureka lemon, with a green, the Femminello St. Teresa, or Sorrento is native to Italy. This fruits zest is high in lemon oils and it is the variety traditionally used in the making of limoncello. The Meyer is a cross between a lemon and possibly an orange or a mandarin, and was named after Frank N. Meyer, who first introduced it to the USA in 1908. Thin-skinned and slightly less acidic than the Lisbon and Eureka lemons, Meyer lemons often mature to a yellow-orange color