Rùm, a Scottish Gaelic name anglicised to Rum, is one of the Small Isles of the Inner Hebrides, in the district of Lochaber, Scotland. For much of the 20th century the name became Rhum, a spelling invented by the former owner, Sir George Bullough, because he did not relish the idea of having the title "Laird of Rum", it is the largest of the Small Isles, the 15th largest Scottish island, but is inhabited by only about thirty or so people, all of whom live in the hamlet of Kinloch on the east coast. The island has been inhabited since the 8th millennium BC and provides some of the earliest known evidence of human occupation in Scotland; the early Celtic and Norse settlers artefacts. From the 12th to 13th centuries on, the island was held by various clans including the MacLeans of Coll; the population grew to over 400 by the late 18th century but was cleared of its indigenous population between 1826 and 1828. The island became a sporting estate, the exotic Kinloch Castle being constructed by the Bulloughs in 1900.
Rùm was purchased by the Nature Conservancy Council in 1957. Rùm is igneous in origin, its mountains have been eroded by Pleistocene glaciation, it is now an important study site for research in ecology of red deer, is the site of a successful reintroduction programme for the white-tailed sea eagle. Its economy is dependent on Scottish Natural Heritage, a public body that now manages the island, there have been calls for a greater diversity of housing provision. A Caledonian MacBrayne ferry links the island with the mainland town of Mallaig. Haswell-Smith suggests that Rum is "probably" pre-Celtic, but may be Old Norse rõm-øy for "wide island" or Gaelic ì-dhruim meaning "isle of the ridge". Ross notes that there is a written record of Ruim from 677 and suggests "spacious island" from the Gaelic rùm. Mac an Tàilleir is unequivocal that Rùm is "a pre-Gaelic name and unclear". In light of this, Richard Coates has suggested that it may be worthwhile looking for a Proto-Semitic source for the name.
This is because the British Isles were repopulated from the Iberian Peninsula following the last Ice Age. He proposes a name based on the Proto-Semitic root *rwm, a'height-word' as seen in Ramat Gan in Israel and Ramallah, Palestine. Rum would therefore mean something like ‘ height' or'high island’; the origins are therefore speculative, but it is known for certain that George Bullough changed the spelling to Rhum to avoid the association with the alcoholic drink rum. However, the "Rhum" spelling is used on a Kilmory gravestone dated 1843. In 1991 the Nature Conservancy Council of Scotland reverted to the use of Rum without the h. In the 13th century there may be references to the island as Raun-eyja and Raun-eyjum and Dean Munro writing in 1549 calls it Ronin. Seafaring Hebrideans had numerous taboos concerning spoken references to islands. In the case of Rùm, use of the usual name was forbidden, the island being referred to as Rìoghachd na Forraiste Fiadhaich—"the kingdom of the wild forest".
The island was cleared of its indigenous population prior to being mapped by the Ordnance Survey, so it is possible that many place names are speculative. Nonetheless, the significant number of Norse-derived names that exist eight centuries after Viking political control ended indicate the importance of their presence on the island. Of the nine hamlets that were mapped in 1801, seven of the names are of Norse origin. Rùm is the largest of the Small Isles, with an area of 10,463 hectares, it had a population of only 22 in the 2001 census, making it one of the most sparsely populated of all Scottish islands. There is no indigenous population. There are a variety of small businesses on the island including accommodation providers and crafters, three newly created crofts are being worked with the introduction of sheep back to the island, along with pigs and poultry. Most of the residents live in the hamlet of Kinloch, in the east of the island, which has no church or pub, but does have a village hall and a small primary school.
It has a shop and post office, run as a private business. There is a summer teashop open. Kinloch is at the head of the main anchorage. Kilmory Bay lies to the north, it has a fine beach and the remains of a village, has for some years served as the base for research into red deer. The area is closed to visitors during the period of the deer rut in the autumn; the western point is the A'Bhrideanach peninsula, to the southwest lie Wreck Bay, the cliffs of Sgorr Reidh and Harris Bay. The last is the site of the Bullough's mausoleum; the family dynamited it. The second is in the incongruous style of a Greek temple. Papadil near the southern extremity has the ruins of a lodge built and abandoned by the Bulloughs. An 1801 map produced by George Langlands identified nine villages: Kilmory to the north at the head of Glen Kilmory, Samhnan Insir just to the north between Kilmory and Rubha Samhnan Insir, Camas Pliasgiag in the northeast, "Kinlochscresort", Dibidil in the southeast, Papadil in the south, Harris in the southwest and Guirdil at the head of Glen Shellesder in the northwest.
The island's relief is spectacular, a 19th-century commentator remarking that "the interior is one heap of rude mountains, scarcely possessing an acre of level land
Skye, or the Isle of Skye, is the largest and northernmost of the major islands in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. The island's peninsulas radiate from a mountainous centre dominated by the Cuillin, the rocky slopes of which provide some of the most dramatic mountain scenery in the country. Although it has been suggested that the Gaelic Sgitheanach describes a winged shape there is no definitive agreement as to the name's origins; the island has been occupied since the Mesolithic period, its history includes a time of Norse rule and a long period of domination by Clan MacLeod and Clan Donald. The 18th century Jacobite risings led to the breaking up of the clan system and subsequent Clearances that replaced entire communities with sheep farms, some of which involved forced emigrations to distant lands. Resident numbers declined from over 20,000 in the early 19th century to just under 9,000 by the closing decade of the 20th century. Skye's population increased by 4 per cent between 1991 and 2001.
About a third of the residents were Gaelic speakers in 2001, although their numbers are in decline, this aspect of island culture remains important. The main industries are tourism, agriculture and forestry. Skye is part of the Highland Council local government area; the island's largest settlement is Portree, its capital, known for its picturesque harbour. There are links to various nearby islands by ferry and, since 1995, to the mainland by a road bridge; the climate is mild and windy. The abundant wildlife includes red deer and Atlantic salmon; the local flora are dominated by heather moor, there are nationally important invertebrate populations on the surrounding sea bed. Skye has provided the locations for various novels and feature films and is celebrated in poetry and song; the first written references to the island are Roman sources such as the Ravenna Cosmography, which refers to Scitis and Scetis, which can be found on a map by Ptolemy. One possible derivation comes from skitis, an early Celtic word for winged, which may describe how the island's peninsulas radiate out from a mountainous centre.
Subsequent Gaelic-, Norse- and English-speaking peoples have influenced the history of Skye. Various etymologies have been proposed, such as the "winged isle" or "the notched isle" but no definitive solution has been found to date. In the Norse sagas Skye is called Skíð, for example in the Hákonar saga Hákonarsonar and a skaldic poem in the Heimskringla from c. 1230 contains a line that translates as "the hunger battle-birds were filled in Skye with blood of foemen killed". The island was referred to by the Norse as Skuy, Skýey or Skuyö; the traditional Gaelic name is An t-Eilean Sgitheanach, An t-Eilean Sgiathanach being a more recent and less common spelling. In 1549 Donald Munro, High Dean of the Isles, wrote of "Sky": "This Ile is callit Ellan Skiannach in Irish, to say in Inglish the wyngit Ile, be reason it has mony wyngis and pointis lyand furth fra it, throw the dividing of thir foirsaid Lochis." But the meaning of this Gaelic name is unclear. Eilean a' Cheò, which means island of the mist, is a poetic Gaelic name for the island.
At 1,656 square kilometres, Skye is the second-largest island in Scotland after Harris. The coastline of Skye is a series of peninsulas and bays radiating out from a centre dominated by the Cuillin hills. Malcolm Slesser suggested that its shape "sticks out of the west coast of northern Scotland like a lobster's claw ready to snap at the fish bone of Harris and Lewis" and W. H. Murray, commenting on its irregular coastline, stated that "Skye is sixty miles long, but what might be its breadth is beyond the ingenuity of man to state". Martin Martin, a native of the island, reported on it at length in a 1703 publication, his geological observations included a note that: There are marcasites black and white, resembling silver ore, near the village Sartle: there are in the same place several stones, which in bigness, shape, &c. resemble nutmegs, many rivulets here afford variegated stones of all colours. The Applesglen near Loch-Fallart has agate growing in it of different colours. Stones of a purple colour flow down the rivulets here after great rains.
The Black Cuillin, which are composed of basalt and gabbro, include twelve Munros and provide some of the most dramatic and challenging mountain terrain in Scotland. The ascent of Sgùrr a' Ghreadaidh is one of the longest rock climbs in Britain and the Inaccessible Pinnacle is the only peak in Scotland that requires technical climbing skills to reach the summit; these hills make demands of the hill walker that exceed any others found in Scotland and a full traverse of the Cuillin ridge may take 15–20 hours. The Red Hills to the south are known as the Red Cuillin, they are composed of granite that has weathered into more rounded hills with many long scree slopes on their flanks. The highest point of these hills is one of only two Corbetts on Skye; the northern peninsula of Trotternish is underlain by basalt, which provides rich soils and a variety of unusual rock features. The Kilt Rock is named after the tartan-like patterns in the 105 metres cliffs; the Quiraing is a spectacular series of rock pinnacles on the eastern side of th
The kittiwakes are two related seabird species in the gull family Laridae, the black-legged kittiwake and the red-legged kittiwake. The epithets "black-legged" and "red-legged" are used to distinguish the two species in North America, but in Europe, where Rissa brevirostris is not found, the black-legged kittiwake is known as kittiwake, or more colloquially in some areas as tickleass or tickleace; the name is derived from its call, a shrill'kittee-wa-aaake, kitte-wa-aaake'. The genus name Rissa is from the Icelandic name Rita for the black-legged kittiwake; the two species are physically similar. They have a white head and body, grey back, grey wings tipped solid black and a yellow bill. Black-legged kittiwake adults are somewhat larger than red-legged kittiwakes. Other differences include a shorter bill, larger eyes, a larger, rounder head and darker grey wings in the red-legged kittiwake. While most black-legged kittiwakes do, have dark-grey legs, some have pinkish-grey to reddish legs, making colouration a somewhat unreliable identifying marker.
In contrast to the dappled chicks of other gull species, kittiwake chicks are downy and white since they are under little threat of predation, as the nests are on steep cliffs. Unlike other gull chicks which wander around as soon as they can walk, kittiwake chicks instinctively sit still in the nest to avoid falling off. Juveniles take three years to reach maturity; when in winter plumage, both birds have a dark grey smudge behind the eye and a grey hind-neck collar. The sexes are visually indistinguishable. Kittiwakes are coastal breeding birds ranging in the North Pacific, North Atlantic, Arctic oceans, they form large, noisy colonies during the summer reproductive period sharing habitat with murres. They are the only gull species that are cliff-nesting. A colony of kittiwakes living in Newcastle upon Tyne and Gateshead in the north east of England has made homes on both the Tyne Bridge and Baltic Centre for Contemporary Art; this colony is notable because it is the furthest inland colony of kittiwakes in the world
The Monach Islands known as Heisker, are an island group west of North Uist in the Outer Hebrides of Scotland. The islands are not to be confused with Hyskeir in the Inner Hebrides, or Haskeir, off North Uist and visible from the group; the main islands of Ceann Ear, Ceann Iar and Shivinish are all linked at low tide. It has been claimed that it was at one time possible to walk all the way to Baleshare, on to North Uist, five miles away at low tide. In the 17th century, a large tidal wave is said to have washed this route away; the islands of the group tend to be subject to intense coastal erosion. Not unlike the Isles of Scilly it is possible that Ceann Iar and Ceann Ear formed a single body of land within historic times, that their land area has decreased due to overgrazing, sea inundation, wind erosion. Smaller islands in the group include Deasker and Stocaigh; the islands have been uninhabited since 1942, but were populated by up to 100 people for centuries prior to 1810. They were abandoned due to overgrazing, but were resettled by 1841 in the wake of the Highland Clearances.
Shillay is the location of Monach Lighthouse, built by David and Thomas Stevenson in 1864. The lighthouse was closed in 1942 but, following the sinking of the oil tanker MV Braer in 1993, a new and much smaller lighthouse was built in 1997; this had a range of 10 miles. Like all British lighthouses it is now unmanned and automated. In 2007 renovations of the old schoolhouse were completed, enabling visitors to stay on the island, learn about its history and wildlife; the old Heisgeir mailboat has been restored at the Grimsay boatshed. The 28-foot motorised open wooden boat was built circa 1932 for the last family to leave the Monach Islands, had lain unused at Lochmaddy before being rescued by the local history society. Jacobite sympathiser James Erskine, Lord Grange, had his wife Rachel kidnapped and abandoned on the Monach Isles between 1732 and 1734. At the time the islands were owned by Sir Alexander MacDonald of Sleat and she was housed with his tacksman, another Alexander MacDonald and his wife.
When Lady Grange complained about her condition, she was told by her host that he had no orders to provide her either with clothes, or food other than the normal fare he and his wife were used to. She lived in isolation, not being told the name of the island where she was living, it took her some time to find out who her landlord was, she was there until June 1734 when Norman MacLeod from North Uist arrived to move her on. They told her they were taking her to Orkney, but she was taken to Hirta where she lived from 1734-42 before being taken to Skye where she died after a failed rescue attempt; the islands a National Nature Reserve, are of special interest for undisturbed machair and their grey seal population. About 10,000 seals come ashore each autumn to have their pups and mate, making it one of the largest such colonies in the world. There are a large number of nesting seabirds and a rich flora. Grey herons nest in some of the abandoned buildings. There are no trees on the islands
Eilean Chathastail is one of the Small Isles in the Inner Hebrides of Scotland. Eilean Chathastail protects the only harbour on Eigg at Galmisdale, it is 1 kilometre in length and lies only 100 metres off the south-east coast of the island of Eigg. Eigg lighthouse was built on the island in 1906 by brothers David A. and Charles Alexander Stevenson. In July 1884 the geologist and writer Hugh Miller arrived at the Eilean Chathastail anchorage on board the yacht Betsey, he had just begun his journey at Tobermory and he produced a diary of his travels in the Hebrides for the newspaper Witness, of which he was the editor. His contributions were collated and published as The Cruise of the Betsey in 1856, he wrote that: "We passed the Isle of Muck, with its one low hill. This is marked by a burial enclosure on the island's highest point. Bray, Elizabeth The Discovery of the Hebrides: Voyages to the Western Isles 1745-1883. Edinburgh. Birlinn
A tidal island is a piece of land, connected to the mainland by a natural or man-made causeway, exposed at low tide and submerged at high tide. Because of the mystique surrounding tidal islands many of them have been sites of religious worship, such as Mont Saint-Michel with its Benedictine Abbey. Tidal islands are commonly the sites of fortresses because of their natural fortifications. Ma Shi Chau in Tai Po District, northeastern New Territories, within the Tolo Harbour Jiangong Islet in Kinmen Naaz islands in Persian gulf, southern seashore of Qeshm island Jindo Island and Modo Island in southwest South Korea Lihou in Guernsey, one of the Channel Islands Mandø Island – on Denmark's western coast Knudshoved Island – north of Vordingborg on southern Zealand, Denmark Île Madame in Charente-Maritime Île de Noirmoutier in Vendée Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy Tombelaine in Normandy The Halligen in the North Frisian Islands, Germany/Denmark The Neuwerk in the Wadden Sea, Germany Coney Island near Rosses Point, County Sligo Omey Island in Connemara, County Galway, Connacht Inishkeel, County Galway, Connacht Grótta in Seltjarnarnes in Capital Region Cortegada Island in Pontevedra coast, Galicia.
San Nikolas Island in Lekeitio, Bizkaia Asparagus Island, Mount's Bay, Cornwall Burgh Island, Devon Burrow Island, Portsmouth Harbour Chapel Island, Cumbria Chiswick Eyot in the River Thames in London Gugh in the Isles of Scilly Hilbre Island, Middle Eye and Little Eye in the River Dee estuary, between North Wales and the English Wirral, but administratively in England. Horsey Island, Essex Lindisfarne, Northumberland Mersea Island, Essex Northey Island, Essex Osea Island, Essex Piel Island, Cumbria Sheep Island, Cumbria St Mary's Island, North Tyneside St Michael's Mount, Cornwall Nendrum Monastery on Mahee Island, Strangford Lough Baleshare in the Outer Hebrides, joined to North Uist Bernera Island, joined to Lismore Brough of Birsay in Orkney, joined to Orkney Mainland Castle Stalker on Loch Laich in Argyll Cramond Island in the Firth of Forth Davaar Island near Campbeltown, off the Kintyre peninsula Eilean Shona in Loch Moidart, Highland Eilean Tioram, in Loch Moidart Erraid off the Isle of Mull Hestan Island near Rough Island in Auchencairn Bay Islands of Fleet: Ardwall Isle and Barlocco Isle in Galloway Isle Ristol, the innermost of the Summer Isles Kili Holm in Orkney, joined to Egilsay Oronsay in the Inner Hebrides, joined to Colonsay Rough Island opposite Rockcliffe, Dumfries & Galloway Vallay, joined to North Uist, Outer Hebrides Burry Holms off the Gower Cribinau off Anglesey Gateholm off the south west coast of Pembrokeshire Ynys Llanddwyn off Anglesey Mumbles Lighthouse located in Mumbles, near Swansea St Catherine's Island in Pembrokeshire Sully Island in the Vale of Glamorgan Worm's Head at the end of the Gower Ynys Cantwr off Ramsey Island, Pembrokeshire Ynys Feurig off Anglesey Ynys Gifftan in Gwynedd, north Wales Ynys Gwelltog off Ramsey Island, Pembrokeshire Ynys Lochtyn on the coast of Cardigan Bay43 tidal islands can be walked to from the UK mainland.
Finisterre Island off of Bowen Island, British Columbia, Canada Micou's Island in St. Margarets Bay, Nova Scotia, Canada Minister's Island in New Brunswick, Canada Ross Island and Cheney Island in Grand Manan, New Brunswick, Canada Wedge Island, Nova Scotia, Canada Whyte Islet in West Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada Bar Island in Maine Battery Point Light in California Bumpkin Island in Massachusetts Camano Island in Puget Sound of Washington State, since earth filled Cana Island Lighthouse in Wisconsin Charles Island, in Connecticut Douglas Island in Alaska High Island, New York Long Point Island, MaineNahant, MA The Point Walter Sandbar in Perth, Western Australia has formed into a tidal island and is only connected to the mainland in extreme low tides. Penguin Island in the Shoalwater Islands Marine Park Former tidal island Bennelong Island in Sydney, Australia was developed into Bennelong Point and is now the location of the Sydney Opera House. Matakana Island in Tauranga Harbour Opahekeheke Island in the Kaipara Harbour Puddingstone Island in Otago Harbour Rabbit Island, Bells Island, Bests Island in Tasman Bay The Hauraki Gulf islands of Motutapu Island and Rangitoto Island are connected at low tide The Okatakata Islands and Walker Island in Rangaunu Harbour Island Islet Tied island Vanishing island Media related to Tidal islands at Wikimedia Commons
National scenic area (Scotland)
National scenic area is a conservation designation used in Scotland, administered by Scottish Natural Heritage. The designation's purpose is to identify areas of exceptional scenery and to protect them from inappropriate development. There are 40 national scenic areas in Scotland, covering 13% of the land area of Scotland; the areas protected by the designation are considered to represent the type of scenic beauty "popularly associated with Scotland and for which it is renowned". As such they tend to be found in the remote, mountainous areas of Scotland, with an SNH review in 1997 noting a potential weakness of national scenic areas was that the original selection placed undue emphasis on the mountainous parts of Scotland. National scenic areas do however cover seascapes, with 26% of the total area protected by the designation being marine; the designation is concerned with scenic qualities, although designated national scenic areas may well have other special qualities, for example related to culture, archaeology, geology or wildlife.
Areas with such qualities may be protected by other designations that overlap with the NSA designation. National scenic areas are designated by the IUCN as Category V Protected Landscapes, the same international category as Scotland's two national parks. Within the United Kingdom the NSA designation is regarded as equivalent to the Areas of Outstanding Natural Beauty of England and Wales; the national scenic area designation does not have a high profile when compared to other conservation designations used in Scotland: in 2018 a survey by the National Trust for Scotland found that only 20 % of Scots were "definitely aware" of national scenic areas, compared to 80 % for National Parks. After the Second World War, the Labour government passed the National Parks and Access to the Countryside Act 1949, which led to the creation of ten national parks in England and Wales between 1951 and 1957, although no parks were created in Scotland. A committee, chaired by Sir Douglas Ramsay, was however established to consider preservation of the landscape in Scotland.
The report, published in 1945, proposed. Accordingly, the government designated these areas as "national park direction areas", giving powers for planning decisions taken by local authorities to be reviewed by central government. After a further review of landscape protection in 1978, additional areas were identified for protection, in 1981 the direction areas were replaced by national scenic areas, which were based on the 1978 recommendations. SNH reviewed the national scenic areas between November 2007 and March 2009 to try to identify what makes the scenery of each NSA special; the current national scenic areas, which therefore remain as mapped in 1978, were redesignated in 2010. Despite calls from bodies such as the John Muir Trust for the protection to be extended to other areas to protect landscape and support tourism, the Scottish Government has stated that it has no plans to designate further areas. In September 2017 the Scottish Parliament's Public Petitions Committee asked the government to explain why it is not reviewing the NSAs.
There is no equivalent to a national park authority for national scenic areas, rather it is a designation to provide an additional level of protection to specified areas. For developments that would ordinarily require only local authority planning permission the Scottish Government must be informed if advice from Scottish Natural Heritage is ignored. Additionally, there are some classes of development that would not require planning permission to proceed when located outwith a national scenic area, but which are subject to controls within them; these developments include the erection of agricultural and forestry buildings over 12 m high, the construction of vehicle tracks for agriculture or forestry purposes, local authority roadworks outside present road boundaries costing more than £100,000. Local authorities can produce a management strategy for each of the NSA within its territory; this strategy defines the area's special qualities and identifies the actions needed to safeguard them. As of 2018, only the three national scenic areas within Dumfries and Galloway have current management strategies.
Public access to all land in Scotland is governed by the Land Reform Act 2003, which grants the public a right of responsible access to most land for activities such as walking, cycling, canoeing and climbing. In 2010 there were 40 national scenic areas: Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty Protected areas of Scotland National parks of Scotland European Landscape Convention Map showing location and extent of the National Scenic Areas National Scenic Areas - Scottish Natural Heritage