Opshop is a New Zealand rock band who formed in 2002. They released their first album, You Are Here in 2004, their second album Second Hand Planet in 2007, their third album Until The End Of Time, which debuted at number one on the New Zealand Album Charts, in 2010. In 2008, the band won the 2008 APRA Silver Scroll for Song of the Year for their song One Day. OPSHOP artist website
Bay of Plenty
The Bay of Plenty is a bight in the northern coast of New Zealand's North Island. It stretches 260 km from the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east; the Bay of Plenty Region is situated around this body of water incorporating several large islands in the bay. The bay was named by James Cook after he noticed the abundant food supplies at several Māori villages there, in stark contrast to the earlier observations he had made in Poverty Bay. According to local Māori traditions, the Bay of Plenty was the landing point of several migration canoes that brought Māori settlers to New Zealand; these include the Mataatua, Nukutere, Tākitimu and Tainui canoes. Many of the descendent iwi maintain their traditional homelands in the region, including Te Whānau-ā-Apanui, Te Whakatōhea, Ngāi Tai, Ngāi Tūhoe, Ngāti Awa, Ngāti Tūwharetoa ki Kawerau, Te Arawa, Ngāi Te Rangi, Ngāti Ranginui and Ngāti Pūkenga. Early Māori settlement gave rise to many of the city names used today; the first recorded European contact came when James Cook sailed through the Bay of Plenty in 1769.
Cook noted the abundance of food supplies, in comparison to Poverty Bay further back along the eastern coast of the North Island. Further reports of European contact are scarce prior to the arrival of missionary Samuel Marsden to the Tauranga area in 1820. During the 1820s and 1830s, northern iwi including Ngā Puhi invaded the Bay of Plenty during their campaign throughout the North Island, fighting local Māori tribes in what became known as the Musket Wars. However, the 1830s and 1840s saw increased contact between Bay of Plenty Māori and Europeans through trade, although few Europeans settled in the region. Missionary activity in the region increased during this time. In 1853, New Zealand was subdivided into provinces, with the Bay of Plenty incorporated into Auckland Province. Conflict returned to the Bay of Plenty during the 1860s with the New Zealand Land Wars; this stemmed from Tauranga iwi supporting the Waikato iwi in their conflict with the government. In retaliation, British Crown and government-allied Māori forces attacked the Tauranga iwi, including at the famous Battle of Gate Pā in 1864.
Further conflict with the government arose in 1865 when German missionary Carl Völkner and interpreter James Fulloon were killed by local Māori at Opotiki and Whakatane, respectively. The ensuing conflict resulted in the confiscation of considerable land from several Bay of Plenty iwi by the government. Confiscation of Māori land deprived local iwi of economic resources, provided land for expanding European settlement; the government established fortified positions, including at Tauranga and Opotiki. European settlers arrived throughout the latter half of the 19th century, establishing settlements in Katikati, Te Puke and the Rangitaiki area. In 1876, settlements were incorporated into counties following the nationwide dissolution of the provincial system. Initial settlements in the region struggled: the climate was ill-suited to sheep farming and the geography was inaccessible, further hindered by a lack of infrastructure. By the end of the century the population had started to dwindle, but after experimenting with different crops, settlers found success with dairy production.
Dairy factories sprang up across the Bay of Plenty in the 1900s, with butter and cheese feeding economic prosperity throughout the early 20th century. Timber became a major export in the 1950s, as kiwifruit did later; the present Bay of Plenty region was formed in 1989 after a nationwide review and shakeup of top-level local government in New Zealand. The new region incorporated the former counties of Tauranga, Rotorua and Opotiki. On 5 October 2011, the MV Rena ran aground on the Astrolabe Reef in the bay causing a large oil spill, described as New Zealand's worst environmental disaster; the region is subdivided into territorial authorities, which include the Western Bay of Plenty District, Tauranga City, Whakatane District, Kawerau District and Opotiki District, as well as parts of Rotorua District and the town of Rangitaiki in Taupo District. The Bay of Plenty Regional Council, which used the brand name Environment Bay of Plenty for a number of years, is the administrative body responsible for overseeing regional land use, environmental management and civil defence in the region.
It oversees local-tier governing councils for each of the territorial authorities. In 1989, Whakatane was selected as the seat for the regional council, as a compromise between the two dominant cities of Tauranga and Rotorua. Public health in New Zealand is broken into regions; the Bay of Plenty and Lakes district health boards have public health provided by Toi Te Ora - Public Health. The Bay of Plenty region covers 9,500 km ² of coastal marine area, it extends along the eastern coast of the North Island, from the base of the Coromandel Peninsula in the west to Cape Runaway in the east. The region extends 12 nautical miles from the mainland coastline, extends from the coastlines of several islands in the bay, notably Mayor Island/Tuhua, Motiti Island, Whale Island and the active volcano of Whakaari/White Island, it extends inland to the sparsely populated forest lands around Murupara. The geographical bay is defined by 259 km of open coastline used for economic and cultural purposes; the coastline from Waihi Beach in the west to Opape is defined as sandy coast, while the coast from Opape to Cape Runaway is rocky shore.
Sizeable harbours are located at Tauranga and Ohiwa. Major estuaries include Maketu, Little Waihi, Whakatane and Waioeka/Otara. Eight major rivers empty into the bay from inland
Hawke's Bay Region
Hawke's Bay Region is a region of New Zealand on the east coast of the North Island. It is governed by Hawke's Bay Regional Council; the region's name derives from Hawke Bay, named by Captain James Cook in honour of Admiral Edward Hawke. The region is situated on the east coast of the North Island, it bears the former name of what is now Hawke Bay, a large semi-circular bay that extends for 100 kilometres from northeast to southwest from Mahia Peninsula to Cape Kidnappers. The Hawke's Bay region includes the hilly coastal land around the northern and central bay, the floodplains of the Wairoa River in the north, the wide fertile Heretaunga Plains around Hastings in the south, a hilly interior stretching up into the Kaweka and Ruahine Ranges; the prominent peak Taraponui is located inland. Five major rivers flow to the Hawke's Bay coast. From north to south, they are the Wairoa River, Mohaka River, Tutaekuri River, Ngaruroro River and Tukituki River. Lake Waikaremoana, situated in northern Hawke's Bay 35 km from the coast, is the largest lake in Hawke's Bay, the 4th largest in the North Island and the 16th largest in New Zealand.
The regional council area consists of the territorial authorities of Wairoa District, Hastings District, Napier City, its southernmost district, Central Hawke's Bay District, plus the localities of Taharua in the Taupo District and Ngamatea in the Rangitikei District. It does not include the Tararua District, Woodville or Norsewood, which have been under the Manawatu-Wanganui Regional Council since the 1989 local government reforms. In June 2015, the Local Government Commission proposed the amalgamation of the four territorial authorities in the region with the Hawke's Bay Regional Council, but this was rejected in a poll of residents; the region has a hill with the longest place name in New Zealand, the longest in the world according to the 2009 Guinness Book of Records. Taumatawhakatangihangakoauauotamateaturipukakapikimaungahoronukupokaiwhenuakitanatahu is an otherwise unremarkable hill in southern Hawke's Bay, not far from Waipukurau; the region's population is 165,900 as of June 3.4 percent of New Zealand's population.
Around 81 percent of the region's population lives in the Napier-Hastings conurbation. Below is a list of urban areas; the region has a significant Māori population. A major local Māori tribe is Ngāti Kahungunu. Around 50.5 percent of Hawke's Bay's population affiliate with Christianity at the 2013 Census, making it one of two regions in New Zealand with a majority Christian population. Hawke's Bay Province was founded in 1858 as a province of New Zealand, after being separated from the Wellington Province following a meeting in Napier in February 1858; the Province was abolished in 1876 along with all other provinces in New Zealand. It was replaced with a Provincial District. On February 3, 1931, Napier and Hastings were devastated by New Zealand's worst natural disaster, an earthquake measuring 7.9 on the Richter magnitude scale, which killed 256 people. Napier rebuilt and now the city is world-famous for its Art Deco buildings, celebrates its heritage each February with the Art Deco Weekend.
MTG Hawke's Bay Hawke's Bay Museum and Art Gallery, has an exhibition on the earthquake, its causes and impact. The GDP of the Hawke's Bay region was estimated at $7.4 billion as of March 2017, 3% of the national GDP. The region is renowned with large orchards and vineyards on the plains. In the hilly parts of the region sheep and cattle farming predominates, with forestry blocks in the roughest areas; the climate is dry and temperate, the long, hot summers and cool winters offer excellent weather for growing grapes. Missionaries in the mid 19th century planted the first vines in Hawke's Bay and it is now becoming an important place for full bodied red wines; as of January 2010, there are an estimated 75 wineries located across Hawke's Bay.https://www.nzherald.co.nz/the-country/news/article.cfm?c_id=16&objectid=12020171 Hawke's Bay is home to New Zealand's first space launch complex, Rocket Lab's orbital launch site on the Mahia Peninsula in Wairoa District. Wairoa District is home to'Space Coast New Zealand' - that stretch of Wairoa district's coastline from which space launch viewing can be undertaken.
Rocket Lab anticipates launching its 17m Electron vehicle early in 2017. Hawke's Bay is one of the most seismically active regions in New Zealand and has experienced many large and damaging earthquakes. More than 50 damaging earthquakes have rocked the region since the 1800s; some of the more notable are listed below. The Hawke's Bay regional council consists of nine elected members and holds elections every three years; as of the 2016 election the current council is: The region is served by a variety of radio stations including Radio Kahungunu, The Hits 89.5, More FM, access station Radio Kidnappers and local station Bay FM. As well, most of the national commercial and non-commercial operators have transmitters covering the region. Hawke's Bay has its own TV station, TVHB, which provides a mix of news and information programmes hosted by local personalities. Hawke's Bay produces some of New Zealand's finest wines and once a year Harvest Hawke's Bay celebrates the fact by offering a three-day wine and food festival.
This event attracts many thousands. Napier is home to the Mission Concert held early each year since 1993; the event, held at the Mission Estate Winery in Taradale, has attracted performers such as Kenny Rogers, Shirley Bassey, Rod Stewart, The B-52's
Whanganui spelled Wanganui, is a city on the west coast of the North Island of New Zealand. The Whanganui River, New Zealand's longest navigable waterway, runs from Mount Tongariro to the sea. Whanganui is part of the Manawatu-Wanganui region. Like several New Zealand centres, it was designated a city until administrative reorganisation in 1989, is now run by a District Council. Although the city was called Wanganui from 1854, in February 2009, the New Zealand Geographic Board recommended the spelling be changed to "Whanganui". In December 2009, the government decided that while either spelling was acceptable, Crown agencies would use the Whanganui spelling. On 17 November 2015, Land Information New Zealand announced that Wanganui District would be renamed to Whanganui District; this changed the official name of the District Council, because Whanganui is not a city but a district, the official name of the urban area as well. Whanganui is located on the South Taranaki Bight, close to the mouth of the Whanganui River.
It is 200 kilometres north of Wellington and 75 kilometres northwest of Palmerston North, at the junction of State Highways 3 and 4. Most of the city lies on the river's northwestern bank, due to the greater extent of flat land; the river is crossed by four bridges – Cobham Bridge, City Bridge, Dublin Street Bridge and Aramoho Railway Bridge. Both Mount Ruapehu and Mount Taranaki can be seen from Durie Hill and other vantage points around the city; the suburbs within Whanganui include: Northeast: Wanganui East, Bastia Hill, Aramoho East: Durie Hill South: Pūtiki West: Gonville, Tawhero Northwest: Springvale, St. Johns Hill, Otamatea The area around the mouth of the Whanganui river was a major site of pre-European Māori settlement; the pā named Pūtiki is home to the Ngāti Tūpoho hapū of the iwi Te Āti Haunui-a-Pāpārangi. It took its name from the legendary explorer Tamatea Pōkai Whenua, who sent a servant ashore to find flax for tying up his topknot. In the 1820s coastal tribes in the area assaulted the Kapiti Island stronghold of Ngāti Toa chief Te Rauparaha.
Te Rauparaha retaliated in 1830 slaughtering the inhabitants. The first European traders arrived in 1831, followed in 1840 by missionaries Octavius Hadfield and Henry Williams who collected signatures for the Treaty of Waitangi. On 20 June 1840, the Revd John Mason, Mrs Mason, Mr Richard Matthews and his wife Johanna arrived to establish a mission station of the Church Missionary Society; the Revd Richard Taylor joined the CMS mission station in 1843. The Revd Mason drowned on 5 January 1843. By 1844 the brick church built by Mason was inadequate to meet the needs of the congregation and it had been damaged in an earthquake. A new church was built under the supervision of Taylor, with the timber supplied by each pā on the river in proportion to its size and number of Christians. After the New Zealand Company had settled Wellington it looked for other suitable places for settlers. Edward Wakefield, son of Edward Gibbon Wakefield, negotiated the sale of 40,000 acres in 1840, a town named Petre – after Lord Petre, one of the directors of the New Zealand Company – was established four kilometres from the river mouth.
The settlement was threatened in 1846 by a chief from up the Whanganui River. The British military arrived on 13 December 1846 to defend the township. Two stockades, the Rutland and York, were built to defend the settlers. Two minor battles were fought on 19 May and 19 July 1847 and after a stalemate the up river iwi returned home. By 1850 Te Mamaku was receiving Christian instruction from Revd Taylor. There were further incidents in 1847 when four members of the Gilfillan family were murdered and their house plundered; the name of the city was changed to Wanganui on 20 January 1854. The early years of the new city were problematic. Purchase of land from the local tribes had been haphazard and irregular, as such many Māori were angered with the influx of Pākehā onto land that they still claimed, it was not until the town had been established for eight years that agreements were reached between the colonials and local tribes, some resentment continued. Wanganui grew after this time, with land being cleared for pasture.
The town was a major military centre during the New Zealand Wars of the 1860s, although local Māori at Pūtiki led by Te Keepa Te Rangihiwinui remained friendly to settlers. In 1871 a town bridge was built, followed six years by a railway bridge at Aramoho. Wanganui was linked by rail to both New Plymouth and Wellington by 1886; the town was incorporated as a Borough on 1 February 1872, declared a city on 1 July 1924. Wanganui's biggest scandal happened in 1920, when Mayor Charles Mackay shot and wounded a young poet, Walter D'Arcy Cresswell, blackmailing him over his homosexuality. Mackay served seven years in prison and his name was erased from the town's civic monuments, while Cresswell was praised as a "wholesome-minded young man". Mackay's name was restored to the foundation stone of the Sarjeant Gallery in 1985; the Whanganui River catchment is seen as a sacred area to Māori, the Whanganui region is still seen as a focal point for any resentment over land ownership. In 1995, Moutoa Gardens in Wanganui, known to local Māori as Pakaitore, were occupied for 79 days in a peaceful protest by the Whanganui iwi over land claims.
Wanganui was the site of the New Zealand Police Law Enforcement System from 1976 to 1995. An early Sperry mainframe computer-based intelligence and data manage
A middle school is an educational stage which exists in some countries, providing education between primary school and secondary school. The concept and classification of middle schools, as well as the ages covered, vary between, sometimes within, countries. In Afghanistan, middle school consists of the primary school grades 5,6, 7 and the secondary school grade 8. In Albania, middle school is included in the primary education which lasts 9 years and attendance is mandatory. In Algeria, a middle school includes 4 grades; the ciclo básico of secondary education is equivalent to middle school. Most regions of Australia do not have middle schools, as students go directly from primary school to secondary school; as an alternative to the middle school model, some secondary schools divided their grades into "junior high school" and "senior high school". Some have three levels, "junior", "intermediate", "senior". In 1996 and 1997, a national conference met to develop what became known as the National Middle Schooling Project, which aimed to develop a common Australian view of early adolescent needs guiding principles for educators appropriate strategies to foster positive adolescent learning.
The first middle school established in Australia was The Armidale School, in Armidale. Other schools have since followed this trend; the Northern Territory has introduced a three tier system featuring Middle Schools for years 7–9 and high school year 10–12. Many schools across Queensland have introduced a Middle School tier within their schools; the middle schools cover years 5 to 8. In Bangladesh, middle school is not separated like other countries. Schools are from class 1 to class 10, it means upper primary. From class 6–8 is thought as middle school. Grades 1,2,3,4 and 5 are said to be primary school while all the classes from 6 to 9 are considered high school while 10–12 is called college. There aren't middle schools in Bolivia since 1994. Students aged 11–15 attend the last years of elementary education or the first years of secondary education. In Bosnia and Herzegovina "middle school" refers to educational institutions for ages between 14 and 18, lasts 3–4 years, following elementary school.
Gymnasiums are the most prestigious type of "middle" school. In Brazil, middle school is a mandatory stage that precedes High School called "Ensino Fundamental II" consisting of grades 6 to 9, ages 11 to 14. In Canada, the terms "Middle School" and "Junior High School" are both used, depending on which grades the school caters to. Junior high schools tend to include only grades 7, 8, sometimes 9, whereas middle schools are grades 6–8 or only grades 7–8 or 6–7, varying from area to area and according to population vs. building capacity. Another common model is grades 5–8. Alberta, Nova Scotia and Prince Edward Island junior high schools include only grades 7–9, with the first year of high school traditionally being grade 10. In some places students go from elementary school to secondary school, meaning the elementary school covers to the end of Grade 8. In Ontario, the term "Middle School" and "Senior Public School" are used, with the latter being used in the Old Toronto and Scarborough sections of Toronto plus in Mississauga and Kitchener-Waterloo.
In many smaller Ontario cities and in some parts of larger cities, most elementary schools serve junior kindergarten to grade 8 meaning there are no separate Middle Schools buildings, while in some cities specific schools do serve the intermediate grades but are still called "Elementary" or "Public" schools with no recognition of the grades they serve in their name. Quebec uses a grade system, different from those of the other provinces. In Quebec there is no Middle school section; the Secondary level has five grades starting after Elementary Grade 6. These are called Secondary I to Secondary V. There aren't middle schools in Chile. Students aged 11 to 16 attend the last years of educación básica or the first years of educación media. In the People's Republic of China, middle school has junior stage and senior stage; the junior stage education is the last 3 years of 9-year-compulsory education for all young citizens. Some middle schools have both stages; the admissions for most students to enroll in senior middle schools from junior stage are on the basis of the scores that they get in "Senior Middle School Entrance Exam", which are held by local governments.
Other students may bypass the exam, based on their distinctive talents, like athletics, or excellent daily performance in junior stage. Secondary education is divided into basic secondary and
Nelson, New Zealand
Nelson is a city on the eastern shores of Tasman Bay. Nelson is the oldest city in the South Island and the second-oldest settled city in New Zealand – it was established in 1841 and was proclaimed a city by royal charter in 1858. Nelson City is close to the geographical centre of New Zealand and bordered to the west and south-west by Tasman District Council and to the north-east and south-east by Marlborough District Council; the city does not include the area's second-largest settlement. Nelson City has a population of around 50,000, making it New Zealand's 12th most populous city; when combined with the town of Richmond, which has 15,000 residents, the whole conurbation is ranked as New Zealand's 9th largest urban area by population. Nelson is well known for its thriving local arts and crafts scene, Each year, the city hosts events popular with locals and tourists alike, such as the Nelson Arts Festival; the annual Wearable Art Awards began near Nelson and a local museum, World of Wearable Art now showcases winning designs alongside a collection of classic cars.
Nelson was named in honour of the Admiral Horatio Nelson who defeated both the French and Spanish fleets at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805. Many roads and public areas around the city are named after people and ships associated with that battle and Trafalgar Street is the main shopping axis of the city. Inhabitants of Nelson are referred to as Nelsonians. Nelson's Māori name, Whakatū, means'build','raise', or'establish'. In an article to The Colonist newspaper on 16 July 1867, Francis Stevens described Nelson as "The Naples of the Southern Hemisphere". Today, Nelson has the nicknames of "Sunny Nelson" due to its high sunshine hours per year or the "Top of the South" because of its geographic location. In New Zealand Sign Language, the name is signed by putting the index and middle fingers together which are raised to the nose until the fingertips touch the nose move the hand forward so that the fingers point forward away from oneself. Settlement of Nelson began about 700 years ago by Māori. There is evidence.
The earliest recorded iwi in the Nelson district are the Ngāti Kuia, Ngāti Tūmatakōkiri, Ngāti Apa and Rangitāne tribes. Raids from northern tribes in the 1820s, led by Te Rauparaha and his Ngāti Toa, soon decimated the local population and displaced them; the New Zealand Company in London planned the settlement of Nelson. They intended to buy cheaply from the Māori some 200,000 acres which they planned to divide into one thousand lots and sell to intending settlers; the Company earmarked future profits to finance the free passage of artisans and labourers and their families, for the construction of public works. However, by September 1841 only about one third of the lots had sold. Despite this the Colony pushed ahead, land was surveyed by Frederick Tuckett. Three ships, the Arrow and Will Watch, sailed from London under the command of Captain Arthur Wakefield. Arriving in New Zealand, they discovered that the new Governor of the colony, William Hobson, would not give them a free hand to secure vast areas of land from the Māori or indeed to decide where to site the colony.
However, after some delay, Hobson allowed the Company to investigate the Tasman Bay area at the north end of the South Island. The Company selected the site now occupied by Nelson City because it had the best harbour in the area, but it had a major drawback: it lacked suitable arable land. The Company secured a vague and undetermined area from the Māori for £800 that included Nelson, Motueka and Whakapuaka; this allowed the settlement to begin, but the lack of definition would prove the source of much future conflict. The three colony ships sailed into Nelson Haven during the first week of November 1841; when the four first immigrant ships – Fifeshire, Mary-Ann, Lord Auckland and Lloyds – arrived three months they found the town laid out with streets, some wooden houses and rough sheds. Within 18 months the Company had sent out 18 ships with 872 women and 1384 children. However, fewer than ninety of the settlers had the capital to start as landowners; the early settlement of Nelson province included a proportion of German immigrants, who arrived on the ship Sankt Pauli and formed the nucleus of the villages of Sarau and Neudorf.
These were Lutheran Protestants with a small number of Bavarian Catholics. In 1892 the New Zealand Church Mission Society was formed in a Nelson church hall. After a brief initial period of prosperity, the lack of land and of capital caught up with the settlement and it entered a prolonged period of relative depression; the labourers had to accept a cut in their wages. Organised immigration ceased. By the end of 1843, artisans and labourers began leaving Nelson; the pressure to find more arable land became intense. To the south-east of Nelson lay the wide and fertile plains of the Wairau Valley; the New Zealand Company tried to claim. The Māori owners stated adamantly that the Wairau Valley had not formed part of the original land sale and made it clear they would resist any attempts by the settlers to occupy the area; the Nelson settlers led by Arthur Wakefield and Henry Thompson attempted to do just that. This resulted in the Wairau Affray; the subsequent Government enquiry exonerated the Māori and
Southland, New Zealand
Southland is New Zealand's southernmost region. It consists of the southwestern portion of the South Island and Stewart Island / Rakiura, it includes Gore District and the city of Invercargill. The region covers over spans over 3,400 km of coast. Southland was a scene of early extended contact between Europeans and Maori, in this case sealers and missionaries such as Wohlers at Ruapuke. In 1853, Walter Mantell purchased Murihiku from local Maori iwi, claiming the land for European settlement. Over successive decades, present-day Southland and Otago were settled by large numbers of Scottish settlers. Immigration to New Zealand had been precipitated by an economic depression in Scotland and a schism between the Church of Scotland and the Free Church of Scotland. In 1852, James Menzies, leader of the Southland separatist movement, became the first Superintendent of the tiny Southland electorate, still part of the large Otago region. Under the influence of Menzies, Southland Province seceded from Otago in 1861 following the escalation of political tensions.
However, rising debt forced Southland to rejoin Otago in 1870, the province was abolished when the Abolition of the Provinces Act came into force on 1 November 1876. In the 1880s, the development of an export industry based on butter and cheese encouraged the growth of dairy farming in Southland; the colony's first dairy factory was established at Edendale in 1882. Much of this export went to the United Kingdom. Now, Edendale is the site of the world's largest raw milk-processing plant, Southland's economy is based on agriculture, fishing, forestry and hydropower. Southland's two principal urban settlements are the town of Gore. Southland covers an area of 28,681 square kilometres; as of June 2018 it had a population of 99,100, making it one of New Zealand's most sparsely populated areas. The sizable western part Fiordland is empty of permanent human inhabitation. Southland is divided into two parliamentary electorates; the large rural electorate of Clutha-Southland, held by Hamish Walker includes some of the neighbouring Otago Region.
The seat of Invercargill is held by Sarah Dowie. Both are members of the opposition National Party. Under the Maori seats system, Southland is part of the large Te Tai Tonga electorate which covers the entire South Island and the surrounding islands, is held by the Labour Party MP Rino Tirikatene. Regional responsibilities are handled by the Southland Regional Council. Three Territorial Authorities fall within Southland; the Invercargill City Council governs Invercargill itself, together with some adjoining rural areas. Much of the remaining area of Southland, including all of Stewart Island/Rakiura, falls within the Southland District, administered by its own Council based in Invercargill; the Gore District Council administers the town of its rural hinterland. In 2001, three authorities created the joint initiative agency Venture Southland, the agency responsible for the region’s economic and community development initiatives and tourism promotion; the region is home to two national parks: Rakiura National Park.
The former which covers 7,860 square kilometres. Southland includes Stewart Island, 85% of, covered by Rakiura National Park. Both parks are administrated by the Department of Conservation. Politically, Southland proper extends from Fiordland in the west past the Mataura River to the Catlins the east. To the north, Southland is framed by the Eyre Mountains. Farther south lies Stewart Island, separated from the mainland by the Foveaux Strait. Southland contains New Zealand's highest waterfall—the Browne Falls. Lake Hauroko is the deepest lake in the country; the highest peak in Southland is Mount Tutoko, part of the Darran mountains. The largest lake in Southland is Lake Te Anau followed by Lake Manapouri which both lie within the boundaries of Fiordland National Park. Established on 20 February 1905, it is the largest national park in New Zealand—covering much of Fiordland, devoid of human settlement. Fiordland's terrain is dominated by mountains and glacial lakes carved up by glaciations during the last ice age, between 75,000 to 15,000 years ago.
The region's coast is dotted by several fjords and other sea inlets which stretch from Milford Sound in the north to Preservation Inlet to the south. Farther north and east of Fiordland lie the Darran and Eyre Mountains which are part of the block of schist that extends into neighboring Central Otago. Farther east of the Waiau River, the Southland Plains predominate which include some of New Zealand's most fertile farmlands; the region's two principal settlements Gore are located on the plains. The Plains extend from the Waiau River in the west to the Mataura River to the east, it can be divided into three broad areas: the Southland plain proper, the Waimea Plains and the lower Waiau plain to the west near the Waiau river. The southern part of these plains contains much swamp. In the far southeast of Southland rises the rough hill country of The Catlins; this area is divided between Southland and the neighbouring Otago Region, with the largest settlement, being within Otago. The hills of The Catlins form part of a major geological fold system, the Southland Syncline, which extends from the coast northwestward, include the Hokonui Hills above Gore