Fennel is a flowering plant species in the carrot family. It is a perennial herb with yellow flowers and feathery leaves, it is indigenous to the shores of the Mediterranean but has become naturalized in many parts of the world on dry soils near the sea-coast and on riverbanks. It is a aromatic and flavorful herb used in cookery and, along with the similar-tasting anise, is one of the primary ingredients of absinthe. Florence fennel or finocchio is a selection with a swollen, bulb-like stem base, used as a vegetable. Fennel is used as a food plant by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including in its native range the mouse moth and the Old-World swallowtail. Where it has been introduced in North America it may be used by the anise swallowtail; the word "fennel" aka "saunf" developed from the Middle English fenyl. This came from the Old English fenol or finol, which in turn came from the Latin feniculum or foeniculum, the diminutive of fenum or faenum, meaning "hay"; the Latin word for the plant was ferula, now used as the genus name of a related plant.
Fennel was prized by the ancient Greeks and Romans who used it as medicine and insect repellent. A fennel tea was believed to give courage to the warriors prior to battle. According to Greek mythology, Prometheus used a giant stalk of fennel to carry fire from Olympus to earth. Emperor Charlemagne required the cultivation of fennel on all imperial farms; the Greek name for fennel is marathon or marathos, the place of the famous battle of Marathon means a plain with fennel. The word is first attested in Mycenaean Linear B form as ma-ra-tu-wo; as Old English finule, fennel is one of the nine plants invoked in the pagan Anglo-Saxon Nine Herbs Charm, recorded in the 10th century. In the 15th century, Portuguese settlers on Madeira noticed the abundance of wild fennel, used the Portuguese word funcho and the suffix -al to form the name of a new town, Funchal. Longfellow's 1842 poem "The Goblet of Life" refers to the plant and mentions its purported ability to strengthen eyesight: Above the lower plants it towers, The Fennel with its yellow flowers.
Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a perennial herb. It is erect, glaucous green, grows to heights of up to 2.5 metres, with hollow stems. The leaves grow up to 40 centimetres long; the flowers are produced in terminal compound umbels 5–15 centimetres wide, each umbel section having 20–50 tiny yellow flowers on short pedicels. The fruit is a dry schizocarp from 4–10 millimetres long, half as wide or less, grooved. Since the seed in the fruit is attached to the pericarp, the whole fruit is mistakenly called "seed". Fennel is cultivated, both in its native range and elsewhere, for its edible flavored leaves and fruits, its aniseed flavor comes from anethole, an aromatic compound found in anise and star anise, its taste and aroma are similar to theirs, though not as strong. Florence fennel is a cultivar group with inflated leaf bases, it is of cultivated origin, has a mild anise-like flavor, but is sweeter and more aromatic. Florence fennel plants are smaller than the wild type; the inflated leaf bases are cooked.
Several cultivars of Florence fennel are known by several other names, notably the Italian name finocchio. In North American supermarkets, it is mislabeled as "anise". Foeniculum vulgare'Purpureum' or'Nigra', "bronze-leaved" fennel, is available as a decorative garden plant. Fennel has become naturalized along roadsides, in pastures, in other open sites in many regions, including northern Europe, the United States, southern Canada, much of Asia and Australia, it propagates well by seed, is considered an invasive species and a weed in Australia and the United States. In western North America, fennel can be found from the coastal and inland wildland-urban interface east into hill and mountain areas, excluding desert habitats. Florence fennel is one of the three main herbs used in the preparation of absinthe, an alcoholic mixture which originated as a medicinal elixir in Switzerland and became, by the late 19th century, a popular alcoholic drink in France and other countries. Fennel fruit is used in the production of akvavit.
A 100-gram portion of fennel fruits provides 1,440 kilojoules of food energy, it is a rich source of protein, dietary fiber, B vitamins and several dietary minerals calcium, iron and manganese, all of which exceed 100% DV. Fennel fruits are 15 % fat, 40 % dietary fiber, 16 % protein and 9 % water; the bulb and fruits of the fennel plant are used in many of the culinary traditions of the world. The small flowers of wild fennel are the most potent form of fennel, but the most expensive. Dried fennel fruit is an aromatic, anise-flavored spice, brown or green in color when fresh turning a dull grey as the fruit ages. For cooking, green fruits are optimal; the leaves are delicately similar in shape to those of dill. The bulb is a crisp vegetable that can be sautéed, braised, grilled, or eaten raw. Young tender leaves are used for garnishes, as a salad, to add flavor to salads, to flavor sauces to be served with puddings, in soups and
Through the Looking-Glass
Through the Looking-Glass, What Alice Found There is a novel by Lewis Carroll and the sequel to Alice's Adventures in Wonderland. Alice again enters a fantastical world, this time by climbing through a mirror into the world that she can see beyond it. There she finds that, just like a reflection, everything is reversed, including logic Through the Looking-Glass includes such verses as "Jabberwocky" and "The Walrus and the Carpenter", the episode involving Tweedledum and Tweedledee; the mirror which inspired Carroll remains displayed in Charlton Kings. Chapter One – Looking-Glass House: Alice is playing with a white kitten and a black kitten when she ponders what the world is like on the other side of a mirror's reflection. Climbing up onto the fireplace mantel, she pokes at the wall-hung mirror behind the fireplace and discovers, to her surprise, that she is able to step through it to an alternative world. In this reflected version of her own house, she finds a book with looking-glass poetry, "Jabberwocky", whose reversed printing she can read only by holding it up to the mirror.
She observes that the chess pieces have come to life, though they remain small enough for her to pick up. Chapter Two – The Garden of Live Flowers: Upon leaving the house, she enters a sunny spring garden where the flowers can speak. Elsewhere in the garden, Alice meets the Red Queen, now human-sized, who impresses Alice with her ability to run at breathtaking speeds. Chapter Three – Looking-Glass Insects: The Red Queen reveals to Alice that the entire countryside is laid out in squares, like a gigantic chessboard, offers to make Alice a queen if she can move all the way to the eighth rank/row in a chess match. Alice is placed in the second rank as one of the White Queen's pawns, begins her journey across the chessboard by boarding a train that jumps over the third row and directly into the fourth rank, thus acting on the rule that pawns can advance two spaces on their first move, she arrives in a forest where a depressed gnat teaches her about the looking glass insects, strange creatures part bug part object, before flying away sadly.
Alice continues her journey and along the way, crosses the "wood where things have no names". There she forgets all nouns, including her own name. With the help of a fawn who has forgotten his identity, she makes it to the other side, where they both remember everything. Realizing that he is a fawn, she is a human, that fawns are afraid of humans, it runs off. Chapter Four – Tweedledum and Tweedledee: She meets the fat twin brothers Tweedledum and Tweedledee, who she knows from the nursery rhyme. After reciting the long poem "The Walrus and the Carpenter", they draw Alice's attention to the Red King—loudly snoring away under a nearby tree—and maliciously provoke her with idle philosophical banter that she exists only as an imaginary figure in the Red King's dreams; the brothers begin suiting up for battle, only to be frightened away by an enormous crow, as the nursery rhyme about them predicts. Chapter Five – Wool and Water: Alice next meets the White Queen, absent-minded but boasts of her ability to remember future events before they have happened.
Alice and the White Queen advance into the chessboard's fifth rank by crossing over a brook together, but at the moment of the crossing, the Queen transforms into a talking Sheep in a small shop. Alice soon finds herself struggling to handle the oars of a small rowboat, where the Sheep annoys her with nonsensical shouting about "crabs" and "feathers". Chapter Six – Humpty Dumpty: After crossing yet another brook into the sixth rank, Alice encounters Humpty Dumpty, besides celebrating his unbirthday, provides his own translation of the strange terms in "Jabberwocky". In the process, he introduces Alice to the concept of portmanteau words, before his inevitable fall. Chapter Seven – The Lion and the Unicorn: "All the king's horses and all the king's men" come to Humpty Dumpty's assistance, are accompanied by the White King, along with the Lion and the Unicorn, who again proceed to act out a nursery rhyme by fighting with each other. In this chapter, the March Hare and Hatter of the first book make a brief re-appearance in the guise of "Anglo-Saxon messengers" called "Haigha" and "Hatta".
Chapter Eight – "It's my own Invention": Upon leaving the Lion and Unicorn to their fight, Alice reaches the seventh rank by crossing another brook into the forested territory of the Red Knight, intent on capturing the "white pawn"—Alice—until the White Knight comes to her rescue. Escorting her through the forest towards the final brook-crossing, the Knight recites a long poem of his own composition called Haddocks' Eyes, falls off his horse. Chapter Nine – Queen Alice: Bidding farewell to the White Knight, Alice steps across the last brook, is automatically crowned a queen, with the crown materialising abruptly on her head, she soon finds herself in the company of both the White and Red Queens, who relentlessly confound Alice by using word play to thwart her attempts at logical discussion. They invite one another to a party that will be hosted by the newly crowned Alice—of which Alice herself had no prior knowledge. Chapter Ten – Shaking: Alice arrives and seats herself at her own party, which turns into chaos.
A grape is a fruit, botanically a berry, of the deciduous woody vines of the flowering plant genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten fresh as table grapes or they can be used for making wine, juice, grape seed extract, raisins and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit occurring in clusters; the cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East. Yeast, one of the earliest domesticated microorganisms, occurs on the skins of grapes, leading to the discovery of alcoholic drinks such as wine; the earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia. The oldest known winery was found in Armenia, dating to around 4000 BC. By the 9th century AD the city of Shiraz was known to produce some of the finest wines in the Middle East, thus it has been proposed that Syrah red wine is named after Shiraz, a city in Persia where the grape was used to make Shirazi wine. Ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics record the cultivation of purple grapes, history attests to the ancient Greeks and Romans growing purple grapes for both eating and wine production.
The growing of grapes would spread to other regions in Europe, as well as North Africa, in North America. In North America, native grapes belonging to various species of the genus Vitis proliferate in the wild across the continent, were a part of the diet of many Native Americans, but were considered by early European colonists to be unsuitable for wine. In the 19th century, Ephraim Bull of Concord, cultivated seeds from wild Vitis labrusca vines to create the Concord grape which would become an important agricultural crop in the United States. Grapes are a type of fruit that grow in clusters of 15 to 300, can be crimson, dark blue, green and pink. "White" grapes are green in color, are evolutionarily derived from the purple grape. Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes. Anthocyanins and other pigment chemicals of the larger family of polyphenols in purple grapes are responsible for the varying shades of purple in red wines.
Grapes are an ellipsoid shape resembling a prolate spheroid. Most grapes come from cultivars of Vitis vinifera, the European grapevine native to the Mediterranean and Central Asia. Minor amounts of fruit and wine come from American and Asian species such as: Vitis amurensis, the most important Asian species Vitis labrusca, the North American table and grape juice grapevines, sometimes used for wine, are native to the Eastern United States and Canada. Vitis mustangensis, found in Mississippi, Louisiana and Oklahoma Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam, it is native to the entire Eastern U. S. and north to Quebec. Vitis rotundifolia used for jams and wine, are native to the Southeastern United States from Delaware to the Gulf of Mexico. According to the Food and Agriculture Organization, 75,866 square kilometers of the world are dedicated to grapes. 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, 2% as dried fruit. A portion of grape production goes to producing grape juice to be reconstituted for fruits canned "with no added sugar" and "100% natural".
The area dedicated to vineyards is increasing by about 2% per year. There are no reliable statistics, it is believed that the most planted variety is Sultana known as Thompson Seedless, with at least 3,600 km2 dedicated to it. The second most common variety is Airén. Other popular varieties include Cabernet Sauvignon, Sauvignon blanc, Cabernet Franc, Grenache, Tempranillo and Chardonnay. Commercially cultivated grapes can be classified as either table or wine grapes, based on their intended method of consumption: eaten raw or used to make wine. While all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding. Table grape cultivars tend to have large, seedless fruit with thin skin. Wine grapes are smaller seeded, have thick skins. Wine grapes tend to be sweet: they are harvested at the time when their juice is 24% sugar by weight. By comparison, commercially produced "100% grape juice", made from table grapes, is around 15% sugar by weight.
Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings. Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction, it is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques. There are several sources of the seedlessness trait, all commercial cultivators get it from one of three sources: Thompson Seedless, Russian Seedless, Black Monukka, all being cultivars of Vitis vinifera. There are more than a dozen varieties of seedless grapes. Several, such as Einset Seedless, Benjamin Gunnels's Prime seedless grapes and Venus, have been cultivated for hardiness and quality in the cold climates of northeastern United States and southern Ontario. An offset to the improved eating quality of seedlessness is the loss of potential health benefits provided by the enriched phytochemical conten
Drinking games are games which involve the consumption of alcoholic beverages. Evidence of the existence of drinking games dates back to antiquity. Drinking games have been banned at some institutions colleges and universities. Kottabos is one of the earliest known drinking games from ancient Greece, dated to the 5th to 4th centuries BC. Players would use dregs to hit targets across the room with their wine. There were special prizes and penalties for one's performance in the game. Drinking games were enjoyed in ancient China incorporating the use of dice or verbal exchange of riddles. During the Tang Dynasty, the Chinese used a silver canister where written lots could be drawn that designated which player had to drink and how much. There were drinking game referee officials, including a'registrar of the rules' who knew all the rules to the game, a'registrar of the horn' who tossed a silver flag down on calling out second offenses, a'governor' who decided one's third call of offense; these referees were used for maintaining order and for reviewing faults that could be punished with a player drinking a penalty cup.
If a guest was considered a'coward' for dropping out of the game, he could be branded as a'deserter' and not invited back to further drinking bouts. There was another game where little puppets and dolls dressed as western foreigners with blue eyes were set up and when one fell over, the person it pointed to had to empty his cup of wine. Drinking games in 19th century Germany included Bierskat, Elfern and Quodlibet, as well as Schlauch and Laubober which may well be the same game as Grasobern, but the "crown of all drinking games" was one with distinctive name: Cerevis. One feature of the game was. So the cards were called'spoons', the Sevens were'Septembers' and the Aces were the'Juveniles'. A player who used the normal names was penalised. Everytime a card was played, it was supposed to be accompanied by humorous words, so if a Jack or Unter was played, the player might say something like "my merry Unterkasser" or "long live my Unterkasser". If his opponent beat it, he might say "hang the Unterkasser".
The loser had to chalk up a figure such as a swallow, a wheel or a pair of scissors depending on the number of minus points gained and was only allowed to erase them once he had drunk the associated amount of beer. The simplest drinking games are endurance games. Players take turns taking shots, the last person standing is the winner; some games have rules involving the "cascade", "fountain" or "waterfall", which encourages each player to drink from their cup so long as the player before him does not stop drinking. Such games can favor speed over quantity, in which players race to drink a case of beer the fastest. Drinking large amounts will be combined with a stylistic element or an abnormal method of drinking, as with the boot of beer, yard of ale or a keg stand. Tolerance games are about seeing which player can last the longest, it can be as simple as two people matching each other drink for drink until one of the participants "passes out". Power hour and its variant, fall under this category.
Many pub or bar games involve competitive drinking for speed. Examples of such drinking games are Edward Fortyhands, boat races, beer bonging, flippy cup, yard; some say that the most important skill to improving speed is to relax and take fewer but larger gulps. There are a variety of individual tactics to accomplishing this, such as bending the knees in anticipation, or when drinking from a plastic cup, squeezing the sides of the cup to form a more perfect funnel. Athletic races involving alcohol including the beer mile, which consists of a mile run with a can of beer consumed before each of the four laps. A variant is known in German speaking countries as Bierkastenlauf where a team of two carries a crate of beer along a route of several kilometers and must consume all of the bottles prior to crossing the finish line; some party and pub games focus on the performance of a particular act of skill, rather than on either the amount a participant drinks or the speed with which they do so. Examples include beer pong, chandeliers, polish horseshoes and beer darts.
Pub Golf involves pub crawling together. Thinking games rely on the players' powers of observation, recollection and articulation. Numerous types of thinking games exist, including Think or Drink, 21, beer checkers, bizz buzz, saved by the bell, tourettes, never have I roman numerals, fuzzy duck, wine games, Zoom Schwartz Profigliano. Trivia games, such as Trivial Pursuit, are sometimes played as drinking games. Drinking games involving cards are president, Kings, liar's poker, Ring of Fire, ride the bus and Black or Red. Dice games include beer die, kinito, liar's dice, mia, 15, pounce!, ship and crew, three man. Movie drinking games are played while watching a movie and have a set of rules for who drinks when and how much based on on-screen even
Charles I of England
Charles I was the monarch over the three kingdoms of England and Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. Charles was born into the House of Stuart as the second son of King James VI of Scotland, but after his father inherited the English throne in 1603, he moved to England, where he spent much of the rest of his life, he became heir apparent to the thrones of England and Ireland on the death of his elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, in 1612. An unsuccessful and unpopular attempt to marry him to the Spanish Habsburg princess Maria Anna culminated in an eight-month visit to Spain in 1623 that demonstrated the futility of the marriage negotiations. Two years he married the Bourbon princess Henrietta Maria of France instead. After his succession, Charles quarrelled with the Parliament of England, which sought to curb his royal prerogative. Charles believed in the divine right of kings, was determined to govern according to his own conscience. Many of his subjects opposed his policies, in particular the levying of taxes without parliamentary consent, perceived his actions as those of a tyrannical absolute monarch.
His religious policies, coupled with his marriage to a Roman Catholic, generated the antipathy and mistrust of Reformed groups such as the English Puritans and Scottish Covenanters, who thought his views were too Catholic. He supported high church Anglican ecclesiastics, such as Richard Montagu and William Laud, failed to aid Protestant forces during the Thirty Years' War, his attempts to force the Church of Scotland to adopt high Anglican practices led to the Bishops' Wars, strengthened the position of the English and Scottish parliaments, helped precipitate his own downfall. From 1642, Charles fought the armies of the English and Scottish parliaments in the English Civil War. After his defeat in 1645, he surrendered to a Scottish force that handed him over to the English Parliament. Charles refused to accept his captors' demands for a constitutional monarchy, temporarily escaped captivity in November 1647. Re-imprisoned on the Isle of Wight, Charles forged an alliance with Scotland, but by the end of 1648 Oliver Cromwell's New Model Army had consolidated its control over England.
Charles was tried and executed for high treason in January 1649. The monarchy was abolished and a republic called the Commonwealth of England was declared; the monarchy would be restored to Charles's son, Charles II, in 1660. The second son of King James VI of Scotland and Anne of Denmark, Charles was born in Dunfermline Palace, Fife, on 19 November 1600. At a Protestant ceremony in the Chapel Royal of Holyrood Palace in Edinburgh on 23 December 1600, he was baptised by David Lindsay, Bishop of Ross, created Duke of Albany, the traditional title of the second son of the King of Scotland, with the subsidiary titles of Marquess of Ormond, Earl of Ross and Lord Ardmannoch. James VI was the first cousin twice removed of Queen Elizabeth I of England, when she died childless in March 1603, he became King of England as James I. Charles was a weak and sickly infant, while his parents and older siblings left for England in April and early June that year, due to his fragile health, he remained in Scotland with his father's friend Lord Fyvie, appointed as his guardian.
By 1604, when Charles was three-and-a-half, he was able to walk the length of the great hall at Dunfermline Palace without assistance, it was decided that he was strong enough to make the journey to England to be reunited with his family. In mid-July 1604, Charles left Dunfermline for England where he was to spend most of the rest of his life. In England, Charles was placed under the charge of Elizabeth, Lady Carey, the wife of courtier Sir Robert Carey, who put him in boots made of Spanish leather and brass to help strengthen his weak ankles, his speech development was slow, he retained a stammer, or hesitant speech, for the rest of his life. In January 1605, Charles was created Duke of York, as is customary in the case of the English sovereign's second son, made a Knight of the Bath. Thomas Murray, a presbyterian Scot, was appointed as a tutor. Charles learnt the usual subjects of classics, languages and religion. In 1611, he was made a Knight of the Garter. Charles conquered his physical infirmity, which might have been caused by rickets.
He became an adept horseman and marksman, took up fencing. So, his public profile remained low in contrast to that of his physically stronger and taller elder brother, Henry Frederick, Prince of Wales, whom Charles adored and attempted to emulate. However, in early November 1612, Henry died at the age of 18 of what is suspected to have been typhoid. Charles, who turned 12 two weeks became heir apparent; as the eldest surviving son of the sovereign, Charles automatically gained several titles. Four years in November 1616, he was created Prince of Wales and Earl of Chester. In 1613, his sister Elizabeth married Frederick V, Elector Palatine, moved to Heidelberg. In 1617, the Habsburg Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, a Catholic, was elected king of Bohemia; the following year, the Bohemians rebelled. In August 1619, the Bohemian diet chose as their monarch Frederick V, leader of the Protestant Union, while Ferdinand was elected Holy Roman Emperor in the imperial election. Frederick's acceptance of the Bohemian crown in defiance of the emperor marked the beginning of the turmoil that would develop into the Thirty Years' War.
The conflict confined to Bohemia, spiralled into a wider European war, which the English Parliament and public grew to see
Love's Labour's Lost
Love's Labour's Lost is one of William Shakespeare's early comedies, believed to have been written in the mid-1590s for a performance at the Inns of Court before Queen Elizabeth I. It follows the King of Navarre and his three companions as they attempt to swear off the company of women for three years of study and fasting, their subsequent infatuation with the Princess of France and her ladies makes them forsworn. In an untraditional ending for a comedy, the play closes with the death of the Princess's father, all weddings are delayed for a year; the play draws on themes of masculine love and desire and rationalisation, reality versus fantasy. Though first published in quarto in 1598, the play's title page suggests a revision of an earlier version of the play. While there are no obvious sources for the play's plot, the four main characters are loosely based on historical figures; the use of apostrophes in the play's title varies in early editions, though it is most given as Love's Labour's Lost.
The historical personages portrayed and the political situation in Europe relating to the setting and action of the play were familiar to Shakespeare's audiences. Scholars suggest that the play lost popularity as these historical and political portrayals of Navarre's court became dated and less accessible to theatergoers of generations; the play's sophisticated wordplay, pedantic humour and dated literary allusions may be reasons for its relative obscurity, as compared with Shakespeare's more popular works. Love's Labour's Lost was staged in the 19th century, but it has been seen more in the 20th and 21st centuries, with productions by both the Royal Shakespeare Company and the National Theatre, among others, it has been adapted as a musical, an opera, for radio and television and as a musical film. Love's Labour's Lost features the longest scene, the longest single word'honorificabilitudinitatibus', the longest speech in all of Shakespeare's plays. Ferdinand, King of Navarre, his three noble companions, the Lords Berowne and Longaville, take an oath not to give in to the company of women.
They devote themselves to three years of fasting. The King declares. Don Adriano de Armado, a Spaniard visiting the court, comes to tell the King of a tryst between Costard and Jaquenetta. After the King sentences Costard, Don Armado confesses his own love for Jaquenetta to his page, Moth. Don Armado asks Costard to deliver it; the Princess of France and her ladies arrive, wishing to speak to the King regarding the cession of Aquitaine, but must make their camp outside the court due to the decree. In visiting the Princess and her ladies at their camp, the King falls in love with the Princess, as do the lords with the ladies. Berowne gives Costard a letter to deliver to the lady Rosaline, which Costard switches with Don Armado's letter, meant for Jaquenetta. Jaquenetta consults two scholars and Sir Nathaniel, who conclude that the letter is written by Berowne and instruct her to tell the King; the King and his lords lie in hiding and watch one another as each subsequently reveals their feelings of love.
The King chastises the lords for breaking the oath, but Berowne reveals that the King is in love with the Princess. Jaquenetta and Costard accuse him of treason. Berowne confesses to breaking the oath, explaining that the only study worthy of mankind is that of love, he and the other men collectively decide to relinquish the vow. Arranging for Holofernes to entertain the ladies the men dress as Muscovites and court the ladies in disguise; the Queen's courtier Boyet, having overheard their planning, helps the ladies trick the men by disguising themselves as each other. When the lords return as themselves, the ladies expose their ruse. Impressed by the ladies' wit, the men apologize, when all identities are righted, they watch Holofernes, Sir Nathaniel, Costard and Don Armado present the Nine Worthies; the four lords and Boyet heckle the play, saving their sole praise for Costard, Don Armado and Costard come to blows when Costard reveals mid-pageant that Don Armado has got Jaquenetta pregnant. Their spat is interrupted by news.
The Princess makes plans to leave at once, she and her ladies, readying for mourning, declare that the men must wait a year and a day to prove their loves lasting. Don Armado announces he will swear a similar oath to Jaquenetta and presents the nobles with a song. Love's Labour's Lost is, along with Shakespeare's The Tempest, a play without any obvious sources; some possible influences on Love's Labour's Lost can be found in the early plays of John Lyly, Robert Wilson's The Cobbler's Prophecy and Pierre de la Primaudaye's L'Academie française. Michael Dobson and Stanley Wells comment that it has been conjectured that the plot derives from "a now lost account of a diplomatic visit made to Henry in 1578 by Catherine de Medici and her daughter Marguerite de Valois, Henry's estranged wife, to discuss the future of Aquitaine, but this is by no means certain." The four main male characters are all loosely based on historical figures. Biron in particular was well known in England because Robert Devereux, 2nd Earl of Essex, had joined forces with Biron's army in support o
William Shakespeare was an English poet and actor regarded as the greatest writer in the English language and the world's greatest dramatist. He is called England's national poet and the "Bard of Avon", his extant works, including collaborations, consist of 39 plays, 154 sonnets, two long narrative poems, a few other verses, some of uncertain authorship. His plays have been translated into every major living language and are performed more than those of any other playwright. Shakespeare was raised in Stratford-upon-Avon, Warwickshire. At the age of 18, he married Anne Hathaway, with whom he had three children: Susanna and twins Hamnet and Judith. Sometime between 1585 and 1592, he began a successful career in London as an actor and part-owner of a playing company called the Lord Chamberlain's Men known as the King's Men. At age 49, he appears to have retired to Stratford. Few records of Shakespeare's private life survive; such theories are criticised for failing to adequately note that few records survive of most commoners of the period.
Shakespeare produced most of his known works between 1589 and 1613. His early plays were comedies and histories and are regarded as some of the best work produced in these genres; until about 1608, he wrote tragedies, among them Hamlet, King Lear, Macbeth, all considered to be among the finest works in the English language. In the last phase of his life, he collaborated with other playwrights. Many of Shakespeare's plays were published in editions of varying quality and accuracy in his lifetime. However, in 1623, two fellow actors and friends of Shakespeare's, John Heminges and Henry Condell, published a more definitive text known as the First Folio, a posthumous collected edition of Shakespeare's dramatic works that included all but two of his plays; the volume was prefaced with a poem by Ben Jonson, in which Jonson presciently hails Shakespeare in a now-famous quote as "not of an age, but for all time". Throughout the 20th and 21st centuries, Shakespeare's works have been continually adapted and rediscovered by new movements in scholarship and performance.
His plays remain popular and are studied and reinterpreted through various cultural and political contexts around the world. William Shakespeare was the son of John Shakespeare, an alderman and a successful glover from Snitterfield, Mary Arden, the daughter of an affluent landowning farmer, he was born in Stratford-upon-Avon and baptised there on 26 April 1564. His actual date of birth remains unknown, but is traditionally observed on 23 April, Saint George's Day; this date, which can be traced to a mistake made by an 18th-century scholar, has proved appealing to biographers because Shakespeare died on the same date in 1616. He was the third of eight children, the eldest surviving son. Although no attendance records for the period survive, most biographers agree that Shakespeare was educated at the King's New School in Stratford, a free school chartered in 1553, about a quarter-mile from his home. Grammar schools varied in quality during the Elizabethan era, but grammar school curricula were similar: the basic Latin text was standardised by royal decree, the school would have provided an intensive education in grammar based upon Latin classical authors.
At the age of 18, Shakespeare married 26-year-old Anne Hathaway. The consistory court of the Diocese of Worcester issued a marriage licence on 27 November 1582; the next day, two of Hathaway's neighbours posted bonds guaranteeing that no lawful claims impeded the marriage. The ceremony may have been arranged in some haste since the Worcester chancellor allowed the marriage banns to be read once instead of the usual three times, six months after the marriage Anne gave birth to a daughter, baptised 26 May 1583. Twins, son Hamnet and daughter Judith, followed two years and were baptised 2 February 1585. Hamnet died of unknown causes at the age of 11 and was buried 11 August 1596. After the birth of the twins, Shakespeare left few historical traces until he is mentioned as part of the London theatre scene in 1592; the exception is the appearance of his name in the "complaints bill" of a law case before the Queen's Bench court at Westminster dated Michaelmas Term 1588 and 9 October 1589. Scholars refer to the years between 1585 and 1592 as Shakespeare's "lost years".
Biographers attempting to account for this period have reported many apocryphal stories. Nicholas Rowe, Shakespeare's first biographer, recounted a Stratford legend that Shakespeare fled the town for London to escape prosecution for deer poaching in the estate of local squire Thomas Lucy. Shakespeare is supposed to have taken his revenge on Lucy by writing a scurrilous ballad about him. Another 18th-century story has Shakespeare starting his theatrical career minding the horses of theatre patrons in London. John Aubrey reported; some 20th-century scholars have suggested that Shakespeare may have been employed as a schoolmaster by Alexander Hoghton of Lancashire, a Catholic landowner who named a certain "William Shakeshafte" in his will. Little evidence substantiates such stories other than hearsay collected after his death, Shakeshafte was a common name in the Lancashire area, it is not known definitively when Shakespeare began writing, but contemporary allusions and records of performances show that several of