East Midlands Ambulance Service
East Midlands Ambulance Service National Health Service Trust provides emergency 999, urgent care and patient transport services for the 4.8 million people within the East Midlands region of the UK - covering Nottinghamshire, Leicestershire, Rutland and Northamptonshire. In 2016/17 EMAS received over 938,837 emergency 999 calls with ambulance clinicians dispatched to 653,215 incidents. EMAS employs about 3,290 staff at more than 70 locations, including two control rooms at Nottingham and Lincoln - the largest staff group are those who provide accident and emergency responses to 999 calls. In 2013 EMAS took on 140 new emergency care assistants. In 2014 EMAS announced. In 2010 − 11 EMAS missed key performance targets after a cold spell brought ice. By June 2015 EMAS had failed to meet their category 1 response times for the fifth successive year. EMAS provided patient transport services until contracts worth £20 million per year were taken over in 2012 by two private sector companies. In 2012−13 EMAS had a budget of £148 million.
The Trust spent £4.3 million on voluntary and private ambulance services in 2013−14 for support in busy periods. In 2015 the service faced a drop in funding of around £6 million a year. In October 2014 the Trust decided to spend £88,000 on upgrading its computer equipment. In 2018 the trust said it would need an extra £20 million a year to meet the new ambulance performance standards. Emergency medical services in the United Kingdom Official website
Automated teller machine
An automated teller machine is an electronic telecommunications device that enables customers of financial institutions to perform financial transactions, such as cash withdrawals, transfer funds, or obtaining account information, at any time and without the need for direct interaction with bank staff. ATMs are known by a variety of names, including automatic teller machine in the United States redundantly ATM machine, automated banking machine. Although ABM is used in Canada, ATM is still commonly used in Canada and many Canadian organizations use ATM over ABM. In British English, the terms cash point, cash machine, "hole in the wall" are most used. Other terms include any time money, nibank, tyme machine, cash dispenser, bankomat or bancomat. Many ATMs have a sign above them, indicating the name of the bank or organisation that owns the ATM, including the networks to which it can connect. In Canada, ABMs that are not operated by a financial institution are known as "white-label ABMs". According to the ATM Industry Association, there are now close to 3.5 million ATMs installed worldwide.
However, the use of ATMs in Australia is declining – most notably in retail precincts. On most modern ATMs, customers are identified by inserting a plastic ATM card into the ATM, with authentication being by the customer entering a personal identification number, which must match the PIN stored in the chip on the card, or in the issuing financial institution's database. Using an ATM, customers can access their bank deposit or credit accounts in order to make a variety of financial transactions such as cash withdrawals, check balances, or credit mobile phones. ATMs can be used to withdraw cash in a foreign country. If the currency being withdrawn from the ATM is different from that in which the bank account is denominated, the money will be converted at the financial institution's exchange rate; the idea of out-of-hours cash distribution developed from bankers' needs in Japan, the United Kingdom, the United States. Little is known of the Japanese device other than that it was called "Computer Loan Machine" and supplied cash as a three-month loan at 5% p.a. after inserting a credit card.
The device was operational in 1966. Adrian Ashfield invented the basic idea of a card combining the key and user's identity in February 1962; this was granted UK Patent 959,713 for "Access Controller" in June 1964 and assigned to W. S. Atkins & Partners who employed Ashfield, he was paid ten shillings for the standard sum for all patents. It was intended to dispense petrol but the patent covered all uses. In the US patent record, Luther George Simjian has been credited with developing a "prior art device", his 132nd patent, first filed on 30 June 1960. The roll-out of this machine, called Bankograph, was delayed by a couple of years, due in part to Simjian's Reflectone Electronics Inc. being acquired by Universal Match Corporation. An experimental Bankograph was installed in New York City in 1961 by the City Bank of New York, but removed after six months due to the lack of customer acceptance; the Bankograph did not have cash dispensing features. It is accepted that the first cash machine was put into use by Barclays Bank in its Enfield Town branch in North London, United Kingdom, on 27 June 1967.
This machine was inaugurated by English comedy actor Reg Varney. This instance of the invention is credited to the engineering team led by John Shepherd-Barron of printing firm De La Rue, awarded an OBE in the 2005 New Year Honours. Transactions were initiated by inserting paper cheques issued by a teller or cashier, marked with carbon-14 for machine readability and security, which in a model were matched with a six-digit personal identification number. Shepherd-Barron stated "It struck me there must be a way I could get my own money, anywhere in the world or the UK. I hit upon the idea of a chocolate bar dispenser, but replacing chocolate with cash."The Barclays–De La Rue machine beat the Swedish saving banks' and a company called Metior's machine by a mere nine days and Westminster Bank's–Smith Industries–Chubb system by a month. The online version of the Swedish machine is listed to have been operational on 6 May 1968, while claiming to be the first online ATM in the world; the collaboration of a small start-up called Speytec and Midland Bank developed a fourth machine, marketed after 1969 in Europe and the US by the Burroughs Corporation.
The patent for this device was filed in September 1969 by John David Edwards, Leonard Perkins, John Henry Donald, Peter Lee Chappell, Sean Benjamin Newcombe, Malcom David Roe. Both the DACS and MD2 accepted only a single-use token or voucher, retained by the machine, while the Speytec worked with a card with a magnetic stripe at the back, they used principles including Carbon-14 and low-coercivity magnetism in order to make fraud more difficult. The idea of a PIN stored on the card was developed by a group of engineers working at Smiths Group on the Chubb MD2 in 1965 and, credited to James Goodfellow; the essence of this system was that it enable
The United Kingdom the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, sometimes referred to as Britain, is a sovereign country located off the north-western coast of the European mainland. The United Kingdom includes the island of Great Britain, the north-eastern part of the island of Ireland, many smaller islands. Northern Ireland is the only part of the United Kingdom that shares a land border with another sovereign state, the Republic of Ireland. Apart from this land border, the United Kingdom is surrounded by the Atlantic Ocean, with the North Sea to the east, the English Channel to the south and the Celtic Sea to the south-west, giving it the 12th-longest coastline in the world; the Irish Sea lies between Great Ireland. With an area of 242,500 square kilometres, the United Kingdom is the 78th-largest sovereign state in the world, it is the 22nd-most populous country, with an estimated 66.0 million inhabitants in 2017. The UK is constitutional monarchy; the current monarch is Queen Elizabeth II, who has reigned since 1952, making her the longest-serving current head of state.
The United Kingdom's capital and largest city is London, a global city and financial centre with an urban area population of 10.3 million. Other major urban areas in the UK include Greater Manchester, the West Midlands and West Yorkshire conurbations, Greater Glasgow and the Liverpool Built-up Area; the United Kingdom consists of four constituent countries: England, Scotland and Northern Ireland. Their capitals are London, Edinburgh and Belfast, respectively. Apart from England, the countries have their own devolved governments, each with varying powers, but such power is delegated by the Parliament of the United Kingdom, which may enact laws unilaterally altering or abolishing devolution; the nearby Isle of Man, Bailiwick of Guernsey and Bailiwick of Jersey are not part of the UK, being Crown dependencies with the British Government responsible for defence and international representation. The medieval conquest and subsequent annexation of Wales by the Kingdom of England, followed by the union between England and Scotland in 1707 to form the Kingdom of Great Britain, the union in 1801 of Great Britain with the Kingdom of Ireland created the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
Five-sixths of Ireland seceded from the UK in 1922, leaving the present formulation of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. There are fourteen British Overseas Territories, the remnants of the British Empire which, at its height in the 1920s, encompassed a quarter of the world's land mass and was the largest empire in history. British influence can be observed in the language and political systems of many of its former colonies; the United Kingdom is a developed country and has the world's fifth-largest economy by nominal GDP and ninth-largest economy by purchasing power parity. It has a high-income economy and has a high Human Development Index rating, ranking 14th in the world, it was the world's first industrialised country and the world's foremost power during the 19th and early 20th centuries. The UK remains a great power, with considerable economic, military and political influence internationally, it is sixth in military expenditure in the world. It has been a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council since its first session in 1946.
It has been a leading member state of the European Union and its predecessor, the European Economic Community, since 1973. The United Kingdom is a member of the Commonwealth of Nations, the Council of Europe, the G7, the G20, NATO, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development and the World Trade Organization; the 1707 Acts of Union declared that the kingdoms of England and Scotland were "United into One Kingdom by the Name of Great Britain". The term "United Kingdom" has been used as a description for the former kingdom of Great Britain, although its official name from 1707 to 1800 was "Great Britain"; the Acts of Union 1800 united the kingdom of Great Britain and the kingdom of Ireland in 1801, forming the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. Following the partition of Ireland and the independence of the Irish Free State in 1922, which left Northern Ireland as the only part of the island of Ireland within the United Kingdom, the name was changed to the "United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland".
Although the United Kingdom is a sovereign country, Scotland and Northern Ireland are widely referred to as countries. The UK Prime Minister's website has used the phrase "countries within a country" to describe the United Kingdom; some statistical summaries, such as those for the twelve NUTS 1 regions of the United Kingdom refer to Scotland and Northern Ireland as "regions". Northern Ireland is referred to as a "province". With regard to Northern Ireland, the descriptive name used "can be controversial, with the choice revealing one's political preferences"; the term "Great Britain" conventionally refers to the island of Great Britain, or politically to England and Wales in combination. However, it is sometimes used as a loose synonym for the United Kingdom as a whole; the term "Britain" is used both as a synonym for Great Britain, as a synonym for the United Kingdom. Usage is mixed, with the BBC preferring to use Britain as shorthand only for Great Britain and the UK Government, while accepting that both terms refer to the United K
The National Forest (England)
The National Forest is an environmental project in central England run by The National Forest Company. From the 1990s, 200 square miles of north Leicestershire, south Derbyshire and southeast Staffordshire have been planted in an attempt to blend ancient woodland with newly planted areas to create a new national forest, it stretches from the western outskirts of Leicester in the east to Burton upon Trent in the west, is planned to link the ancient forests of Needwood and Charnwood. In January 2018, the U. K. government unveiled plans to create a new Northern Forest stretching from Liverpool to Hull. It will shadow the path of the east-west M62 motorway; the National Forest Company is a not-for-profit organisation established in April 1995 as a company limited by guarantee. It is supported by the Department for Environment and Rural Affairs, with the aim of converting one third of the land within the boundaries of the National Forest to woodland, by encouraging landowners to alter their land use.
It is described as "a forest in the making" and it is hoped to increase tourism and forestry-related jobs in the area. Around 8.5 million trees have been planted, more than tripling the woodland cover from 6% to 20%. 85% of the trees planted are native broadleaf species. Some of the most planted species are: English oak, poplar, Corsican pine and Scots pine; the transformation of the landscape is beginning to take effect as the first tiny whips planted in the early 1990s are growing into substantial trees. At the centre of the National Forest, is Conkers, a visitor centre located just outside the village of Moira, Leicestershire. There is a visitor centre with wildlife walks and playgrounds at Rosliston. Other attractions include: As well as Ashby de la Zouch, the towns of Burton upon Trent and Coalville are located within the forest area. Reforestation Plant A Tree In'73 Official site Rosliston Forestry Centre Conkers Website
North West Leicestershire
North West Leicestershire is a local government district in Leicestershire, England. The population of the Local Authority at the 2011 census was 93,348, its main towns are Coalville. The district contains East Midlands Airport, which operates flights to the rest of Britain and to various places in Europe, it is notable as the location of Castle Donington and Donington Park, a grand-prix circuit and a major venue for music festivals. The district is represented in the UK Parliament by the constituency of the same name; the area has a long history of mineral extraction, with coal, brick clay and granite amongst the products. All the deep coal mines in the area have closed; the district was formed in 1974 by a merger of Ashby de la Zouch Urban District, Ashby Woulds Urban District, Coalville Urban District, Ashby de la Zouch Rural District, Castle Donington Rural District and Ibstock from the Market Bosworth Rural District. Like many other shire districts, authority over North West Leicestershire is shared between the district council and the county council.
Areas of responsibility of the district council include local planning, building control, council housing, refuse collection and some leisure services and parks. The district council is controlled by 38 councillors who are elected every four years; the current political make-up of the council is as follows: The council has a five-member executive known as the Cabinet, made up of councillors who have special responsibilities and power. As the Conservatives won overall control of the council in 2007, they hold all of the seats on the cabinet. Appleby Magna, Ashby Woulds, Ashby-de-la-Zouch, Belton, Breedon on the Hill Castle Donington, Chilcote, Coleorton Ellistown and Battleflat Heather and Donington le Heath Ibstock Isley cum Langley Kegworth Lockington-Hemington, Long Whatton Measham Normanton le Heath Oakthorpe and Donisthorpe, Osgathorpe Packington Ravenstone with Snibston Snarestone Staunton Harold Stretton en le Field Swannington Swepstone Worthington Whitwick North West Leicestershire has experienced steady population growth in recent times as the district balances the agro-rural economy with the end of labour intensive deep coal-mining.
Alternative employment opportunities exist within the district in the services and distributive sectors, together with local or nearby manufacturing and extractive/transformative/construction industries. The lack of rail services to/from Leicester and other nearby centres limits access for employment and leisure to a road journey that competes with freight and heavy-haulage vehicles to the south and east. Since 2013 Norton Motorcycles has its head office in Castle Donington. BMI, an airline, was headquartered in Donington Hall; the airline moved its headquarters to Donington Hall in 1982. The subsidiary bmibaby had its head office in Donington Hall. Prior to its disestablishment, Excalibur Airways had its head office on the grounds of East Midlands Airport in Castle Donington. Prior to its disestablishment, Orion Airways had its head office on the grounds of East Midlands Airport. In 2011 Coalfield Resources plc were given permission to develop an opencast coal mining pit on the site of the former Minorca colliery between Measham and Swepstone on a seam which will be 1 mi across and extract 1,250,000 tonnes of coal over five years, 250,000 tonnes of clay.
North West Leicestershire
Red telephone box
The red telephone box, a telephone kiosk for a public telephone designed by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, is a familiar sight on the streets of the United Kingdom, Malta and Gibraltar. Despite a reduction in their numbers in recent years, the traditional British red telephone kiosk can still be seen in many places throughout the UK, in current or former British colonies around the world; the colour red was chosen to make them easy to spot. From 1926 onwards, the fascias of the kiosks were emblazoned with a prominent crown, representing the British government; the red phone box is seen as a British cultural icon throughout the world. In 2006 the K2 telephone box was voted one of Britain's top 10 design icons, which included the Mini, Supermarine Spitfire, London tube map, World Wide Web and the AEC Routemaster bus. Although production of the traditional boxes ended with the advent of the KX series in 1985, many still stand in Britain; the first standard public telephone kiosk introduced by the United Kingdom Post Office was produced in concrete in 1920 and was designated K1.
This design was not of the same family as the familiar red telephone boxes. As of 2017, there are six K1 boxes in existence, all of which have been listed at Grade II by Historic England, with two still located on British streets; the first is situated in Trinity Market in Kingston-upon-Hull, the other in Bembridge High Street, Isle of Wight. The red telephone box was the result of a competition in 1924 to design a kiosk that would be acceptable to the London Metropolitan Boroughs which had hitherto resisted the Post Office's effort to erect K1 kiosks on their streets; the Royal Fine Art Commission was instrumental in the choice of the British standard kiosk. Because of widespread dissatisfaction with the GPO's design, the Metropolitan Boroughs Joint Standing Committee organised a competition for a superior one in 1923, but the results were disappointing; the Birmingham Civic Society produced a design of its own—in reinforced concrete—but it was informed by the Director of Telephones that the design produced by the Office of the Engineer-in-Chief was preferred.
The Birmingham Civic Society did not give up and, with additional pressure from the Royal Institute of British Architects, the Town Planning Institute and the Royal Academy, the Postmaster General was forced to think again. The organisers invited entries from three respected architects and, along with the designs from the Post Office and from The Birmingham Civic Society, the Fine Arts Commission judged the competition and selected the design submitted by Sir Giles Gilbert Scott; the invitation had come at the time when Scott had been made a trustee of Sir John Soane's Museum: his design for the competition was in the classical style, but topped with a dome reminiscent of Soane's self-designed mausoleums in St Pancras' Old Churchyard and Dulwich Picture Gallery, London. The original wooden prototypes of the entries were put into public service at under-cover sites around London; that of Scott's design is the only one known to survive and is still where it was placed, in the left entrance arch to the Royal Academy.
The Post Office chose to make Scott's winning design in cast iron and to paint it red and, with other minor changes of detail, it was brought into service as the Kiosk No.2 or K2. From 1926 K2 was deployed in and around London and the K1 continued to be erected elsewhere. K3, introduced in 1929, again by Giles Gilbert Scott, was similar to K2 but was constructed from concrete and intended for nationwide use. Cheaper than the K2, it was still more costly than the K1 and so that remained the choice for low-revenue sites; the standard colour scheme for both the K1 and the K3 was cream, with red glazing bars. A rare surviving K3 kiosk can be seen beside the Penguin Beach exhibit at ZSL London Zoo, where it has been protected from the weather by the projecting eaves and restored to its original colour scheme. There is another in use at Rhynd in Perthshire. K4 incorporated a post box and machines for buying postage stamps on the exterior. Only a single batch of 50 K4 kiosks were built; some contemporary reports said the noise of the stamp-machines in operation disturbed phone-users, the rolls of stamps in the machines became damp and stuck together in wet weather.
This has been repeated but Johannessen chose not to, having found no evidence to support the story. Ten survive with four in public use at Frodsham, Whitley Bay and near Tunstall, East Riding of Yorkshire. A fine example of a K4 may be found outside the station building at Bewdley on the Severn Valley Railway. K5 was a metal-faced plywood construction introduced in 1934 and designed to be assembled and dismantled and used at exhibitions, it is not known how many were produced, there is little evidence they reached more than prototype stage. A detailed replica can be seen at The Avoncroft Museum, as part of the National Telephone Kiosk Collection. In 1935 the K6 was designed to commemorate the silver jubilee of King George V, it was sometimes known as the "Jubilee" kiosk. It went into production in 1936; the K6 was the first red telephone kiosk to be extensively used outside London, many thousands were deployed in every town and city, replacing most of th
A semi-detached house is a single family dwelling house built as one of a pair that share one common wall. Each house's layout is a mirror image of the other. Semi-detached houses are the most common property type in the UK, they account for 32% of UK housing transactions and 32% of the English housing stock as of 2008. Between 1945 and 1964, 41% of all properties built were semis, but after 1980 this fell to 15%. Housing for the farm labourer in 1815 was a one-room shed with an outshot for a scullery and pantry, two bedrooms upstairs; the house would be of stone if it occurred locally, or cob on a wooden frame. They were unsanitary, but the biggest problem was they were too few. Population was increasing, after the enclosure acts, labourers could not find spare land to build their own homes, so it fell to the landowner or the speculative builder. Estate villages followed vernacular patterns, but this changed to adopting model designs from pattern books. By the turn of the 18th century, the landowners chose a "picturesque" style.
They built double cottages as a means of reducing cost. Smith in 1834 wrote "this species of cottage can be built cheaper than two single ones, and, in general, these double cottages are found to be warmer and as comfortable as single ones". While there had been a huge increase in the population of the rural counties there was a greater shift in the population from the impoverished land to the large towns and London. At the same time, society was restructuring, with the labouring classes dividing into artisans and labourers; the cities offered labourers housing in tenement blocks and lodging houses, philanthropic societies turned their attention towards them. The rural "Labourers’ Friend Society expanded in 1844, as a result of the various reports on the housing conditions of the urban working classes, it was reconstituted as the "Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes"; the earlier designs they published had been for semi-detached dwellings but the first properties they built were tenements and lodging houses.
In their 1850 publication'The Dwellings of the Labouring Classes', written by Henry Roberts, there were plans for model'semi-detached'cottages for workers in towns and the city. In 1866 the Metropolitan Association for Improving the Dwellings of the Industrious Classes, founded by Rev Henry Taylor, built Alexander Cottages at Beckenham in Kent, on land provided by the Duke of Westminster; this development comprised 16 pairs of semis but two years they had built 164 semis. In Birmingham and the Potteries there was a tradition dating from the 1790s of artisans saving through mutuals and Friendly Societies. In the 1840s, the permanent building society model was adopted; the Woolwich Equitable was founded in 1847, the Leeds Permanent in 1848 and Bradford Equitable in 1851. Artisans could invest and borrow a sum for a mortgage on their own property. In the wool towns of Yorkshire three families built villages for their workers. In each, there was an hierarchy of houses: houses in long terraces for the worker, larger houses in shorter terraces for the overlookers, semi-detached houses for the junior managers, detached houses for the elite.
The first village was built by Colonel Edward Ackroyd, at Copley, West Yorkshire between 1849–53, the second by Sir Titus Salt, between 1851 and 1861 at Saltaire, the third was the West Hill Park Estate in Halifax built by John Crossley. The model villages in Lancashire came with developments like Houldsworth Village. Semi detached housing in colliery villages was rare; the development of Port Sunlight and Bournville was important. Port Sunlight model village commenced in 1887. William Lever used architects William Owen and his son Segar Owen and stated in 1888 that: "It is my and my brother’s hope, some day, to build houses in which our work-people will be able to live and be comfortable – semi-detached houses with gardens back and front, in which they will be able to know more about the science of life than they can in a back-to-back slumAt Bournville in 1879 the Cadbury development started with a detached house for the manager and six pairs of semis with large gardens for key workers; as it expanded after 1895 the village was made up of short terraces.
Cadbury fulfilled the dreams of the Society for Improving the Condition of the Labouring Classes by proving that: "a low density layout could be a practical possibility for the working classes, unwittingly he opened the flood gates to a new kind of suburbia " The examples of Bournville, Port Sunlight were seized by Ebenezer Howard and became key models for the Garden City movement The middle class became an important and expanding group in the nineteenth century. With industrialisation came material gain to the capitalist entrepreneur. New professions came into existence to serve their needs; the growth in the population required more architects, teachers, doctors and shopkeepers. There emerged hierarchical tiers within the middle class, each watching each other's status; the baseline appears to have been an income of 150.00.00 pa. as stated in A New system of Practical Domestic Economy. In 1851, it is estimated that out of a total population of 18,000,000, 3.000.000 would have been considered to be middle class.
The middle class was family conscious. The value system was their defining characteristic. Semi-detached houses first began to be planned systematically in late 18th-century Georgian architecture, as a suburban compromise between the terraced houses of close to the city centre, the detached "villas" further out, where land was cheaper