A snowshoe is footwear for walking over snow. Snowshoes work by distributing the weight of the person over a larger area so that the person's foot does not sink into the snow, a quality called "flotation". Snowshoeing is a form of hiking. Traditional snowshoes have a hardwood frame with rawhide lacings; some modern snowshoes are similar, but most are made of materials such as lightweight metal and synthetic fabric. In addition to distributing the weight, snowshoes are raised at the toe for maneuverability, they must not accumulate snow, hence the latticework, require bindings to attach them to the feet. In the past, snowshoes were essential tools for fur traders and anyone whose life or living depended on the ability to get around in areas of deep and frequent snowfall, they remain necessary equipment for forest rangers and others who must be able to get around areas inaccessible to motorized vehicles when the snow is deep. However, snowshoes are used today for recreation by hikers and runners who like to continue their hobby in wintertime.

Snowshoeing is easy to learn and in appropriate conditions is a safe and inexpensive recreational activity. However, snowshoeing in icy, steep terrain can be more dangerous. Before people built snowshoes, nature provided examples. Several animals, most notably the snowshoe hare, had evolved over the years with oversized feet enabling them to move more through deep snow; the origin and age of snowshoes are not known, although historians believe they were invented from 4,000 to 6,000 years ago starting in Central Asia. British archaeologist Jacqui Wood hypothesized that the equipment interpreted to be the frame of a backpack of the Chalcolithic mummy Ötzi was part of a snowshoe. Strabo wrote that the inhabitants of the Caucasus used to attach flat surfaces of leather under their feet and that its inhabitants used round wooden surfaces, something akin to blocks, instead. However, the "traditional" webbed snowshoe as we know it today had direct origins to North American indigenous people, e.g. the Huron, so forth.

Samuel de Champlain wrote, referencing the Huron and Algonquin First Nations, in his travel memoirs, "Winter, when there is much snow, they make a kind of snowshoe that are two to three times larger than those in France, that they tie to their feet, thus go on the snow, without sinking into it, otherwise they would not be able to hunt or go from one location to the other". In 2016, Italian scientists reported "the oldest snowshoe in the world" discovered in the Dolomites and dated to between 3800 and 3700 B. C; the indigenous people of North America developed the most advanced and diverse snowshoes prior to the 20th century. Nearly every Indigenous peoples of the Americas culture developed its own particular shape of shoe, the simplest being those of the far north; the Inuit have two styles, one being triangular in shape and about 18 inches in length, the other circular, both reflecting the need for high flotation in deep and powdery snow. However, contrary to popular perception, the Inuit did not use their snowshoes much since they did most of their foot travel in winter over sea ice or on the tundra, where snow does not pile up deeply.

Southward the shoe becomes narrower and longer, the largest being the hunting snow-shoe of the Cree, nearly 6 ft long and turned up at the toe. Smaller models, developed most notably by the Iroquois, are narrower and shorter, reflecting the need for maneuverability in forested areas; the Plains Indians wore. Despite their great diversity in form, snowshoes were, in fact, one of the few cultural elements common to all tribes that lived where the winters were snowy, in particular, the Northern regions. Snowshoes were adopted by Europeans during early colonialism in what became Canada and the United States; the French voyageurs and coureurs des bois began to travel throughout the land of the Cree and Algonquin groups of indigenous North Americans in the late 17th century to trap animals and trade goods. In order to travel in the terrain and climate, they utilized the tools of the native populations, such as snowshoes and canoes. Snowshoes became popular during the French and Indian Wars, during conflicts such as The Battle on Snowshoes, when both the French/Indian and British factions both wore snowshoes to battle above a reported four feet of snow.

The Oxford English Dictionary reports the term being used by the English as early as 1674. In 1690, after a French-Indian raiding party attacked a British settlement near what is today Schenectady, New York, the British took to snowshoes and pursued the attackers for 50 miles recovering both people and goods taken by their attackers; the "teardrop" snowshoes worn by lumberjacks are about 40 inches long and broad in proportion, while the tracker's shoe is over 5 feet long and narrow. This form, the stereotypical snowshoe, resembles a tennis racquet, indeed the French term is raquette à neige; this form was copied by the Canadian snowshoe clubs of the late 18th century. Founded for military training purposes, they became the earliest recreational users of snowshoes; the snowshoe clubs such as the Montreal Snow Shoe Club shortened the teardrop to about 40 inches long and 15 to 18 inches broad turned up at the toe and terminating in a kind of tail behind. This is made light for racing purposes, but much stouter for touring or hunting.

The tail keeps the shoe straight while walking. Another variant, the "bearpaw", ends in a curved heel instead of a tail. W


Sympa is a Mailing list management software. Its name, an acronym for Système de Multi-Postage Automatique means "nice" in French. Sympa is open-source software subject to the terms of the GNU General Public License. Sympa's features include bulk mailing, service messages and web pages defined by templates, subscriber information stored in a RDBMS, an external antivirus plugin, its web front-end offers a portal-like interface where the user can control all their list subscriptions and administrative powers in one place. Data is stored in a relational database such as PostgreSQL, or Oracle. Sympa consists of at least five concurrent daemons communicating through the database or by placing files in spools: a main daemon accepting incoming mail and controlling the other processes, a bounce daemon managing incoming bounces, an archiver archiving outgoing mail, a task manager doing scheduled maintenance and a bulk mailer doing the actual distributing of list messages to their recipients; the work of the main daemon can be split up into up to three parallel instances.

At least in theory, the bulk mailer processes can be spread across a cluster of hosts. This architecture, combined with the use of a database table for buffering outgoing mail, makes Sympa well-suited for large and large list environments handling millions of subscribers. Other features are: high performance for huge lists MIME-compatible data provisioning using LDAP, SQL or other data sources various authentication method benefit of S/MIME and DKIM internationalized web archive with access control, message removal, etc. multi-domain server designed for service providers. Sophisticated automatic bounce management automatic service message and web interface customizable SOAP interface for integration with other applications Sympa development started in 1995 and was first released in 1997, its initial goal was to ensure continuity with the TULP list manager, produced by the initial author of Sympa, Christophe Wolfhugel. The initial version of Sympa included authentication, flexible command management, high performance in internal data access, object-oriented code for easy code maintenance.

Since 2011, Sympa development has been handled by RENATER. Among the customers adopting Sympa are the scottish universities of Glasgow. List of mailing list software Distribution list Electronic mailing list Official website

RoadRUNNER Transit

RoadRUNNER Transit is the local public transit authority serving Las Cruces, New Mexico The RoadRUNNER Transit Bus Tracker is an online service that riders can use to locate a bus in real time, estimate its arrival time. All bus routes operate Monday-Saturday. There is no Sunday service. RoadRUNNER Transit City Wide Map RoadRUNNER Transit Route 1 Map and Schedule RoadRUNNER Transit Route 2 Map and Schedule RoadRUNNER Transit Route 3 Map and Schedule RoadRUNNER Transit Route 4 Map and Schedule RoadRUNNER Transit Route 6 Map and Schedule RoadRUNNER Transit Route 7 Map and Schedule RoadRUNNER Transit Route 8 Map and Schedule RoadRUNNER Transit NMSU Route Maps and Schedule *Limit of 3 In addition, RoadRUNNER Transit added two new low-floor minibuses in 2011; these buses are used on both fixed paratransit service. RoadRUNNER Transit unveiled their 2010-2015 Transit Strategic Plan on August 20, 2009; some ongoing improvements include but are not limited to increased frequency and number of routes and the addition of more bus shelters.

Short-term plans include improvements to ADA facilities, addition of Braille to bus stop posts, extended Saturday service, the addition of hybrid electric buses